Página 23 dos resultados de 45945 itens digitais encontrados em 0.038 segundos

‣ Axillary bud development in pineapple nodal segments correlates with changes on cell cycle gene expression, hormone level, and sucrose and glutamate contents

SOUZA, Beatriz M.; MOLFETTA-MACHADO, Jeanne B.; FRESCHI, Luciano; FIGUEIRA, Antonio; PURGATTO, Eduardo; BUCKERIDGE, Marcos S.; SLUYS, Marie-Anne Van; MERCIER, Helenice
Fonte: SPRINGER Publicador: SPRINGER
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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During the process of lateral organ development after plant decapitation, cell division and differentiation occur in a balanced manner initiated by specific signaling, which triggers the reentrance into the cell cycle. Here, we investigated short-term variations in the content of some endogenous signals, such as auxin, cytokinins (Cks), and other mitogenic stimuli (sucrose and glutamate), which are likely correlated with the cell cycle reactivation in the axillary bud primordium of pineapple nodal segments. Transcript levels of cell cycle-associated genes, CycD2;1, and histone H2A were analyzed. Nodal segments containing the quiescent axillary meristem cells were cultivated in vitro during 24 h after the apex removal and de-rooting. From the moment of stem apex and root removal, decapitated nodal segment (DNS) explants showed a lower indol-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentration than control explants, and soon after, an increase of endogenous sucrose and iP-type Cks were detected. The decrease of IAA may be the primary signal for cell cycle control early in G1 phase, leading to the upregulation of CycD2;1 gene in the first h. Later, the iP-type Cks and sucrose could have triggered the progression to S-phase since there was an increase in H2A expression at the eighth h. DNS explants revealed substantial increase in Z-type Cks and glutamate from the 12th h...

‣ Adhesion and protease activity in cell lines from human salivary gland tumors are regulated by the laminin-derived peptide AG73, syndecan-1 and beta 1 integrin

GAMA-DE-SOUZA, Leticia N.; CYRENO-OLIVEIRA, Elaine; FREITAS, Vanessa M.; MELO, Edielle S.; VILAS-BOAS, Vanessa F.; MORISCOT, Anselmo S.; JAEGER, Ruy G.
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We studied the induction of protease activity by the laminin alpha 1-derived peptide AG73 in cells from adenoid cystic carcinoma (CAC2) and myoepithelioma (M1), respectively a malignant and a benign salivary gland tumors. Laminin alpha 1 chain and MMP9 were immunolocalized in adenoid cystic carcinoma and myoepithelioma in vivo and in vitro. Cells grown inside AG73-enriched laminin-111 exhibited large spaces in the extracellular matrix, suggestive of remodeling. The broad spectrum MMP inhibitor GM6001 decreased spaces induced by AG73 in CAC2 and M I cells. This result strongly suggests that AG73-mediated matrix remodeling involves matrix metalloproteinases. CAC2 and M1 cells cultured on AG73 showed a dose-dependent increase of MMP9 secretion, as detected by zymography. Furthermore, siRNA silencing of MMP9 decreased remodeling in 3D cultures. We searched for AG73 receptors regulating MMP9 activity in our cell lines. CAC2 and M1 cells grown on AG73 exhibited colocalization of syndecan-1 and beta 1 integrin. siRNA knockdown of syndecan-1 expression in these cells resulted in decreased adhesion to AG73 and reduced protease and remodeling activity. We investigated syndecan-1 co-receptors in both cell lines. Silencing beta 1 integrin inhibited adhesion to AG73...

‣ Ischemic preconditioning and the gene expression of enteric endothelial cell biology of rats submitted to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion

Taha,Murched Omar; Ferreira,Regiane Miranda; Taha,Nabiha Saadi Abrahão; Monteiro,Hugo Pequeno; Caricati-Neto,Afonso; Oliveira-Júnior,Itamar Souza; Fagundes,Djalma José
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira para o Desenvolvimento da Pesquisa em Cirurgia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2013 Português
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PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) on the expression of pro and anti-apoptotic genes in rat endothelial cells undergoing enteric ischemia (I) and reperfusion (R). METHODS: Thirty rats underwent clamping of the superior mesenteric vessels. Sham group (GS) laparotomy only; Ischemia (GI): intestinal ischemia (60 min); Ischemia and Reperfusion (GIR): ischemia (60 min) and reperfusion (120 min); Ischemia and intestinal ischemic preconditioning (GI + IPC) : 5 minutes of ischemia followed by 10 min of reperfusion before sustained ischemia (60 min) ischemia and reperfusion and IPC (GIR + IPC): 5 min ischemia followed by 10 min of reperfusion before sustained ischemia (60min) and reperfusion (120 min). Rat Endothelial Cell Biology (PCR array) to determine the expression of genes related to endothelial cell biology. RESULTS: Gene expression of pro-apoptotic markers (Casp1, Casp6, Cflar, Fas, and Pgl) was down regulated in GI+IPC and in GIR + IPC. In contrast, the expression of anti-apoptotic genes (Bcl2 and Naip2), was up-regulated in GI + IPC and in GIR + IPC. CONCLUSION: Ischemic preconditioning may protect against cell death caused by ischemia and reperfusion.

‣ Potential Molecular Mechanism for c-Src Kinase-mediated Regulation of Intestinal Cell Migration*S⃞

Mathew, Sijo; George, Sudeep P.; Wang, Yaohong; Siddiqui, Mohammad Rizwan; Srinivasan, Kamalakkannan; Tan, Langzhu; Khurana, Seema
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/08/2008 Português
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The ubiquitously expressed Src tyrosine kinases (c-Src, c-Yes, and c-Fyn) regulate intestinal cell growth and differentiation. Src activity is also elevated in the majority of malignant and premalignant tumors of the colon. The development of fibroblasts with the three ubiquitously expressed kinases deleted (SYF cells) has identified the role of Src proteins in the regulation of actin dynamics associated with increased cell migration and invasion. Despite this, unexpectedly nothing is known about the role of the individual Src kinases on intestinal cell cytoskeleton and/or cell migration. We have previously reported that villin, an epithelial cell-specific actin-modifying protein that regulates actin reorganization, cell morphology, cell migration, cell invasion, and apoptosis, is tyrosine-phosphorylated. In this report using the SYF cells reconstituted individually with c-Src, c-Yes, c-Fyn, and wild type or phosphorylation site mutants of villin, we demonstrate for the first time the absolute requirement for c-Src in villin-induced regulation of cell migration. The other major finding of our study is that contrary to previous reports, the nonreceptor tyrosine kinase, Jak3 (Janus kinase 3), does not regulate phosphorylation of villin or villin-induced cell migration and is...

‣ Analogs of Tetrahydroisoquinoline Natural Products That Inhibit Cell Migration and Target Galectin-3 Outside of Its Carbohydrate-binding Site*

Kahsai, Alem W.; Cui, Junru; Kaniskan, H. Ümit; Garner, Philip P.; Fenteany, Gabriel
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 05/09/2008 Português
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Cell migration is central to a number of normal and disease processes. Small organic molecules that inhibit cell migration have potential as both research probes and therapeutic agents. We have identified two tetrahydroisoquinoline natural product analogs with antimigratory activities on Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells: a semisynthetic derivative of quinocarmycin (also known as quinocarcin), DX-52-1, and a more complex synthetic molecule, HUK-921, related to the naphthyridinomycin family. It has been assumed that the cellular effects of reactive tetrahydroisoquinolines result from the alkylation of DNA. We have reported previously that the primary target of DX-52-1 relevant to cell migration appears to be the membrane-cytoskeleton linker protein radixin. Here we extend the analysis of the protein targets of DX-52-1, reporting that the multifunctional carbohydrate-binding protein galectin-3 is a secondary target of DX-52-1 that may also be relevant to the antimigratory effects of both DX-52-1 and HUK-921. All known inhibitors of galectin-3 target its β-galactoside-binding site in the carbohydrate recognition domain. However, we found that DX-52-1 and HUK-921 bind galectin-3 outside of its β-galactoside-binding site. Intriguingly HUK-921...

‣ Identification of a Novel Function of PiT1 Critical for Cell Proliferation and Independent of Its Phosphate Transport Activity*♦

Beck, Laurent; Leroy, Christine; Salaün, Christine; Margall-Ducos, Germain; Desdouets, Chantal; Friedlander, Gérard
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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PiT1 is a Na+-phosphate (Pi) cotransporter located at the plasma membrane that enables Pi entry into the cell. Its broad tissue expression pattern has led to the idea that together with the closely related family member PiT2, PiT1 is the ubiquitous supplier of Pi to the cell. Moreover, the role of Pi in phosphorylation reactions, ATP production, DNA structure, and synthesis has led to the view that Pi availability could be an important determinant of cell growth. However, these issues have not been clearly addressed to date, and the role of either Pi or PiT proteins in cell proliferation is unknown. Using RNA interference in HeLa and HepG2 cells, we show that transient or stable PiT1 depletion markedly reduces cell proliferation, delays cell cycle, and impairs mitosis and cytokinesis. In vivo, PiT1 depletion greatly reduced tumor growth when engineered HeLa cells were injected into nude mice. We provide evidence that this effect on cell proliferation is specific to PiT1 and not shared by PiT2 and is not the consequence of impaired membrane Na+-Pi transport. Moreover, we show that modulation of cell proliferation by PiT1 is independent from its transport function because the proliferation of PiT1-depleted cells can be rescued by non-transporting PiT1 mutants. PiT1 depletion leads to the phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase...

‣ p110 CUX1 Homeodomain Protein Stimulates Cell Migration and Invasion in Part through a Regulatory Cascade Culminating in the Repression of E-cadherin and Occludin*

Kedinger, Valerie; Sansregret, Laurent; Harada, Ryoko; Vadnais, Charles; Cadieux, Chantal; Fathers, Kelly; Park, Morag; Nepveu, Alain
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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In this study, we investigated the mechanism by which the CUX1 transcription factor can stimulate cell migration and invasion. The full-length p200 CUX1 had a weaker effect than the proteolytically processed p110 isoform; moreover, treatments that affect processing similarly impacted cell migration. We conclude that the stimulatory effect of p200 CUX1 is mediated in part, if not entirely, through the generation of p110 CUX1. We established a list of putative transcriptional targets with functions related to cell motility, and we then identified those targets whose expression was directly regulated by CUX1 in a cell line whose migratory potential was strongly stimulated by CUX1. We identified 18 genes whose expression was directly modulated by p110 CUX1, and its binding to all target promoters was validated in independent chromatin immunoprecipitation assays. These genes code for regulators of Rho-GTPases, cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion proteins, cytoskeleton-associated proteins, and markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Interestingly, p110 CUX1 activated the expression of genes that promote cell motility and at the same time repressed genes that inhibit this process. Therefore, the role of p110 CUX1 in cell motility involves its functions in both activation and repression of transcription. This was best exemplified in the regulation of the E-cadherin gene. Indeed...

‣ Liganded Thyroid Hormone Receptor-α Enhances Proliferation of Pancreatic β-Cells

Furuya, Fumihiko; Shimura, Hiroki; Yamashita, Sayaka; Endo, Toyoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Failure of the functional pancreatic β-cell mass to expand in response to increased metabolic demand is a hallmark of type 2 diabetes. Lineage tracing studies indicate that replication of existing β-cells is important for β-cell proliferation in adult animals. In rat pancreatic β-cell lines (RIN5F), treatment with 100 nm thyroid hormone (triiodothyronine, T3) enhances cell proliferation. This result suggests that T3 is required for β-cell proliferation or replication. To identify the role of thyroid hormone receptor α (TRα) in the processes of β-cell growth and cell cycle regulation, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus vector, AdTRα. Infection with AdTRα to RIN5F cells increased the expression of cyclin D1 mRNA and protein. Overexpression of the cyclin D1 protein in AdTRα-infected cells led to activation of the cyclin D1/cyclin-dependent kinase/retinoblastoma protein/E2F pathway, along with cell cycle progression and cell proliferation following treatment with 100 nm T3. Conversely, lowering cellular cyclin D1 by small interfering RNA knockdown in AdTRα-infected cells led to down-regulation of the cyclin D1/CDK/Rb/E2F pathway and inhibited cell proliferation. Furthermore, in immunodeficient mice with streptozotocin-induced diabetes...

‣ Zyxin-mediated Actin Assembly Is Required for Efficient Wound Closure*

Nguyen, Thuc Nghi; Uemura, Arisa; Shih, Wenting; Yamada, Soichiro
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cytoskeletal regulation of cell adhesion is vital to the organization of multicellular structures. The focal adhesion protein zyxin emerged as a key regulator of actin assembly because zyxin recruits Enabled/vasodilator-stimulated phospho-proteins (Ena/VASP) to promote actin assembly. Zyxin also localizes to the sites of cell-cell adhesion and is thought to promote actin assembly with Ena/VASP. Using shRNA targeted to zyxin, we analyzed the roles of zyxin at adhesive contacts. In zyxin-deficient cells, the actin assembly at both focal adhesion and cell-cell adhesion was limited, but their migration rate was unchanged. Cell spreading on E-cadherin-coated surfaces and the formation of cell clusters were slower for zyxin-deficient cells than wild type cells. By ablating a single cell within a cell monolayer, we quantified the rate of wound closure driven by a contractile circumferential actin ring. Zyxin-deficient cells failed to recruit VASP to cell-cell junctions at the wound edge and had a slower wound closure rate than wild type cells. Our results suggest that, by recruiting VASP, zyxin regulates actin assembly at the sites of force-bearing cell-cell adhesion.

‣ A Novel Inhibitory Domain of Helicobacter pylori Protein CagA Reduces CagA Effects on Host Cell Biology*

Pelz, Christiane; Steininger, Sylvia; Weiss, Claudia; Coscia, Fabian; Vogelmann, Roger
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The Helicobacter pylori protein CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A) is associated with an increased risk for gastric cancer formation. After attachment to epithelial cells, the bacteria inject CagA via a type IV secretion apparatus into host cells, where it exerts its biological activity. Host cell responses to intracellular CagA have been linked exclusively to signaling motifs in the C terminus of the CagA protein. Little is known about the functional role of the remaining CagA protein. Using transgenic expression of CagA mutants in epithelial cells, we were able to identify a novel CagA inhibitory domain at the N terminus consisting of the first 200 amino acids. This domain localizes to cell-cell contacts and increases the rate and strength of cell-cell adhesion in epithelial cells. Thus, it compensates for the loss of cell-cell adhesion induced by the C terminus of the CagA protein. Consistent with its stabilizing role on cell-cell adhesion, the CagA N terminus domain reduces the CagA-induced β-catenin transcriptional activity in the nucleus. Furthermore, it inhibits apical surface constriction and cell elongations, host cell phenotypes induced by the C terminus in polarized epithelia. Therefore, our study suggests that CagA contains an intrinsic inhibitory domain that reduces host cell responses to CagA...

‣ Synchronization of Cell Cycle of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Using a Cell Chip Platform

Hur, Jae Young; Park, Min Cheol; Suh, Kahp-Yang; Park, Sang-Hyun
Fonte: Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology Publicador: Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/11/2011 Português
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Cell synchrony is a critical requirement for the study of eukaryotic cells. Although several chemical and genetic methods of cell cycle synchronization are currently available, they have certain limitations, such as unnecessary perturbations to cells. We developed a novel cell cycle synchronization method that is based on a cell chip platform. The budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is a simple but useful model system to study cell biology and shares many similar features with higher eukaryotic cells. Single yeast cells were individually captured in the wells of a specially designed cell chip platform. When released from the cell chip, the yeast cells were synchronized, with all cells in the G1 phase. This method is non-invasive and causes minimal chemical and biological damage to cells. The capture and release of cells using cells chips with microwells of specific dimensions allows for the isolation of cells of a particular size and shape; this enables the isolation of cells of a given phase, because the size and shape of yeast cells vary with the phase of the cell cycle. To test the viability of synchronized cells, the yeast cells captured in the cell chip platform were assessed for response to mating pheromone (α-factor). The synchronized cells isolated using the cell chip were capable of mediating the mating signaling response and exhibited a dynamic and robust response behavior. By changing the dimensions of the well of the cell chip...

‣ Human Folliculin Delays Cell Cycle Progression through Late S and G2/M-Phases: Effect of Phosphorylation and Tumor Associated Mutations

Laviolette, Laura A.; Wilson, Jonas; Koller, Julia; Neil, Christopher; Hulick, Peter; Rejtar, Tomas; Karger, Barry; Teh, Bin Tean; Iliopoulos, Othon
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The Birt-Hogg-Dube disease occurs as a result of germline mutations in the human Folliculin gene (FLCN), and is characterized by clinical features including fibrofolliculomas, lung cysts and multifocal renal neoplasia. Clinical and genetic evidence suggest that FLCN acts as a tumor suppressor gene. The human cell line UOK257, derived from the renal cell carcinoma of a patient with a germline mutation in the FLCN gene, harbors a truncated version of the FLCN protein. Reconstitution of the wild type FLCN protein into UOK257 cells delays cell cycle progression, due to a slower progression through the late S and G2/M-phases. Similarly, Flcn–/– mouse embryonic fibroblasts progress more rapidly through the cell cycle than wild type controls (Flcnflox/flox). The reintroduction of tumor-associated FLCN mutants (FLCN ΔF157, FLCN 1–469 or FLCN K508R) fails to delay cell cycle progression in UOK257 cells. Additionally, FLCN phosphorylation (on Serines 62 and 73) fluctuates throughout the cell cycle and peaks during the G2/M phase in cells treated with nocodazole. In keeping with this observation, the reintroduction of a FLCN phosphomimetic mutant into the UOK257 cell line results in faster progression through the cell cycle compared to those expressing the wild type FLCN protein. These findings suggest that the tumor suppression function of FLCN may be linked to its impact on the cell cycle and that FLCN phosphorylation is important for this activity. Additionally...

‣ Pax6- and Six3-Mediated Induction of Lens Cell Fate in Mouse and Human ES Cells

Anchan, Raymond M.; Lachke, Salil A.; Gerami-Naini, Behzad; Lindsey, Jennifer; Ng, Nicholas; Naber, Catherine; Nickerson, Michael; Cavallesco, Resy; Rowan, Sheldon; Eaton, Jennifer L.; Xi, Qiongchao; Maas, Richard L.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Embryonic stem (ES) cells provide a potentially useful in vitro model for the study of in vivo tissue differentiation. We used mouse and human ES cells to investigate whether the lens regulatory genes Pax6 and Six3 could induce lens cell fate in vitro. To help assess the onset of lens differentiation, we derived a new mES cell line (Pax6-GFP mES) that expresses a GFP reporter under the control of the Pax6 P0 promoter and lens ectoderm enhancer. Pax6 or Six3 expression vectors were introduced into mES or hES cells by transfection or lentiviral infection and the differentiating ES cells analyzed for lens marker expression. Transfection of mES cells with Pax6 or Six3 but not with other genes induced the expression of lens cell markers and up-regulated GFP reporter expression in Pax6-GFP mES cells by 3 days post-transfection. By 7 days post-transfection, mES cell cultures exhibited a>10-fold increase over controls in the number of colonies expressing γA-crystallin, a lens fiber cell differentiation marker. RT-PCR and immunostaining revealed induction of additional lens epithelial or fiber cell differentiation markers including Foxe3, Prox1, α- and β-crystallins, and Tdrd7. Moreover, γA-crystallin- or Prox1-expressing lentoid bodies formed by 30 days in culture. In hES cells...

‣ A cell number-counting factor regulates group size in Dictyostelium discoideum

Tang, Lei
Fonte: Universidade Rice Publicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Thesis; Text Formato: 124 p.; application/pdf
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Little is known about how a morphogenetic rearrangement of a tissue is effected by the individual cells. Starving Dictyostelium discoideum cells aggregate to form dendritic streams which then break up into groups of ∼2 x 104 cells. Cell number is sensed using counting factor (CF), a secreted complex of polypeptides. A high extracellular concentration of CF causes an aggregation stream to break up. We find that CF slowly down-regulates the cAMP-induced cGMP pulse by inhibiting guanylyl cyclase activity. On the other hand, CF significantly potentiates the cAMP-induced cAMP pulse size through the up-regulation of the adenylyl cyclase. Both the cAMP-induced cAMP and cGMP pulses are dramatically smaller in REMI-11 cells, which over-express REMI-11 protein, a smlA second site suppressor. CF does not affect the cAMP receptor, its interaction with its associated G proteins, or the translocation of the CRAC to the membrane in response to cAMP. Pulsing streaming wild-type cells with a high concentration of cAMP results in the formation of small groups, whereas reducing cAMP pulse size with exogenous cAMP phosphodiesterase during stream formation causes cells to form large groups. Altering the extracellular cAMP pulse size does not phenocopy the effects of CF on the cAMP-induced cGMP pulse size or cell-cell adhesion...

‣ Asymmetric cell division intersects with cell geometry : a method to extrapolate and quantify geometrical parameters of sensory organ precursors

Papaluca, Arturo
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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La division cellulaire asymétrique (DCA) consiste en une division pendant laquelle des déterminants cellulaires sont distribués préférentiellement dans une des deux cellules filles. Par l’action de ces déterminants, la DCA générera donc deux cellules filles différentes. Ainsi, la DCA est importante pour générer la diversité cellulaire et pour maintenir l’homéostasie de certaines cellules souches. Pour induire une répartition asymétrique des déterminants cellulaires, le positionnement du fuseau mitotique doit être très bien contrôlé. Fréquemment ceci génère deux cellules filles de tailles différentes, car le fuseau mitotique n’est pas centré pendant la mitose, ce qui induit un positionnement asymétrique du sillon de clivage. Bien qu’un complexe impliquant des GTPases hétérotrimériques et des protéines liant les microtubules au cortex ait été impliqué directement dans le positionnement du fuseau mitotique, le mécanisme exact induisant le positionnement asymétrique du fuseau durant la DCA n'est pas encore compris. Des études récentes suggèrent qu’une régulation asymétrique du cytosquelette d’actine pourrait être responsable de ce positionnement asymétrique du faisceau mitotique. Donc...

‣ Pole Age Affects Cell Size and the Timing of Cell Division in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1▿†

Bergmiller, Tobias; Ackermann, Martin
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /10/2011 Português
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A number of recent experiments at the single-cell level have shown that genetically identical bacteria that live in homogeneous environments often show a substantial degree of phenotypic variation between cells. Often, this variation is attributed to stochastic aspects of biology—the fact that many biological processes involve small numbers of molecules and are thus inherently variable. However, not all variation between cells needs to be stochastic in nature; one deterministic process that could be important for cell variability in some bacterial species is the age of the cell poles. Working with the alphaproteobacterium Methylobacterium extorquens, we monitored individuals in clonally growing populations over several divisions and determined the pole age, cell size, and interdivision intervals of individual cells. We observed the high levels of variation in cell size and the timing of cell division that have been reported before. A substantial fraction of this variation could be explained by each cell's pole age and the pole age of its mother: cell size increased with increasing pole age, and the interval between cell divisions decreased. A theoretical model predicted that populations governed by such processes will quickly reach a stable distribution of different age and size classes. These results show that the pole age distribution in bacterial populations can contribute substantially to cellular individuality. In addition...

‣ Index-sorting resolves heterogeneous murine hematopoietic stem cell populations

Schulte, Reiner; Wilson, Nicola K.; Prick, Janine C. M.; Cossetti, Chiara; Maj, Michael K.; Gottgens, Berthold; Kent, David G.
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Article; published version
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This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version will be available from Elsevier at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exphem.2015.05.006.; Recent advances in the cellular and molecular biology of single stem cells have uncovered significant heterogeneity in the functional properties of stem cell populations. This has prompted the development of approaches to study single cells in isolation often performed using multi-parameter flow cytometry. However, many stem cell populations are too rare to test all possible cell surface marker combinations, and virtually nothing is known about functional differences associated with varying intensities of such markers. Here we describe the use of index sorting for further resolving the flow cytometric isolation of single murine hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Specifically, we associate single cell functional assay outcomes with distinct cell surface marker expression intensities. High levels of both CD150 and EPCR associate with delayed kinetics of cell division and low levels of differentiation. Moreover, cells that do not form single HSC-derived clones appear in the 7AADdim fraction, suggesting that even low levels of 7AAD staining are indicative of less healthy cell populations. These data show that...

‣ The Roles of Rap1 in Cancer Metastasis and Pancreatic Islet Beta Cell Function

Bailey, Candice Lee
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: 2310233 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Signaling from the G protein, Rap1 is involved in several fundamental biological processes. Yet the mechanism or even consequence of Rap1 signaling in several biologies and diseases is still unclear. Rap1 has been implicated in cancer tumorigenesis, but its role in cancer invasion and metastasis is less understood. Rap1 signals to pathways involved in cell adhesion, migration, and survival, suggesting that Rap1 may promote several processes associated with metastasis. Recent studies in another biological system have demonstrated that the Rap activator proteins, Epac, are important regulators of pancreatic β-cell insulin secretion. However, the role of Rap1 in β-cell biology has not yet been defined. Here we established roles for Rap1 in distinct signaling events and begin to answer some of the key questions about Rap1 function in two diverse biologies: cancer metastasis and pancreatic islet β-cell function.

Elucidating the mechanisms of prostate and breast cancer survival and metastasis are critical to the discovery of novel therapeutic targets. Examination of prostate cancer cell lines revealed cells with a high metastatic ability exhibited increased Rap1 activity and reduced expression of the negative regulator...

‣ Complex Systems Analysis of Arrested Neural Cell Differentiation during Development and Analogous Cell Cycling Models in Carcinogenesis

I C. Baianu; V. I. Prisecaru
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
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A new approach to the modular, complex systems analysis of nonlinear dynamics of arrested neural cell Differentiation--induced cell proliferation during organismic development and the analogous cell cycling network transformations involved in carcinogenesis is proposed. Neural tissue arrested differentiation that induces cell proliferation during perturbed development and Carcinogenesis are complex processes that involve dynamically inter-connected biomolecules in the intercellular, membrane, cytosolic, nuclear and nucleolar compartments. Such 'dynamically inter-connected' biomolecules form numerous inter-related pathways referred to as 'molecular networks'. One such family of signaling pathways contains the cell cyclins. Cyclins are proteins that link several critical pro-apoptotic and other cell cycling/division components, including the tumor suppressor gene TP53 and its product, the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (T antigen), Rb, mdm2, c-Myc, p21, p27, Bax, Bad and Bcl-2, which play major roles in various neoplastic transformations of many tissues. The novel theoretical analysis presented here is based on recently published studies of arrested cell differentiation that normally leads to neural system formation during early developmental stages; the perturbed development may involve cyclin signaling and cell cycling responsible for rapidly induced cell proliferation without differentiation into neural cells in such experimental studies.

‣ Complex Systems Analysis of Arrested Neural Cell Differentiation during Development and Analogous Cell Cycling Models in Carcinogenesis

V. I. Prisecaru; I C. Baianu
Fonte: Nature Preceedings Publicador: Nature Preceedings
Tipo: Manuscript
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A new approach to the modular, complex systems analysis of nonlinear dynamics of arrested neural cell Differentiation--induced cell proliferation during organismic development and the analogous cell cycling network transformations involved in carcinogenesis is proposed. Neural tissue arrested differentiation that induces cell proliferation during perturbed development and Carcinogenesis are complex processes that involve dynamically inter-connected biomolecules in the intercellular, membrane, cytosolic, nuclear and nucleolar compartments. Such 'dynamically inter-connected' biomolecules form numerous inter-related pathways referred to as 'molecular networks'. One such family of signaling pathways contains the cell cyclins. Cyclins are proteins that link several critical pro-apoptotic and other cell cycling/division components, including the tumor suppressor gene TP53 and its product, the Thomsen-Friedenreich antigen (T antigen), Rb, mdm2, c-Myc, p21, p27, Bax, Bad and Bcl-2, which play major roles in various neoplastic transformations of many tissues. The novel theoretical analysis presented here is based on recently published studies of arrested cell differentiation that normally leads to neural system formation during early developmental stages; the perturbed development may involve cyclin signaling and cell cycling responsible for rapidly induced cell proliferation without differentiation into neural cells in such experimental studies.