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‣ Análisis de los intereses, en materia de seguridad, de Estados Unidos en África a partir de la creación del Comando Africano de las Fuerzas Armadas de los Estados Unidos (AFRICOM) durante el período 2006 - 2008

Suárez Ferro, Diana Melissa
Fonte: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales Publicador: Facultad de Relaciones Internacionales
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/bachelorThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/acceptedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/08/2011 Português
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La seguridad siempre ha sido uno de los temas más importantes en la política internacional. Por ello, este trabajo pretende explicar algunos aspectos que han llevado al establecimiento del Mando militar de las fuerzas armadas de los Estados Unidos (AFRICOM) conforme a determinados intereses en materia de seguridad de Estados Unidos en África. Así, puntualiza el proceso de creación del AFRICOM, muestra los antecedentes históricos que marcaron su instauración, establece cuáles son los intereses, en materia de seguridad, de Estados Unidos en África, y el control de las amenazas a partir de la creación del AFRICOM y por último, analiza las reacciones que suscitó la creación del Comando. Ello, con el fin de determinar cuáles son las percepciones y críticas al respecto. Esto incluye, el análisis de un último interés de seguridad de Estados Unidos en África, la seguridad energética.

‣ Control of Invasive Salmonella Disease in Africa: Is There a Role for Human Challenge Models?

Gibani, Malick M.; Jin, Celina; Darton, Thomas C.; Pollard, Andrew J.
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Invasive Salmonella disease in Africa is a major public health concern. With evidence of the transcontinental spread of the Salmonella Typhi H58 haplotype, improved estimates of the burden of infection and understanding of the complex interplay of factors affecting disease transmission are needed to assist with efforts aimed at disease control. In addition to Salmonella Typhi, invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella are increasingly recognized as an important cause of febrile illness and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Human experimental oral challenge studies with Salmonella can be used as a model to offer unique insights into host–pathogen interactions as well as a platform to efficiently test new diagnostic and vaccine candidates. In this article, we review the background and use of human challenge studies to date and discuss how findings from these studies may lead to progress in the control of invasive Salmonella disease in Africa.

‣ Esperanças de boaventuras: construções da África e africanismos na Bahia (1887-1910)

Albuquerque,Wlamyra Ribeiro de
Fonte: Universidade Cândido Mendes Publicador: Universidade Cândido Mendes
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2002 Português
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Este texto trata das construções em torno da África postas em circulação na cidade da Bahia, nos últimos anos do século XIX e primeiros do XX. Tendo como principal foco de análise os desfiles de dois clubes carnavalescos fundados por afrodescendentes - Pândegos d'África e Embaixada Africana - a intenção é discutir as referências que vieram a compor diversas imagens da África na Bahia da época. As recriações sobre a África e os africanos foram importantes para a delimitação de lugares sócio-raciais, e aqui são analisadas como exercícios políticos de construção de identidades pela própria comunidade afrodescendente no pós-Abolição.

‣ Jagas, canibalismo e "guerra preta" : os Mbangalas, entre o mito europeu e as realidades sociais da África Central do século XVII; Jaga, cannibalism and the "guerra preta" : the Mbangalas, between the european myth and the social realities of the Central Africa in the XVII century

Macedo, José Rivair
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
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Os textos europeus do século XVII em geral conferem aos jagas papel determinante como elemento desagregador das populações centro-africanas, qualificando-os de selvagens, canibais e adeptos de práticas de idolatria. O objetivo do presente artigo é apresentar tais pontos de vista a partir do estudo dos rituais atribuídos aos jagas no tratado intitulado Istorica descrizione de tre regni, Congo, Matamba et Angola, de autoria do missionário capuchinho Giovanni Cavazzi de Montecúccolo. Tais rituais serão confrontados com as descrições a respeito do papel que os jagas desempenharam nas guerras do sertão africano durante o processo de conquista do Ndongo.; The seventeenth-century European texts generally describe the Jaga role as a disruptive element of the peoples in the central Africa, calling them savages, cannibals and who practice idolatry. This paper presents to such view from the study of the rituals assigned to the Jaga in the Istorica descrizione tre regni, Congo, Matamba et Angola, by capuchin missionary Giovanni Cavazzi of Montecúccolo. Such rituals are faced with the descriptions about the role that Jaga played in the wars of the african hinterland during the conquest of Ndongo.

‣ Parceria comercial chinesa com a África. Caso dos países: Sudão, Nigéria, Angola e África do Sul. 1990-2013

Oliveira, Vivian Alves De
Fonte: Universidade Católica de Brasília Publicador: Universidade Católica de Brasília
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: Texto
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O crescente desenvolvimento da economia chinesa e sua maior participação no Comércio Internacional nos últimos anos, assim como seu interesse em investir nos países em desenvolvimento, merece especial atenção. Sendo assim o presente trabalho analisa a China como parceiro comercial da África, no qual há grande potencial de investimento principalmente no setor petrolífero, em especial o investimento dirigido à Nigéria, ao Sudão, a África do Sul e a Angola.; Relações Internacionais

‣ Política externa para a África no governo Lula : uma retomada da política externa independente?

Moura, Vanessa Láuar
Fonte: Universidade Católica de Brasília Publicador: Universidade Católica de Brasília
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: Texto
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Este estudo tem por objetivo analisar as relações entre Brasil e África, desde a década de 1960 até os dias de hoje com vista a identificar as principais evoluções da política externa brasileira para o continente. A hipótese a ser testada é que com a posse de Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva na presidência do Brasil foi inaugurado um novo período nas relações entre o Brasil e o continente africano, sendo possível afirmar que a política externa de Lula é uma retomada à Política Externa Independente de Jânio Quadros e João Goulart.; This study aims to analyze the relationship between Brazil and Africa, from 1960 to the present, and to identify the development of Brazilian Foreign Policy for at continent. The hypothesis tested shows that the presidential election of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva inaugurated a new stage in the relationship with Africa. The hypothesis also indicates the returns to the Independent Foreign Policy, first seen in the government of Jânio Quadros and João Goulart, in the foreign policy of Lula.

‣ Nigeria y la resolución de conflictos en Africa: La experiencia de Darfur

Ebegbulem, Joseph C
Fonte: Universidad Sergio Arboleda Publicador: Universidad Sergio Arboleda
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; Artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf; application/pdf; documentos
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Los conflictos en África en los últimos años han llevado a la pérdida de vidas humanas; el desplazamiento de personas y la miseria en muchas partes del continente. La necesidad de resolver; gestionar y prevenir estos conflictos; e igualmente frente a los desafíos socio-económicos derivados de estos s; se ha convertido en una fuente de preocupación para los países africanos como Nigeria; el gigante de África. Es a la luz de lo anterior que este artículo se propone analizar el papel de Nigeria en la resolución de conflictos en África; con la crisis del Darfur en Sudán como caso de estudio. El documento examina los antecedentes históricos del conflicto en Darfur y los esfuerzos realizados por Nigeria para resolver la crisis a través de iniciativas de paz. Ya que el restablecimiento de la paz en Darfur es un gran desafío que enfrenta el continente africano; el documento analiza los problemas y las perspectivas de paz en esa parte del continente. El documento concluye que a pesar de que Nigeria haya demostrado su compromiso en la resolución del conflicto en Darfur; todavía tiene mucho que hacer; de concierto con la Unión Africana; sobre todo ahora que el sur de Sudán es un Estado soberano.

‣ Ecology of cobras from southern Africa

Shine, Richard; Branch, W R; Webb, Jonathon; Harlow, Peter S; Shine, T.; Keogh, J Scott
Fonte: Zoological Society of London Publicador: Zoological Society of London
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Large slender-bodied snakes that forage actively for a generalized array of small vertebrates are conspicuous elements of the terrestrial snake fauna of most continents; the venomous elapid species fill this role in much of Asia, Africa and Australia. Our

‣ Geology and evolution of the Natal belt, South Africa

McCourt, Steve; Armstrong, Richard; Grantham, Geoff H; Thomas, R J
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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This paper outlines our current understanding of the geology and evolution of the Natal belt, the eastern sector of the ∼400 km wide Mesoproterozoic Namaqua-Natal Tectonic Province of southern Africa. The Natal belt lies adjacent to the southeastern mar

‣ U-Pb SHRIMP data for the Madiba greenstone belt: implications for crustal growth on the western margin of the Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa

Poujol, Marc; Hirner, Andreas J.; Armstrong, Richard; Anhaeusser, C.R.
Fonte: Geological Society of South Africa Publicador: Geological Society of South Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The Madibe greenstone belt is the easternmost belt of the northern Kraaipan terrane, located in the Kimberley Block of the Kaapvaal Craton. It comprises a mature Middle to Late Archaean volcanic island arc succession that was welded onto the evolving west

‣ A SHRIMP U-Pb and LA-ICPMS trace element study of the petrogenesis of garnet-cordierite-orthoamphibole gneisses from the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt, South Africa

Buick, Ian; Hermann, Joerg; Williams, Ian; Gibson, Roger L.; Rubatto, Daniela
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt (South Africa) underwent high-grade metamorphism at ∼2.7-2.5 and ∼2.03 Ga. Quartz-rich, garnet-, cordierite-, biotite- and orthoamphibole-bearing, feldspar-free gneisses from the western Central Zone reached granul

‣ O envolvimento geoestratégico da China no acesso aos recursos energéticos na Àfrica Austral: os casos de Angola e Moçambique

Vicente, Vitor Manuel Macedo Bombico Silveira
Fonte: Universidade de Évora Publicador: Universidade de Évora
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
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A presente Dissertação é uma análise na ótica do Realismo Político ao envolvimento da República Popular da China na África Austral, analisando ao pormenor as vertentes de envolvimento comercial; investimento direto; financiamento; cooperação política e segurança da RPC em Angola e Moçambique, na medida em que grande parte deste seu envolvimento tem como meio o garantir de recursos geoestratégicos como forma de salvaguarda da sua segurança energética, utilizando a RPC um argumento de parceria com os países africanos envolvendo-os na sua conceção de uma nova ordem mundial multipolar. Num segundo plano, é demonstrado como a RPC não é a única a desempenhar um forte papel geopolítico na região, estando vários atores, alguns seus parceiros, numa disputa aos recursos aí presentes, num constante equilíbrio de poderes, para sua salvaguarda própria; Abstract: This thesis is an analysis from the perspetive of Realism China's engagement in Southern Africa, analysing in detail the aspects of commercial involvement; direct investment; funding and political cooperation and China's security in Angola and Mozambique, to the extent that much of this involvement is to ensure the means of geostrategic resources as a way to safeguard its energy security...

‣ «Practising hygiene and fighting the natives’ diseases». Public and child health in German East Africa and Tanganyika territory, 1900-1960

Bruchhausen, Walter
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2003 Português
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For reasons of population policy and missionary strategies, childcare was a relatively early issue of colonial medical policy and services in East Africa. The main challenge for the adaptation of biomedicine to the local situation proved to be not so much schemes for treatment or prevention, but rather the question of staffing. Education and employment of females, as well as social acceptance and keeping up professional standards of biomedically trained personnel, posed major obstacles to the implementation of governmental health policies. In addition to these obstacles, European prejudices about African disinterest in child health contributed to the feeling that limited progress had been made after 50 years of biomedical efforts to improve African child health.

‣ Young people’s transport and mobility in sub-Saharan Africa : the gendered journey to school

Porter, Gina; Hampshire, Kate; Abane, Albert; Tanle, Augustine; Munthali, Alister; Robson, Elsbet h; Mac Mashiri; Maponya, Goodhope
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 Português
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This paper draws on rich ethnographic data and complementary survey research from a three-country study (Ghana, Malawi, South Africa) of young people’s mobility to explore the gendered nature of children’s journeys to school in sub-Saharan Africa. In most African countries, girls’ participation in formal education is substantially lower than boys’, especially at secondary school level. Transport and mobility issues often form an important component of this story, though the precise patterning of the transportation and mobility constraints experienced by schoolchildren, and the ways in which transport factors interact with other constraints, varies from region to region. We draw attention to the nature of gendered travel experiences in rural and urban areas, the implications of these findings for access to education, and finally suggest areas where policy intervention could be beneficial.; Aquest article es basa en dades etnogràfiques i recerca complementària sobre la mobilitat dels joves, a partir d’un estudi en tres països (Ghana, Malawi, Sudàfrica), per tal d’investigar els viatges a l’escola dels nois i les noies a l’Àfrica subsahariana des de la perspectiva de gènere. En la majoria dels països africans la participació de les noies en l’educació formal és substancialment més baixa que la dels nois...

‣ Open Access availability of Lusophone African scientific production; Disponibilidade em Acesso Aberto da produção científica da África Lusófona

Guambe, Martins Fernando; Bueno-de-la-Fuente, Gema
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/12/2013 Português
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The present communication analyzes the availability of open access scientific production of the Africa Lusophone (AL). Therefore, it aims to identify and characterize the scientific publications of academic institutions and research in the following countries: Mozambique, Angola, Guinea Bissau, Cape Verde and Sao Tome and Principe, through the publications in local, regional or national scientific production, as well as in high-impact international publications. We assume that, although the volume of work in these journals is less when compared with other countries, there is a scientific literature from authors of the AL institutions that is not arrogated according to its legitimacy and therefore, its access is not guaranteed to the community that produced and financed these scientific studies. Preliminary results allowed us to identify a significant number of articles published in international journals in the period of study 2002-2012, over 2,000 items, most of which are published in open access journals or in subscription access journals that allow several options of self-archiving, with or without embargo periods. The ultimate aim is to propose a set of policy recommendations to academic institutions in the countries of AL in order to enhance open access and enjoy its benefits.; A presente comunicação analisa a disponibilidade em acesso aberto da produção científica dos países da África Lusófona (AL). Assim...

‣ Understanding the Distribution of Soil Carbon in Gabon, Central Africa

Wade, Anna
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 24/04/2015 Português
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Soils are the largest reservoir of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. The top meter is estimated to contain 1,500 gigatonnes of carbon, which is three times the amount held in the world’s vegetation. Despite the importance of these pools to the carbon cycle, research on soil carbon stocks is lacking in many regions worldwide. This is especially true in parts of Africa, such as the Congo Basin. This study centers on Gabon, one of six countries in the Congo Basin. Because of expected land-use changes in the country, it is important to know the contemporary amount of carbon held in the soils of Gabon. The objectives of this study were to 1) quantify Gabon’s soil carbon stocks down to two meters in depth and 2) examine how environmental controls influence soil carbon. On average, there were 162 megagrams (Mg) of carbon per hectare in the top 2 meters of soil in Gabon. The top meter had 110 Mg and the second meter had 52 Mg. The sizable subsoil C pool found in this study (over 30% of total soil carbon was beneath the 1st meter) supports the notion that soil carbon sampling needs to go deeper in order to avoid underestimating soil carbon stocks. A geospatial analysis of sub-Saharan Africa revealed that climate, topography, and soil texture influence soil carbon stocks. A similar analysis using soil carbon data specifically for Gabon yielded different results: only soil texture had a notable effect on belowground carbon storage. These regression analyses showed that estimating soil carbon stocks with environmental factors becomes more difficult on finer scales. Lastly...

‣ Descriptors and Correlates of Sex Trading Amongst Active Methamphetamine Users in Cape Town, South Africa

Lion, Ryan Ridenour
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015 Português
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Introduction: South Africa has witnessed a tremendous rise in methamphetamine consumption since the year 2000. Sex trading is a phenomenon that has been observed in active drug users, globally and within South Africa, and has been associated with risks for HIV infection and violence. This paper is a secondary analysis examining sex trading among active methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: Respondent driven sampling was used to recruit 360 active methamphetamine users in a peri-urban township in Cape Town. A structured clinical interview and computerized survey were used to assess history of sex trading, demographics, drug use, sexual risk behaviors, history of violence, and mental health. Logistic regression models were used to examine predictors of sex trading, separately for men and women. Results: In a total sample of 201 men and 159 women, 40% of men and 33% of women endorsed trading sex for tik or money in the past 3 months. Those who traded sex were more likely to meet the criteria for ICD-10 amphetamine dependence among both men (OR=4.59, 95% CI=1.31-16.13) and women (OR=8.00, 95% CI: 1.02-62.59). Men who were concurrent heroin users were also more likely to exchange sex (OR=2.58, 95% CI: 1.06-6.28). Sexual risk behaviors were significantly associated with sex trading. Notably...

‣ Africa: The New Family Planning Frontier

Caldwell, John; Caldwell, Pat
Fonte: Population Council Publicador: Population Council
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Sub-Saharan Africa will be the family planning frontier of the twenty-first century. Fertility levels and population growth rates are still high, and family planning programs suited to the region are still being developed. Nevertheless, by the end of the

‣ Extensional detachment faulting and core-complex formation in the southern Barberton granite-greenstone terrain, South Africa: evidence for a 3.2Ga orogenic collapse

Kisters, Alexander F M; Stevens, Gary; Dziggel, Annika; Armstrong, Richard
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The Barberton greenstone belt in South Africa is an Early- to Mid-Archaean, very low-grade metamorphic supracrustal belt that is bordered in the south by a mid- to lower crustal gneiss terrain. Detailed mapping of the contacts between the supracrustal and gneiss domains along the southern margin of the greenstone belt shows that the supracrustal rocks are separated from the high-grade metamorphic gneiss terrain by an extensional detachment that is situated at and close to the base of the belt. The extensional detachment is approximately 1-km wide and its location corresponds with the heterogeneous, mélange-like rocks of the Theespruit Formation. Within the detachment zone, two main strain regimes can be distinguished. Amphibolite-facies rocks at and below the granite-greenstone contacts are characterized by rodded gneisses and strongly lineated amphibolite-facies mylonites. The bulk constrictional deformation at these lower structural levels records, in a subhorizontal orientation, the vertical shortening and horizontal, NE-SW directed stretching of the mid-crustal rocks. The prolate, coaxial fabrics are overprinted by greenschist-facies mylonites at higher structural levels that cut progressively deeper into the underlying high-grade basement rocks. These mylonites have developed during non-coaxial strain and kinematic indicators consistently point to a top-to-the-NE sense of movement of the greenstone sequence with respect to the lower structural levels. This relationship between bulk coaxial NE-SW stretching of mid-crustal basement rocks and non-coaxial...

‣ Geochronological and isotopic constraints on the Mesoproterozoic Namaqua-Natal Belt: evidence from deep borehole intersections in South Africa

Eglington, B.M.; Armstrong, Richard
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Mesoproterozoic lithologies of the Namaqua-Natal Belt are exposed in the west and east of South Africa but the central section of the belt is obscured by younger sedimentary cover. This belt is one of several Grenvillian-aged belts world-wide and is of importance in reconstructions of the Meso- to Neo-Proterozoic supercontinent of Rodinia. Zircons from granite and biotite gneiss in two deep boreholes which penetrated the Phanerozoic cover provide SHRIMP U-Pb dates of 1053+29/-25 Ma and 1134+15/-15 Ma. Sm-Nd model dates for whole-rock samples from these and two other boreholes range from ∼2400 to 1200 Ma, unlike model dates from the eastern (Natal) sector of the Namaqua-Natal Belt which are all younger than ∼1400 Ma. Model dates are similar to those noted in the Bushmanland and Richtersveld Sub-provinces of the western (Namaqua) sector of the Belt. The results are interpreted to indicate that this Proterozoic crust may be an easterly extension of the Bushmanland Sub-province or some equivalent terrane and that there must be a terrane boundary between the eastern-most borehole studied and the surface outcrops further east.