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‣ FBXO25-associated nuclear domains: A novel subnuclear structure

MANFIOLLI, Adriana O.; MARAGNO, Ana Leticia G. C.; BAQUI, Munira M. A.; YOKOO, Sami; TEIXEIRA, Felipe R.; OLIVEIRA, Eduardo B.; GOMES, Marcelo D.
Fonte: AMER SOC CELL BIOLOGY Publicador: AMER SOC CELL BIOLOGY
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Skp1, Cul1, Rbx1, and the FBXO25 protein form a functional ubiquitin ligase complex. Here, we investigate the cellular distribution of FBXO25 and its colocalization with some nuclear proteins by using immunochemical and biochemical approaches. FBXO25 was monitored with affinity-purified antibodies raised against the recombinant fragment spanning residues 2-62 of the FBXO25 sequence. FBXO25 protein was expressed in all mouse tissues tested except striated muscle, as indicated by immunoblot analysis. Confocal analysis revealed that the endogenous FBXO25 was partially concentrated in a novel dot-like nuclear domain that is distinct from clastosomes and other well-characterized structures. These nuclear compartments contain a high concentration of ubiquitin conjugates and at least two other components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system: 20S proteasome and Skp1. We propose to name these compartments FBXO25-associated nuclear domains. Interestingly, inhibition of transcription by actinomycin D or heat-shock treatment drastically affected the nuclear organization of FBXO25-containing structures, indicating that they are dynamic compartments influenced by the transcriptional activity of the cell. Also, we present evidences that an FBXO25-dependent ubiquitin ligase activity prevents aggregation of recombinant polyglutamine-containing huntingtin protein in the nucleus of human embryonic kidney 293 cells...

‣ Host genetic background affects regulatory T-cell activity that influences the magnitude of cellular immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis

PAULA, Marina Oliveira; FONSECA, Denise Morais; WOWK, Pryscilla Fanini; GEMBRE, Ana Flavia; FEDATTO, Paola Fernanda; SERGIO, Ssia Alves; SILVA, Celio Lopes; BONATO, Vania Luiza Deperon
Fonte: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP Publicador: NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Using two mouse strains with different abilities to generate interferon (IFN)-gamma production after Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, we tested the hypothesis that the frequency and activity of regulatory T (Treg) cells are influenced by genetic background. Our results demonstrated that the suppressive activity of spleen Treg cells from infected or uninfected BALB/c mice was enhanced, inhibiting IFN-gamma and interleukin (IL)-2 production. Infected C57BL/6 mice exhibited a decrease in the frequency of lung Treg cells and an increased ratio CD4(+):CD4(+)Foxp3(+) cells compared with infected BALB/c mice and uninfected C57BL/6 mice. Moreover, infected C57BL/6 mice also had a decrease in the immunosuppressive capacity of spleen Treg cells, higher lung IFN-gamma and IL-17 production, and restricted the infection better than BALB/c mice. Adoptive transfer of BALB/c Treg cells into BALB/c mice induced an increase in bacterial colony-forming unit (CFU) counts. Furthermore, BALB/c mice treated with anti-CD25 antibody exhibited lung CFU counts significantly lower than mice treated with irrelevant antibody. Our results show that in BALB/c mice, the Treg cells have a stronger influence than that in C57BL/6 mice. These data suggest that BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice may use some different mechanisms to control M. tuberculosis infection. Therefore...

‣ Desenvolvimento e avaliação de uma interface adaptativa para ensino de Ciências e Biologia celular; Development and evaluation of an adaptive interface for Science teaching and Cell biology

Mayara Lustosa de Oliveira
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/02/2013 Português
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Os avanços tecnológicos dos últimos anos exigem novas posturas nos ambientes de ensino de modo a diminuir as distâncias entre o cotidiano dos estudantes e o dia-a-dia na sala de aula. O presente projeto teve por objetivo o desenvolvimento de uma interface adaptativa (IA), de modo a atender essa necessidade presente, estimulando os alunos ao estudo e facilitando o processo de ensino aprendizagem. O espaço virtual desenvolvido neste caso foi um site . Foram construídas três abas destinadas a três grupos de usuário: Básico (Ensino Fundamental), Médio (Ensino Médio) e Avançado (Ensino Superior). Todas as abas da IA tratam do tema "proliferação celular", no entanto, foram utilizados recursos e linguagem adaptados a cada nível. Para avaliação do recurso, o site foi aplicado para estudantes do ensino fundamental de escolas adventistas (4 classes - 117 alunos), do ensino médio do Colégio COTUCA (4 classes - 131 alunos) e do ensino superior para o curso de Ciências Biológicas da Unicamp (2 classes - 95 alunos). Todos os grupos foram divididos randomicamente em: experimental (recebe a aula com a IA) e controle (aula convencional sobre o mesmo assunto). Vale ressaltar que os estudantes do grupo controle também tiveram aula com a IA...

‣ Analyzing Defects in the Caenorhabditis elegans Nervous System Using Organismal and Cell Biological Approaches

Guziewicz, Megan; Vitullo, Toni; Simmons, Bethany; Kohn, Rebecca Eustance
Fonte: American Society for Cell Biology Publicador: American Society for Cell Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 Português
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The goal of this laboratory exercise is to increase student understanding of the impact of nervous system function at both the organismal and cellular levels. This inquiry-based exercise is designed for an undergraduate course examining principles of cell biology. After observing the movement of Caenorhabditis elegans with defects in their nervous system, students examine the structure of the nervous system to categorize the type of defect. They distinguish between defects in synaptic vesicle transport and defects in synaptic vesicle fusion with membranes. The synaptic vesicles are tagged with green fluorescent protein (GFP), simplifying cellular analysis. The expected outcome of this experiment is that students will better understand the concepts of vesicle transport, neurotransmitter release, GFP, and the relation between the nervous system and behavior.

‣ Teaching Cell Biology in the Large-Enrollment Classroom: Methods to Promote Analytical Thinking and Assessment of Their Effectiveness

Kitchen, Elizabeth; Bell, John D.; Reeve, Suzanne; Sudweeks, Richard R.; Bradshaw, William S.
Fonte: The American Society for Cell Biology Publicador: The American Society for Cell Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2003 Português
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A large-enrollment, undergraduate cellular biology lecture course is described whose primary goal is to help students acquire skill in the interpretation of experimental data. The premise is that this kind of analytical reasoning is not intuitive for most people and, in the absence of hands-on laboratory experience, will not readily develop unless instructional methods and examinations specifically designed to foster it are employed. Promoting scientific thinking forces changes in the roles of both teacher and student. We describe didactic strategies that include directed practice of data analysis in a workshop format, active learning through verbal and written communication, visualization of abstractions diagrammatically, and the use of ancillary small-group mentoring sessions with faculty. The implications for a teacher in reducing the breadth and depth of coverage, becoming coach instead of lecturer, and helping students to diagnose cognitive weaknesses are discussed. In order to determine the efficacy of these strategies, we have carefully monitored student performance and have demonstrated a large gain in a pre- and posttest comparison of scores on identical problems, improved test scores on several successive midterm examinations when the statistical analysis accounts for the relative difficulty of the problems...

‣ A Molecular Genetics Laboratory Course Applying Bioinformatics and Cell Biology in the Context of Original Research

Brame, Cynthia J.; Pruitt, Wendy M.; Robinson, Lucy C.
Fonte: American Society for Cell Biology Publicador: American Society for Cell Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2008 Português
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Research based laboratory courses have been shown to stimulate student interest in science and to improve scientific skills. We describe here a project developed for a semester-long research-based laboratory course that accompanies a genetics lecture course. The project was designed to allow students to become familiar with the use of bioinformatics tools and molecular biology and genetic approaches while carrying out original research. Students were required to present their hypotheses, experiments, and results in a comprehensive lab report. The lab project concerned the yeast casein kinase 1 (CK1) protein kinase Yck2. CK1 protein kinases are present in all organisms and are well conserved in primary structure. These enzymes display sequence features that differ from other protein kinase subfamilies. Students identified such sequences within the CK1 subfamily, chose a sequence to analyze, used available structural data to determine possible functions for their sequences, and designed mutations within the sequences. After generating the mutant alleles, these were expressed in yeast and tested for function by using two growth assays. The student response to the project was positive, both in terms of knowledge and skills increases and interest in research...

‣ Revelation of p53-independent Function of MTA1 in DNA Damage Response via Modulation of the p21WAF1-Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Pathway*

Li, Da-Qiang; Pakala, Suresh B.; Reddy, Sirigiri Divijendra Natha; Ohshiro, Kazufumi; Peng, Shao-Hua; Lian, Yi; Fu, Sidney W.; Kumar, Rakesh
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Although metastasis-associated protein 1 (MTA1), a component of the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex, is a DNA-damage response protein and regulates p53-dependent DNA repair, it remains unknown whether MTA1 also participates in p53-independent DNA damage response. Here, we provide evidence that MTA1 is a p53-independent transcriptional corepressor of p21WAF1, and the underlying mechanism involves recruitment of MTA1-histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) complexes onto two selective regions of the p21WAF1 promoter. Accordingly, MTA1 depletion, despite its effect on p53 down-regulation, superinduces p21WAF1, increases p21WAF1 binding to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and decreases the nuclear accumulation of PCNA in response to ionizing radiation. In support of a p53-independent role of MTA1 in DNA damage response, we further demonstrate that induced expression of MTA1 in p53-null cells inhibits p21WAF1 promoter activity and p21WAF1 binding to PCNA. Consequently, MTA1 expression in p53-null cells results in increased induction of γH2AX foci and DNA double strand break repair, and decreased DNA damage sensitivity following ionizing radiation treatment. These findings uncover a new target of MTA1 and the existence of an additional p53-independent role of MTA1 in DNA damage response...

‣ Serine Residues in the Cytosolic Tail of the T-cell Antigen Receptor α-Chain Mediate Ubiquitination and Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation of the Unassembled Protein*

Ishikura, Shuhei; Weissman, Allan M.; Bonifacino, Juan S.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The T-cell antigen receptor (TCR) α-chain (TCRα) is a type I integral membrane protein that becomes ubiquitinated and targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway when it fails to assemble into the heteromeric TCR complex. Remarkably, TCRα has a cytosolic tail of only five amino acid residues (i.e. RLWSS), none of which is the conventional ubiquitin acceptor, lysine. Herein we report that substitution of two conserved serine residues in the cytosolic tail of TCRα to alanine decreased ubiquitination, whereas placement of additional serine residues enhanced it. Moreover, replacement of the cytosolic serine residues by other ubiquitinatable residues (i.e. cysteine, threonine, or lysine) allowed ubiquitination to take place. Serine-dependent ubiquitination perfectly correlated with targeting of TCRα for ERAD. We also found that this ubiquitination was mediated by the ER-localized ubiquitin ligase, HRD1. These findings indicate that serine-dependent, HRD1-mediated ubiquitination targets TCRα to the ERAD pathway.

‣ Somatic Cell Plasticity and Niemann-Pick Type C2 Protein: ADIPOCYTE DIFFERENTIATION AND FUNCTION*

Csepeggi, Chad; Jiang, Min; Frolov, Andrey
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The phenotypic stability of somatic cells is essential for the maintenance of both structural and functional organ integrity of the adult human body. Deregulated cell plasticity could result in the development of debilitating diseases such as cancer, fibrosis, atherosclerosis, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. We have previously demonstrated that a nonsense mutation in the NPC2 gene, which encodes ubiquitous, highly conserved, secretory protein with unknown function, leads to activation of human skin fibroblasts. The activated fibroblasts, also known as myofibroblasts, have the properties of mesenchymal stem cells and are able to differentiate along the mesodermal and endodermal lineages. Here we show that NPC2-null, but not the normal skin fibroblasts, possess characteristics of adipogenic progenitors as demonstrated by their specific gene expression pattern as well as the ability for efficient differentiation into white adipocytes. The presence of NPC2 in mature white adipocytes was also necessary for their maintenance because silencing NPC2 in differentiated cells by siRNA stimulated PPARG expression, which was followed by a shift toward a more favorable, brown adipocyte-like metabolic state characterized by up-regulated lipolysis and increased insulin sensitivity. It appears that NPC2 controls both the adipogenesis and the metabolic state of mature white adipocytes through a common mechanism that is linked to activation of FGFR2 that could be followed by induction of PPARG expression. Altogether...

‣ Production of Anti-carbohydrate Antibodies by Phage Display Technologies: POTENTIAL IMPAIRMENT OF CELL GROWTH AS A RESULT OF ENDOGENOUS EXPRESSION*

Yuasa, Noriyuki; Zhang, Wei; Goto, Tomohiro; Sakaue, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto-Takasaki, Ayano; Kimura, Miyo; Ohshima, Hiroya; Tsuchida, Yasunobu; Koizumi, Tomoyuki; Sakai, Keiko; Kojima, Takumi; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Nakata, Munehiro; Fujita-Yamaguchi, Yoko
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Anti-mannotriose (Man3) antibodies were previously isolated from a Keio phage library displaying human single chain variable fragments (scFvs) using a neoglycolipid, Man3- dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine. Of three genes constructed, the 5A3 clone was expressed in mouse myeloma NS0 cells as a conjugate with human IgG1 Fc (scFv-Fc) and characterized (Sakai, K., Shimizu, Y., Chiba, T., Matsumoto-Takasaki, A., Kusada, Y., Zhang, W., Nakata, M., Kojima, N., Toma, K., Takayanagi, A., Shimizu, N., and Fujita-Yamaguchi, Y. (2007) Biochemistry 46, 253–262; Zhang, W., Matsumoto-Takasaki, A., Kusada, Y., Sakaue, H., Sakai, K., Nakata, M., and Fujita-Yamaguchi, Y. (2007) Biochemistry 46, 263–270). Similarly, anti-Lex phages were screened from the same library with lacto-N-fucopentaose III (LNFPIII; Lex)-dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine. Of five phage clones isolated, two scFv genes were constructed to express scFv-Fc proteins in NS0 cells. As was experienced with anti-Man3 scFv-Fc clones, only one anti-LNFPIII clone, 1F12, was successfully produced and purified as an scFv-Fc protein. Although anti-LNFPIII 1F12 and anti-Man3 5A3 scFv-Fc proteins were secreted into media, a decline in scFv-Fc production was observed with both stable clones during early passages. Transient expression of anti-LNFPIII and anti-Man3 scFv-Fc genes in COS-7 cells and subsequent analyses of scFv-Fc protein expression revealed accumulation of translated proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum for scFv-Fc proteins derived from clones that did not survive as stable clones. This report describes the following: (i) isolation of anti-LNFPIII scFv genes; (ii) purification of anti-LNFPIII scFv-Fc proteins from stably and transiently expressed cells; and (iii) extracellular or intracellular localization of two anti-LNFPIII and three anti-Man3 scFv-Fc proteins. The results suggest that expression of anti-Man3 and other anti-carbohydrate antibodies in mammalian cells is disadvantageous for cell growth.

‣ sFRP2 Suppression of Bone Morphogenic Protein (BMP) and Wnt Signaling Mediates Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) Self-renewal Promoting Engraftment and Myocardial Repair*

Alfaro, Maria P.; Vincent, Alicia; Saraswati, Sarika; Thorne, Curtis A.; Hong, Charles C.; Lee, Ethan; Young, Pampee P.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a promising therapy for ischemic injury; however, inadequate survival of implanted cells in host tissue is a substantial impediment in the progress of cellular therapy. Secreted Frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) has recently been highlighted as a key mediator of MSC-driven myocardial and wound repair. Notably, sFRP2 mediates significant enhancement of MSC engraftment in vivo. We hypothesized that sFRP2 improves MSC engraftment by modulating self-renewal through increasing stem cell survival and by inhibiting differentiation. In previous studies we demonstrated that sFRP2-expressing MSCs exhibited an increased proliferation rate. In the current study, we show that sFRP2 also decreased MSC apoptosis and inhibited both osteogenic and chondrogenic lineage commitment. sFRP2 activity occurred through the inhibition of both Wnt and bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling pathways. sFRP2-mediated inhibition of BMP signaling, as assessed by levels of pSMAD 1/5/8, was independent of its effects on the Wnt pathway. We further hypothesized that sFRP2 inhibition of MSC lineage commitment may reduce heterotopic osteogenic differentiation within the injured myocardium, a reported adverse side effect. Indeed...

‣ Sp1-dependent Activation of HDAC7 Is Required for Platelet-derived Growth Factor-BB-induced Smooth Muscle Cell Differentiation from Stem Cells*

Zhang, Li; Jin, Min; Margariti, Andriana; Wang, Gang; Luo, Zhenling; Zampetaki, Anna; Zeng, Lingfang; Ye, Shu; Zhu, Jianhua; Xiao, Qingzhong
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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We have previously demonstrated that histone deacetylase 7 (HDAC7) expression and splicing play an important role in smooth muscle cell (SMC) differentiation from embryonic stem (ES) cells, but the molecular mechanisms of increased HDAC7 expression during SMC differentiation are currently unknown. In this study, we found that platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB) induced a 3-fold increase in the transcripts of HDAC7 in differentiating ES cells. Importantly, our data also revealed that PDGF-BB regulated HDAC7 expression not through phosphorylation of HDAC7 but through transcriptional activation. By dissecting its promoters with progressive deletion analysis, we identified the sequence between −343 and −292 bp in the 5′-flanking region of the Hdac7 gene promoter as the minimal PDGF-BB-responsive element, which contains one binding site for the transcription factor, specificity protein 1 (Sp1). Mutation of the Sp1 site within this PDGF-BB-responsive element abolished PDGF-BB-induced HDAC7 activity. PDGF-BB treatment enhanced Sp1 binding to the Hdac7 promoter in differentiated SMCs in vivo as demonstrated by the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. Moreover, we also demonstrated that knockdown of Sp1 abrogated PDGF-BB-induced HDAC7 up-regulation and SMC differentiation gene expression in differentiating ES cells...

‣ Integrin α1β1 Promotes Caveolin-1 Dephosphorylation by Activating T Cell Protein-tyrosine Phosphatase*

Borza, Corina M.; Chen, Xiwu; Mathew, Sijo; Mont, Stacey; Sanders, Charles R.; Zent, Roy; Pozzi, Ambra
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Integrin α1β1 is a collagen receptor that down-regulates collagen and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and mice lacking this receptor show increased ROS levels and exacerbated glomerular sclerosis following injury. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a multifunctional protein that is tyrosine-phosphorylated in response to injury and has been implicated in ROS-mediated injury. Cav-1 interacts with integrins, and integrin α1β1 binds/activates T cell protein-tyrosine phosphatase (TCPTP), which is homologous to the tyrosine phosphatase PTP1B known to dephosphorylate Cav-1. In this study, we analyzed whether phosphorylated Cav-1 (pCav-1) is a substrate of TCPTP and if integrin α1β1 is essential for promoting TCPTP-mediated Cav-1 dephosphorylation. We found that Cav-1 phosphorylation is significantly higher in cells lacking integrin α1β1 at base line and following oxidative stress. Overexpression of TCPTP leads to reduced pCav-1 levels only in cells expressing integrin α1β1. Using solid phase binding assays, we demonstrated that 1) purified Cav-1 directly interacts with TCPTP and the integrin α1 subunit, 2) pCav-1 is a substrate of TCPTP, and 3) TCPTP-mediated Cav-1 dephosphorylation is highly increased by the addition of purified integrin α1β1 or an integrin α1 cytoplasmic peptide to which TCPTP has been shown to bind. Thus...

‣ Vascular Smooth Muscle Notch Signals Regulate Endothelial Cell Sensitivity to Angiogenic Stimulation*

Yang, Ke; Proweller, Aaron
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The evolutionarily conserved Notch signaling pathway is required for normal vascular development and function, and genetic associations link select Notch receptors and ligands to human clinical syndromes featuring blood vessel abnormalities and stroke susceptibility. A previously described mouse model engineered to suppress canonical Notch signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) revealed surprising anatomical defects in arterial patterning and vessel maturation, suggesting that vSMCs have the functional capacity to influence blood vessel formation in a Notch signaling-dependent manner. In further analyses using this model system, we now show that explanted aortic ring tissue and Matrigel implants from the smooth muscle Notch signaling-deficient mice yield markedly diminished responses to angiogenic stimuli. Furthermore, cultured Notch signaling-deficient primary vSMCs have reduced proliferation and migration capacities and reveal diminished expression of PDGF receptor β and JAGGED1 ligand. These observations prompted a series of endothelial cell (EC)-vSMC co-culture experiments that revealed a requirement for intact vSMC Notch signals via JAGGED1 for efficient EC Notch1 receptor activation and EC proliferation. Taken together...

‣ Endothelial Krüppel-like Factor 4 Regulates Angiogenesis and the Notch Signaling Pathway*

Hale, Andrew T.; Tian, Hongmei; Anih, Ejike; Recio, Fernando O.; Shatat, Mohammad A.; Johnson, Trent; Liao, Xudong; Ramirez-Bergeron, Diana L.; Proweller, Aaron; Ishikawa, Masakazu; Hamik, Anne
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: The transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) is a critical regulator of endothelial cell biology.

‣ Characterization of the Stability and Bio-functionality of Tethered Proteins on Bioengineered Scaffolds: IMPLICATIONS FOR STEM CELL BIOLOGY AND TISSUE REPAIR*

Wang, Ting-Yi; Bruggeman, Kiara A. F.; Sheean, Rebecca K.; Turner, Bradley J.; Nisbet, David R.; Parish, Clare L.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: Tethering proteins onto bioengineered scaffolds enables longterm delivery, however protein stability, release kinetics, and functionality over time remains unknown.

‣ Tracking the Subcellular Fate of 20(S)-Hydroxycholesterol with Click Chemistry Reveals a Transport Pathway to the Golgi*

Peyrot, Sara M.; Nachtergaele, Sigrid; Luchetti, Giovanni; Mydock-McGrane, Laurel K.; Fujiwara, Hideji; Scherrer, David; Jallouk, Andrew; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Ory, Daniel S.; Covey, Douglas F.; Rohatgi, Rajat
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Background: Oxysterols are a class of emerging signaling molecules whose cell biology is poorly understood.

‣ Fungal and oomycete plant pathogens: cell biology

Hardham, Adrienne R
Fonte: Marcel Dekker: New York Publicador: Marcel Dekker: New York
Tipo: Parte de Livro Formato: 4 pages
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Encyclopedia of Plant and Crop Science is the first-ever single-source reference work to inclusively cover classic and modern studies in plant biology in conjunction with research, applications, and innovations in crop science and agriculture. From the fundamentals of plant growth and reproduction to developments in agronomy and agricultural science, the encyclopedia's authoritative content nurtures communication between these academically distinct yet intrinsically related fields-offering a spread of clear, descriptive, and concise entries to optimally serve scientists, agriculturalists, policy makers, students, and the general public.

‣ Cell biology: Networks, regulation, pathways

Tkacik, Gasper; Bialek, William
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/12/2007 Português
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This review was written for the Encyclopedia of Complexity and System Science (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2008), and is intended as a guide to the growing literature which approaches the phenomena of cell biology from a more theoretical point of view. We begin with the building blocks of cellular networks, and proceed toward the different classes of models being explored, finally discussing the "design principles" which have been suggested for these systems. Although largely a dispassionate review, we do draw attention to areas where there seems to be general consensus on ideas that have not been tested very thoroughly and, more optimistically, to areas where we feel promising ideas deserve to be more fully explored.

‣ Mechanisms of Chlamydia manipulation of host cell biology revealed through genetic approaches

Kokes, Marcela
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial pathogen and is the leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Chlamydia is particularly intriguing from the perspective of cell biology because it is an obligate intracellular pathogen that manipulates host cellular pathways to ensure its proliferation and survival. This is achieved through a significant remodeling of the host cell’s internal architecture from within a membrane-bound vacuole, termed the inclusion. However, given a previous lack of tools to perform genetic analysis, the mechanisms by which Chlamydia induces host cellular changes remained unclear. Here I present genetic and molecular mechanisms of chlamydial manipulation of the host cytoskeleton and organelles. Using a forward genetics screen, InaC was identified as a necessary factor for the assembly of an F-actin structure surrounding the inclusion. InaC associated with the vacuolar membrane where it recruited Golgi-specific ARF-family GTPases. Actin dynamics and ARF GTPases regulate Golgi morphology and positioning within cells, and InaC acted to redistribute the Golgi to surround the Chlamydia inclusion. These findings suggest that Chlamydia places InaC at the inclusion-cytosolic interface to recruit host ARF GTPases and F-actin to form a platform for rearranging intracellular organelles around the inclusion. The inclusion is also surrounded by the intermediate filament vimentin and the chlamydial protease CPAF cleaves vimentin in vitro. CPAF-dependent remodeling of vimentin occurred selectively in late stages of the infection. In living cells...