Página 12 dos resultados de 6914 itens digitais encontrados em 0.018 segundos

‣ Desenvolvimento de espumas a partir de misturas poliméricas de polipropileno linear (PP) e polipropileno de alta resistência do fundido (HMSPP); Development of foams from linear polypropylene (PP) and high melt strength polypropylene (HMSPP) polymeric blends

Cardoso, Elisabeth Carvalho Leite
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 24/11/2009 Português
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Os polímeros espumados são materiais do futuro, com um leque abrangente de aplicações. Podem ser usados em estruturas de isolamento, por exemplo, ou para reduzir custos com materiais. Este trabalho remete para a extrusão de misturas de Polipropileno isotático (iPP) / Polipropileno com Alta Resistência do Fundido (HMSPP), para a obtenção de espumas. O comportamento reológico do polímero fundido, principalmente a viscosidade na temperatura de processamento, tem um papel decisivo nas aplicações nas quais prevalece o fluxo extensional, como no caso da espumagem. Se a viscosidade for muito baixa, correspondente a uma baixa resistência do fundido, como no caso do homopolímero linear (PP isotático), a espumagem ficará prejudicada, face à impossibilidade de expansão acentuada. Entretanto, se a viscosidade for muito alta (HMSPP), com uma alta resistência do fundido, a espuma colapsará imediatamente após sua formação. A fim de obter espumas com uma estrutura celular homogênea e definida, foram efetuadas misturas 50% em peso entre o homopolímero linear (PP isotático) e o polipropileno ramificado (HMSPP), modificado por radiação gama, em ambiente contendo acetileno e na dose de 12,5 kGy. O processo de extrusão empregou a metodologia de espumagem solúvel...

‣ Cellular organelles (Ultrastructure and function)

Lopes, Orlando
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Outros
Português
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Fundamental knowledge on the ultrastructure and function of cellular organelles and structures of animal and plant cell is provided. Useful information required for appropriate photo interpretation of transmisson electron microscopy (TEM) images of organelles and structures typical of animal cell and plant cell is found. This publication is a valuable support for students, allowing them to be able to explain the function of every cellular organelle/structure on the basis of its structural organization.

‣ A Novel Cellular Protein, p60, Interacting with both Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Regulatory Proteins ICP22 and ICP0 Is Modified in a Cell-Type-Specific Manner and Is Recruited to the Nucleus after Infection

Bruni, Renato; Fineschi, Beatrice; Ogle, William O.; Roizman, Bernard
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/1999 Português
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Herpes simplex virus 1 encodes two multifunctional regulatory proteins, infected-cell proteins 22 and 0 (ICP22 and ICP0). ICP0 is a promiscuous transactivator, whereas ICP22 is required in vivo and for efficient replication and expression of a subset of late (γ2) genes in rodent or rabbit cell lines and in primary human cell strains (restrictive cells) but not in HEp-2 or Vero (permissive) cells. We report the identification in the yeast two-hybrid system of a cellular protein designated p60 that interacts with ICP22. This protein (apparent Mr of 60,000) has not been previously described and has no known motifs. Analyses of p60 revealed the following. (i) p60 bound fast-migrating, underprocessed wild-type ICP22 and ICP22 lacking the carboxyl-terminal 24 amino acids but not ICP22 lacking the carboxyl-terminal 40 amino acids, whereas the previously identified cellular protein p78 (R. Bruni and B. Roizman, J. Virol. 72:8525–8531, 1998) bound all forms of ICP22. The interaction of p60 with only one isoform of ICP22 supports that hypothesis that each isoform of herpes simplex virus proteins performs a specific function that may be different from that of other isoforms. (ii) p60 also bound ICP0; the binding of ICP0 was independent of that of ICP22. (iii) p60 localized in uninfected rabbit skin cells in both nuclei and cytoplasm. In rabbit skin cells infected with wild-type virus...

‣ Effects of RNA secondary structure on cellular antisense activity

Vickers, Timothy A.; Wyatt, Jacqueline R.; Freier, Susan M.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/03/2000 Português
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The secondary and tertiary structures of a mRNA are known to effect hybridization efficiency and potency of antisense oligonucleotides in vitro. Additional factors including oligonucleotide stability and cellular uptake are also thought to contribute to antisense potency in vivo. Each of these factors can be affected by the sequence of the oligonucleotide. Although mRNA structure is presumed to be a critical determinant of antisense activity in cells, to date little direct experimental evidence has addressed the significance of structure. In order to determine the importance of mRNA structure on antisense activity, oligonucleotide target sites were cloned into a luciferase reporter gene along with adjoining sequence to form known structures. This allowed us to study the effect of target secondary structure on oligonucleotide binding in the cellular environment without changing the sequence of the oligonucleotide. Our results show that structure does play a significant role in determining oligonucleotide efficacy in vivo. We also show that potency of oligonucleotides can be improved by altering chemistry to increase affinity for the mRNA target even in a region that is highly structured.

‣ Structures of an ActRIIB:activin A complex reveal a novel binding mode for TGF-β ligand:receptor interactions

Thompson, Thomas B.; Woodruff, Teresa K.; Jardetzky, Theodore S.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/04/2003 Português
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The TGF-β superfamily of ligands and receptors stimulate cellular events in diverse processes ranging from cell fate specification in development to immune suppression. Activins define a major subgroup of TGF-β ligands that regulate cellular differentiation, proliferation, activation and apoptosis. Activins signal through complexes formed with type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors. We have solved the crystal structure of activin A bound to the extracellular domain of a type II receptor, ActRIIB, revealing the details of this interaction. ActRIIB binds to the outer edges of the activin finger regions, with the two receptors juxtaposed in close proximity, in a mode that differs from TGF-β3 binding to type II receptors. The dimeric activin A structure differs from other known TGF-β ligand structures, adopting a compact folded-back conformation. The crystal structure of the complex is consistent with recruitment of two type I receptors into a close packed arrangement at the cell surface and suggests that diversity in the conformational arrangements of TGF-β ligand dimers could influence cellular signaling processes.

‣ Adeno-associated virus general transduction vectors: analysis of proviral structures.

McLaughlin, S K; Collis, P; Hermonat, P L; Muzyczka, N
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/1988 Português
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We used two kinds of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to transduce the neomycin resistance gene into human cells. The first of these (dl52-91) retains the AAV rep genes; the second (dl3-94) retains only the AAV terminal repeats and the AAV polyadenylation signal (428 base pairs). Both vectors could be packaged into AAV virions and produced proviral structures that were essentially the same. Thus, the AAV sequences that are required in cis for packaging (pac), integration (int), rescue (res), and replication (ori) of viral DNA are located within a 284-base-pair sequence that includes the terminal repeat. Most of the G418r cell lines (73%) contained proviruses which could be rescued (Res+) when the cells were superinfected with the appropriate helper viruses. Some produced high yields of viral DNA; other rescued at a 50-fold lower level. Most of the lines that were Res+ (79%) contained a tandem repeat of the AAV genome (2 to 20 copies) which was integrated randomly with respect to cellular DNA. Junctions between two consecutive AAV copies in a tandem array contained either one or two copies of the AAV terminal palindrome. Junctions between AAV and cellular sequences occurred predominantly at or within the AAV terminal repeat, but in some cases at internal AAV sequences. Two lines were seen that contained free episomal copies of AAV DNA. Res+ clones contained deleted proviruses or tandem repeats of a deleted genome. Occasionally...

‣ Parental adenovirus DNA accumulates in nucleosome-like structures in infected cells.

Tate, V E; Philipson, L
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/06/1979 Português
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Micrococcal-nuclease digestion of adenovirus 2(ad 2) infected HeLa cell nuclei early after infection has been used to investigate the nucleoprotein nature of parental viral DNA. Viral DNA is more susceptible to nuclease digestion than cellular DNA. The pattern of digestion products changes as digestion proceeds from an indistinct pattern 1 hour post infection(pi) to a nucleosome-like pattern at 6 hours pi. The major differences between viral and cellular nucleoprotein products were i) a subnucleosome fraction from viral DNA and ii) the repeat size of DNA in viral nucleosomes was 165 base pairs and in cellular nucleosomes, 195 base pairs. Up to 50% viral DNA in nuclei 6 hours pi seems to be in nucleosome-like structures. Such patterns are not seen on digestion of partially-uncoated virus or isolated cores.

‣ Subversion of Cellular Autophagosomal Machinery by RNA Viruses

Jackson, William T; Giddings, Thomas H; Taylor, Matthew P; Mulinyawe, Sara; Rabinovitch, Marlene; Kopito, Ron R; Kirkegaard, Karla
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Infection of human cells with poliovirus induces the proliferation of double-membraned cytoplasmic vesicles whose surfaces are used as the sites of viral RNA replication and whose origin is unknown. Here, we show that several hallmarks of cellular autophagosomes can be identified in poliovirus-induced vesicles, including colocalization of LAMP1 and LC3, the human homolog of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Atg8p, and staining with the fluorophore monodansylcadaverine followed by fixation. Colocalization of LC3 and LAMP1 was observed early in the poliovirus replicative cycle, in cells infected with rhinoviruses 2 and 14, and in cells that express poliovirus proteins 2BC and 3A, known to be sufficient to induce double-membraned vesicles. Stimulation of autophagy increased poliovirus yield, and inhibition of the autophagosomal pathway by 3-methyladenine or by RNA interference against mRNAs that encode two different proteins known to be required for autophagy decreased poliovirus yield. We propose that, for poliovirus and rhinovirus, components of the cellular machinery of autophagosome formation are subverted to promote viral replication. Although autophagy can serve in the innate immune response to microorganisms, our findings are inconsistent with a role for the induced autophagosome-like structures in clearance of poliovirus. Instead...

‣ Hijacking Components of the Cellular Secretory Pathway for Replication of Poliovirus RNA▿

Belov, George A.; Altan-Bonnet, Nihal; Kovtunovych, Gennadiy; Jackson, Catherine L.; Lippincott-Schwartz, Jennifer; Ehrenfeld, Ellie
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Infection of cells with poliovirus induces a massive intracellular membrane reorganization to form vesicle-like structures where viral RNA replication occurs. The mechanism of membrane remodeling remains unknown, although some observations have implicated components of the cellular secretory and/or autophagy pathways. Recently, we showed that some members of the Arf family of small GTPases, which control secretory trafficking, became membrane-bound after the synthesis of poliovirus proteins in vitro and associated with newly formed membranous RNA replication complexes in infected cells. The recruitment of Arfs to specific target membranes is mediated by a group of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that recycle Arf from its inactive, GDP-bound state to an active GTP-bound form. Here we show that two different viral proteins independently recruit different Arf GEFs (GBF1 and BIG1/2) to the new structures that support virus replication. Intracellular Arf-GTP levels increase ∼4-fold during poliovirus infection. The requirement for these GEFs explains the sensitivity of virus growth to brefeldin A, which can be rescued by the overexpression of GBF1. The recruitment of Arf to membranes via specific GEFs by poliovirus proteins provides an important clue toward identifying cellular pathways utilized by the virus to form its membranous replication complex.

‣ Exchangeability of alpha-actinin in living cardiac fibroblasts and muscle cells

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/12/1985 Português
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We have investigated the exchangeability of alpha-actinin in various structures of cultured chick cardiac fibroblasts and muscle cells using fluorescent analogue cytochemistry in combination with fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. Living cells were microinjected with tetramethylrhodamine-labeled alpha-actinin, which became localized in cellular structures. Small areas of labeled structures were then photobleached with a laser pulse, and the subsequent recovery of fluorescence was monitored with an image intensifier coupled to an image-processing system. In fibroblasts, fluorescence recovery was studied in stress fibers and in adhesion plaques. Bleached spots in adhesion plaques generally attained complete recovery within 20 min; whereas complete recovery in stress fibers occurred within 30 to 60 min. In muscle cells, alpha-actinin became localized in the Z-lines of sarcomeres, in punctate structures, and in apparently continuous bundle- like structures. Fluorescence recovery in Z-lines, punctate structures, and some bundle-like structures was extremely slow. Complete recovery did not occur within the 6- to 7-h observation period. However, some bundle-like structures recovered completely within 60 min, a rate similar to that of stress fibers in fibroblasts. These results indicate that fluorescently labeled alpha-actinin is more stably associated with structures in muscle cells than in fibroblasts. In addition...

‣ Cellular titin localization in stress fibers and interaction with myosin II filaments in vitro

Fonte: The Rockefeller University Press Publicador: The Rockefeller University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/09/1994 Português
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We previously discovered a cellular isoform of titin (originally named T-protein) colocalized with myosin II in the terminal web domain of the chicken intestinal epithelial cell brush border cytoskeleton (Eilertsen, K.J., and T.C.S. Keller. 1992. J. Cell Biol. 119:549-557). Here, we demonstrate that cellular titin also colocalizes with myosin II filaments in stress fibers and organizes a similar array of myosin II filaments in vitro. To investigate interactions between cellular titin and myosin in vitro, we purified both proteins from isolated intestinal epithelial cell brush borders by a combination of gel filtration and hydroxyapatite column chromatography. Electron microscopy of brush border myosin bipolar filaments assembled in the presence and absence of cellular titin revealed a cellular titin- dependent side-by-side and end-to-end alignment of the filaments into highly ordered arrays. Immunogold labeling confirmed cellular titin association with the filament arrays. Under similar assembly conditions, purified chicken pectoralis muscle titin formed much less regular aggregates of muscle myosin bipolar filaments. Sucrose density gradient analyses of both cellular and muscle titin-myosin supramolecular arrays demonstrated that the cellular titin and myosin isoforms coassembled with a myosin/titin ratio of approximately 25:1...

‣ Rotavirus Infection Induces the Phosphorylation of eIF2α but Prevents the Formation of Stress Granules▿

Montero, Hilda; Rojas, Margarito; Arias, Carlos F.; López, Susana
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Publicador: American Society for Microbiology (ASM)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Early during the infection process, rotavirus causes the shutoff of cell protein synthesis, with the nonstructural viral protein NSP3 playing a vital role in the phenomenon. In this work, we have found that the translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) in infected cells becomes phosphorylated early after virus infection and remains in this state throughout the virus replication cycle, leading to a further inhibition of cell protein synthesis. Under these restrictive conditions, however, the viral proteins and some cellular proteins are efficiently translated. The phosphorylation of eIF2α was shown to depend on the synthesis of three viral proteins, VP2, NSP2, and NSP5, since in cells in which the expression of any of these three proteins was knocked down by RNA interference, the translation factor was not phosphorylated. The modification of this factor is, however, not needed for the replication of the virus, since mutant cells that produce a nonphosphorylatable eIF2α sustained virus replication as efficiently as wild-type cells. In uninfected cells, the phosphorylation of eIF2α induces the formation of stress granules, aggregates of stalled translation complexes that prevent the translation of mRNAs. In rotavirus-infected cells...

‣ Tunneling nanotubes (TNT) are induced by HIV-infection of macrophages: A potential mechanism for intercellular HIV trafficking ☆

Eugenin, E.A.; Gaskill, P.J.; Berman, J.W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cell to cell communication is essential for the organization/coordination of multicellular systems and cellular development. Cellular communication is mediated by soluble factors, including growth factors, neurotransmitters, cytokines/chemokines, gap junctions, and the recently described tunneling nanotubes (TNT). TNT are long cytoplasmatic bridges that enable long range directed communication between cells. The proposed function for TNT is the cell-to-cell transfer of large cellular structures such as vesicles and organelles. We demonstrate that HIV-infection of human macrophages results in an increased number of TNT, and show HIV particles within these structures. We propose that HIV “highjacks” TNT communication to spread HIV through an intercellular route between communicated cells, contributing to the pathogenesis of AIDS.

‣ Cellular Scaling Rules of Insectivore Brains

Sarko, Diana K.; Catania, Kenneth C.; Leitch, Duncan B.; Kaas, Jon H.; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 29/06/2009 Português
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Insectivores represent extremes in mammalian body size and brain size, retaining various “primitive” morphological characteristics, and some species of Insectivora are thought to share similarities with small-bodied ancestral eutherians. This raises the possibility that insectivore brains differ from other taxa, including rodents and primates, in cellular scaling properties. Here we examine the cellular scaling rules for insectivore brains and demonstrate that insectivore scaling rules overlap somewhat with those for rodents and primates such that the insectivore cortex shares scaling rules with rodents (increasing faster in size than in numbers of neurons), but the insectivore cerebellum shares scaling rules with primates (increasing isometrically). Brain structures pooled as “remaining areas” appear to scale similarly across all three mammalian orders with respect to numbers of neurons, and the numbers of non-neurons appear to scale similarly across all brain structures for all three orders. Therefore, common scaling rules exist, to different extents, between insectivore, rodent, and primate brain regions, and it is hypothesized that insectivores represent the common aspects of each order. The olfactory bulbs of insectivores...

‣ Non-B DNA Secondary Structures and Their Resolution by RecQ Helicases

Sharma, Sudha
Fonte: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research Publicador: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In addition to the canonical B-form structure first described by Watson and Crick, DNA can adopt a number of alternative structures. These non-B-form DNA secondary structures form spontaneously on tracts of repeat sequences that are abundant in genomes. In addition, structured forms of DNA with intrastrand pairing may arise on single-stranded DNA produced transiently during various cellular processes. Such secondary structures have a range of biological functions but also induce genetic instability. Increasing evidence suggests that genomic instabilities induced by non-B DNA secondary structures result in predisposition to diseases. Secondary DNA structures also represent a new class of molecular targets for DNA-interactive compounds that might be useful for targeting telomeres and transcriptional control. The equilibrium between the duplex DNA and formation of multistranded non-B-form structures is partly dependent upon the helicases that unwind (resolve) these alternate DNA structures. With special focus on tetraplex, triplex, and cruciform, this paper summarizes the incidence of non-B DNA structures and their association with genomic instability and emphasizes the roles of RecQ-like DNA helicases in genome maintenance by resolution of DNA secondary structures. In future...

‣ An assignment of intrinsically disordered regions of proteins based on NMR structures

Ota, Motonori; Koike, Ryotaro; Amemiya, Takayuki; Tenno, Takeshi; Romero, Pedro R.; Hiroaki, Hidekazu; Dunker, A. Keith; Fukuchi, Satoshi
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) do not adopt stable three-dimensional structures in physiological conditions, yet these proteins play crucial roles in biological phenomena. In most cases, intrinsic disorder manifests itself in segments or domains of an IDP, called intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs), but fully disordered IDPs also exist. Although IDRs can be detected as missing residues in protein structures determined by X-ray crystallography, no protocol has been developed to identify IDRs from structures obtained by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). Here, we propose a computational method to assign IDRs based on NMR structures. We compared missing residues of X-ray structures with residue-wise deviations of NMR structures for identical proteins, and derived a threshold deviation that gives the best correlation of ordered and disordered regions of both structures. The obtained threshold of 3.2 Å was applied to proteins whose structures were only determined by NMR, and the resulting IDRs were analyzed and compared to those of X-ray structures with no NMR counterpart in terms of sequence length, IDR fraction, protein function, cellular location, and amino acid composition, all of which suggest distinct characteristics. The structural knowledge of IDPs is still inadequate compared with that of structured proteins. Our method can collect and utilize IDRs from structures determined by NMR...

‣ Glycan Structures Contain Information for the Spatial Arrangement of Glycoproteins in the Plasma Membrane

Hall, M. Kristen; Weidner, Douglas A.; Chen, Jian ming; Bernetski, Christopher J.; Schwalbe, Ruth A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/09/2013 Português
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Glycoconjugates at the cell surface are crucial for cells to communicate with each other and the extracellular microenvironment. While it is generally accepted that glycans are vectorial biopolymers, their information content is unclear. This report provides evidence that distinct N-glycan structures influence the spatial arrangement of two integral membrane glycoproteins, Kv3.1 and E-cadherin, at the adherent membrane which in turn alter cellular properties. Distinct N-glycan structures were generated by heterologous expression of these glycoproteins in parental and glycosylation mutant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines. Unlike the N-linked glycans, the O-linked glycans of the mutant cell lines are similar to those of the parental cell line. Western and lectin blots of total membranes and GFP immunopurified samples, combined with glycosidase digestion reactions, were employed to verify the glycoproteins had predominantly complex, oligomannose, and bisecting type N-glycans from Pro-5, Lec1, and Lec10B cell lines, respectively. Based on total internal reflection fluorescence and differential interference contrast microscopy techniques, and cellular assays of live parental and glycosylation mutant CHO cells, we propose that glycoproteins with complex...

‣ Dissection of the Dimerization Modes in the DJ-1 Superfamily

Jung, Hoi Jong; Kim, Sangok; Kim, Yun Jae; Kim, Min-Kyu; Kang, Sung Gyun; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Kim, Wankyu; Cha, Sun-Shin
Fonte: Korea Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology Publicador: Korea Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The DJ-1 superfamily (DJ-1/ThiJ/PfpI superfamily) is distributed across all three kingdoms of life. These proteins are involved in a highly diverse range of cellular functions, including chaperone and protease activity. DJ-1 proteins usually form dimers or hexamers in vivo and show at least four different binding orientations via distinct interface patches. Abnormal oligomerization of human DJ-1 is related to neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson’s disease, suggesting important functional roles of quaternary structures. However, the quaternary structures of the DJ-1 superfamily have not been extensively studied. Here, we focus on the diverse oligomerization modes among the DJ-1 superfamily proteins and investigate the functional roles of quaternary structures both computationally and experimentally. The oligomerization modes are classified into 4 types (DJ-1, YhbO, Hsp, and YDR types) depending on the distinct interface patches (I–IV) upon dimerization. A unique, rotated interface via patch I is reported, which may potentially be related to higher order oligomerization. In general, the groups based on sequence similarity are consistent with the quaternary structural classes, but their biochemical functions cannot be directly inferred using sequence information alone. The observed phyletic pattern suggests the dynamic nature of quaternary structures in the course of evolution. The amino acid residues at the interfaces tend to show lower mutation rates than those of non-interfacial surfaces.

‣ Synthetic Brainbows

Wan, Y.; Otsuna, H.; Hansen, C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Brainbow is a genetic engineering technique that randomly colorizes cells. Biological samples processed with this technique and imaged with confocal microscopy have distinctive colors for individual cells. Complex cellular structures can then be easily visualized. However, the complexity of the Brainbow technique limits its applications. In practice, most confocal microscopy scans use different florescence staining with typically at most three distinct cellular structures. These structures are often packed and obscure each other in rendered images making analysis difficult. In this paper, we leverage a process known as GPU framebuffer feedback loops to synthesize Brainbow-like images. In addition, we incorporate ID shuffing and Monte-Carlo sampling into our technique, so that it can be applied to single-channel confocal microscopy data. The synthesized Brainbow images are presented to domain experts with positive feedback. A user survey demonstrates that our synthetic Brainbow technique improves visualizations of volume data with complex structures for biologists.

‣ Gene duplication of type-B ARR transcription factors systematically extends transcriptional regulatory structures in Arabidopsis

Choi, Seung Hee; Hyeon, Do Young; Lee, ll Hwan; Park, Su Jin; Han, Seungmin; Lee, In Chul; Hwang, Daehee; Nam, Hong Gil
Fonte: Nature Publishing Group Publicador: Nature Publishing Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/11/2014 Português
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Many of duplicated genes are enriched in signaling pathways. Recently, gene duplication of kinases has been shown to provide genetic buffering and functional diversification in cellular signaling. Transcription factors (TFs) are also often duplicated. However, how duplication of TFs affects their regulatory structures and functions of target genes has not been explored at the systems level. Here, we examined regulatory and functional roles of duplication of three major ARR TFs (ARR1, 10, and 12) in Arabidopsis cytokinin signaling using wild-type and single, double, and triple deletion mutants of the TFs. Comparative analysis of gene expression profiles obtained from Arabidopsis roots in wild-type and these mutants showed that duplication of ARR TFs systematically extended their transcriptional regulatory structures, leading to enhanced robustness and diversification in functions of target genes, as well as in regulation of cellular networks of target genes. Therefore, our results suggest that duplication of TFs contributes to robustness and diversification in functions of target genes by extending transcriptional regulatory structures.