Página 24 dos resultados de 6914 itens digitais encontrados em 0.016 segundos

‣ Assembly of complete, functionally active herpes simplex virus DNA replication compartments and recruitment of associated viral and cellular proteins in transient cotransfection assays.

Zhong, L; Hayward, G S
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/1997 Português
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Early during the herpes simplex virus (HSV) lytic cycle or in the presence of DNA synthesis inhibitors, core viral replication machinery proteins accumulate in intranuclear speckled punctate prereplicative foci, some of which colocalize with numerous sites of host cellular DNA synthesis initiation known as replisomes. At later times, in the absence of inhibitors, several globular or large irregularly shaped replication compartments are formed; these compartments also contain progeny viral DNA and incorporate the IE175(ICP4) transcription factor together with several cellular proteins involved in DNA replication and repair. In this study, we demonstrate that several forms of both prereplication foci and active viral replication compartments that display an appearance similar to that of the compartments in HSV-infected cells can be successfully assembled in transient assays in DNA-transfected cells receiving genes encoding all seven essential HSV replication fork proteins together with oriS target plasmid DNA. Furthermore, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-pulse-labeled DNA synthesis initiation sites colocalized with the HSV single-stranded DNA-binding protein (SSB) in these replication compartments, implying that active viral DNA replication may be occurring. The assembly of complete HSV replication compartments and incorporation of BrdU were both abolished by treatment with phosphonoacetic acid (PAA) and by omission of any one of the seven viral replication proteins...

‣ Spatial and temporal pattern of expression of the cellular retinoic acid-binding protein and the cellular retinol-binding protein during mouse embryogenesis.

Perez-Castro, A V; Toth-Rogler, L E; Wei, L N; Nguyen-Huu, M C
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/1989 Português
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Retinol (vitamin A) and retinoic acid are potent teratogens and also represent good candidates for normal morphogens during development. Their actions may be mediated by the cellular retinoic acid-binding protein (CRABP) and the cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP). As a step towards understanding the possible function for CRABP and CRBP in morphogenesis, we have used in situ hybridization to analyze their expression during mouse development. Both CRABP and CRBP transcripts were detected at embryonic days 9.5-14.5. (i) In the nervous system, CRABP transcripts were found in the mantle layer of the dorsal spinal cord and hindbrain and in the marginal layer of the midbrain, whereas CRBP transcripts were found in the ependymal and mantle layer of the ventral spinal cord and of the forebrain as well as in the spinal nerves and the roof plate of the spinal cord. (ii) In the eye, CRABP is expressed in the retinal layer, and CRBP is expressed in both retinal and pigmented layers. (iii) In the craniofacial region, CRABP transcripts were found in the mesenchyme of the frontonasal mass and mandible, while CRBP transcripts were found in the mesenchyme of the nasolachrymal duct and surrounding the auditory vesicle. Two general conclusions can be made. First...

‣ The Chromatin-Remodeling BAF Complex Mediates Cellular Antiviral Activities by Promoter Priming

Cui, Kairong; Tailor, Prafullakumar; Liu, Hong; Chen, Xin; Ozato, Keiko; Zhao, Keji
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2004 Português
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The elicitation of cellular antiviral activities is dependent on the rapid transcriptional activation of interferon (IFN) target genes. It is not clear how the interferon target promoters, which are organized into chromatin structures in cells, rapidly respond to interferon or viral stimulation. In this report, we show that alpha IFN (IFN-α) treatment of HeLa cells induced hundreds of genes. The induction of the majority of these genes was inhibited when one critical subunit of the chromatin-remodeling SWI/SNF-like BAF complexes, BAF47, was knocked down via RNA interference. Inhibition of BAF47 blocked the cellular response to viral infection and impaired cellular antiviral activity by inhibiting many IFN- and virus-inducible genes. We show that the BAF complex was required to mediate both the basal-level expression and the rapid induction of the antiviral genes. Further analyses indicated that the BAF complex primed some IFN target promoters by utilizing ATP-derived energy to maintain the chromatin in a constitutively open conformation, allowing faster and more potent induction after IFN-α treatment. We propose that constitutive binding of the BAF complex is an important mechanism for the IFN-inducible promoters to respond rapidly to IFN and virus stimulation.

‣ Toward visualization of nanomachines in their native cellular environment

Pierson, Jason; Sani, Musa; Tomova, Cveta; Godsave, Susan; Peters, Peter J.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The cellular nanocosm is made up of numerous types of macromolecular complexes or biological nanomachines. These form functional modules that are organized into complex subcellular networks. Information on the ultra-structure of these nanomachines has mainly been obtained by analyzing isolated structures, using imaging techniques such as X-ray crystallography, NMR, or single particle electron microscopy (EM). Yet there is a strong need to image biological complexes in a native state and within a cellular environment, in order to gain a better understanding of their functions. Emerging methods in EM are now making this goal reachable. Cryo-electron tomography bypasses the need for conventional fixatives, dehydration and stains, so that a close-to-native environment is retained. As this technique is approaching macromolecular resolution, it is possible to create maps of individual macromolecular complexes. X-ray and NMR data can be ‘docked’ or fitted into the lower resolution particle density maps to create a macromolecular atlas of the cell under normal and pathological conditions. The majority of cells, however, are too thick to be imaged in an intact state and therefore methods such as ‘high pressure freezing’ with ‘freeze-substitution followed by room temperature plastic sectioning’ or ‘cryo-sectioning of unperturbed vitreous fully hydrated samples’ have been introduced for electron tomography. Here...

‣ Structure, Affinity, and Availability of Estrogen Receptor Complexes in the Cellular Environment*

Kofoed, Eric M.; Guerbadot, Martin; Schaufele, Fred
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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An ability to measure the biochemical parameters and structures of protein complexes at defined locations within the cellular environment would improve our understanding of cellular function. We describe widely applicable, calibrated Förster resonance energy transfer methods that quantify structural and biochemical parameters for interaction of the human estrogen receptor α-isoform (ERα) with the receptor interacting domains (RIDs) of three cofactors (SRC1, SRC2, SRC3) in living cells. The interactions of ERα with all three SRC-RIDs, measured throughout the cell nucleus, transitioned from structurally similar, high affinity complexes containing two ERαs at low free SRC-RID concentrations (<2 nm) to lower affinity complexes with an ERα monomer at higher SRC-RID concentrations (∼10 nm). The methods also showed that only a subpopulation of ERα was available to form complexes with the SRC-RIDs in the cell. These methods represent a template for extracting unprecedented details of the biochemistry and structure of any complex that is capable of being measured by Förster resonance energy transfer in the cellular environment.

‣ Tubulohelical membrane arrays: From the initial observation to the elucidation of nanophysical properties and cellular function

Reipert, Siegfried; Wesierska-Gadek, Józefa; Wienerroither, Sebastian
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/06/2010 Português
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Lipids undergo self-assembly to form ordered nonlamellar, nanoperiodic arrays both in vitro and in vivo. While engineering of such membrane arrays for technical devices is envisaged, we know little about their cellular function. Do they represent building blocks of an inherent cellular nanotechnology? Prospects for answering this question could be improved if the nanophysical properties of the membrane arrays could be studied in the context of specific cellular functions. Therefore, we draw attention to exceptional complex membrane arrays found in the renal epithelial cell line PtK2 that could provide perfect conditions for both biophysical and cell functional studies. The so-called tubulohelical membrane arrays (TUHMAs) combine nanoperiodicity of lipid membranes with that of helix-like proteinaceous core structures. Strikingly, they show several characteristics of dynamic, microtubule-associated single organelles. Our initial data indicate that TUHMA formation occurs in the depth of the cytoplasm under participation of cytoplasmic nucleoporins. Once matured, they may fuse with the nuclear membrane in polarized positions, either perpendicularly or in parallel to the nucleus. As a starting point for the initiation of functional studies we found a connection between TUHMAs and primary cilia...

‣ Dengue virus nonstructural protein 3 redistributes fatty acid synthase to sites of viral replication and increases cellular fatty acid synthesis

Heaton, Nicholas S.; Perera, Rushika; Berger, Kristi L.; Khadka, Sudip; LaCount, Douglas J.; Kuhn, Richard J.; Randall, Glenn
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Dengue virus (DENV) modifies cellular membranes to establish its sites of replication. Although the 3D architecture of these structures has recently been described, little is known about the cellular pathways required for their formation and expansion. In this report, we examine the host requirements for DENV replication using a focused RNAi analysis combined with validation studies using pharmacological inhibitors. This approach identified three cellular pathways required for DENV replication: autophagy, actin polymerization, and fatty acid biosynthesis. Further characterization of the viral modulation of fatty acid biosynthesis revealed that a key enzyme in this pathway, fatty acid synthase (FASN), is relocalized to sites of DENV replication. DENV nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) is responsible for FASN recruitment, inasmuch as (i) NS3 expressed in the absence of other viral proteins colocalizes with FASN and (ii) NS3 interacts with FASN in a two-hybrid assay. There is an associated increase in the rate of fatty acid biosynthesis in DENV-infected cells, and de novo synthesized lipids preferentially cofractionate with DENV RNA. Finally, purified recombinant NS3 stimulates the activity of FASN in vitro. Taken together, these experiments suggest that DENV co-opts the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway to establish its replication complexes. This study provides mechanistic insight into DENV membrane remodeling and highlights the potential for the development of therapeutics that inhibit DENV replication by targeting the fatty acid biosynthetic pathway.

‣ Nanotopographical modification: a regulator of cellular function through focal adhesions

Biggs, Manus Jonathan Paul; Richards, R. Geoff; Dalby, Matthew J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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As materials technology and the field of biomedical engineering advances, the role of cellular mechanisms, in particular adhesive interactions with implantable devices, becomes more relevant in both research and clinical practice. A key tenet of medical device design has evolved from the exquisite ability of biological systems to respond to topographical features or chemical stimuli, a process that has led to the development of next-generation biomaterials for a wide variety of clinical disorders. In vitro studies have identified nanoscale features as potent modulators of cellular behavior through the onset of focal adhesion formation. The focus of this review is on the recent developments concerning the role of nanoscale structures on integrin-mediated adhesion and cellular function with an emphasis on the generation of medical constructs with regenerative applications.

‣ Two-photon excited autofluorescence imaging of freshly isolated frog retinas

Lu, Rong-Wen; Li, Yi-Chao; Ye, Tong; Strang, Christianne; Keyser, Kent; Curcio, Christine A.; Yao, Xin-Cheng
Fonte: Optical Society of America Publicador: Optical Society of America
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 11/05/2011 Português
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The purpose of this study was to investigate cellular sources of autofluorescence signals in freshly isolated frog (Rana pipiens) retinas. Equipped with an ultrafast laser, a laser scanning two-photon excitation fluorescence microscope was employed for sub-cellular resolution examination of both sliced and flat-mounted retinas. Two-photon imaging of retinal slices revealed autofluorescence signals over multiple functional layers, including the photoreceptor layer (PRL), outer nuclear layer (ONL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), and ganglion cell layer (GCL). Using flat-mounted retinas, depth-resolved imaging of individual retinal layers further confirmed multiple sources of autofluorescence signals. Cellular structures were clearly observed at the PRL, ONL, INL, and GCL. At the PRL, the autofluorescence was dominantly recorded from the intracellular compartment of the photoreceptors; while mixed intracellular and extracellular autofluorescence signals were observed at the ONL, INL, and GCL. High resolution autofluorescence imaging clearly revealed mosaic organization of rod and cone photoreceptors; and sub-cellular bright autofluorescence spots, which might relate to connecting cilium...

‣ Cellular consequences of stress and depression

Fuchs, Eberhard; Flügge, Gabriele
Fonte: Les Laboratoires Servier Publicador: Les Laboratoires Servier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2004 Português
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Stress is known to activate distinct neuronal circuits in the brain and induce multiple changes on the cellular level, including alterations in neuronal structures. On the basis of clinical observations that stress often precipitates a depressive disease, chronic psychosocial stress serves as an experimental model to evaluate the cellular and molecular alterations associated with the consequences of major depression. Antidepressants are presently believed to exert their primary biochemical effects by readjusting aberrant intrasynaptic concentrations of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin or noradrenaline, suggesting that imbalances viihin the monoaminergic systems contribute to the disorder (monoaminergic hypothesis of depression). Here, we reviev the results that comprise our understanding of stressful experience on cellular processes, with particular focus on the monoaminergic systems and structural changes within brain target areas of monoaminergic neurons.

‣ Intracellular Localization and Cellular Factors Interaction of HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 Tax Proteins: Similarities and Functional Differences

Bertazzoni, Umberto; Turci, Marco; Avesani, Francesca; Di Gennaro, Gianfranco; Bidoia, Carlo; Romanelli, Maria Grazia
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/05/2011 Português
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Human T-lymphotropic viruses type 1 (HTLV-1) and type 2 (HTLV-2) present very similar genomic structures but HTLV-1 is more pathogenic than HTLV-2. Is this difference due to their transactivating Tax proteins, Tax-1 and Tax-2, which are responsible for viral and cellular gene activation? Do Tax-1 and Tax-2 differ in their cellular localization and in their interaction pattern with cellular factors? In this review, we summarize Tax-1 and Tax-2 structural and phenotypic properties, their interaction with factors involved in signal transduction and their localization-related behavior within the cell. Special attention will be given to the distinctions between Tax-1 and Tax-2 that likely play an important role in their transactivation activity.

‣ Origins of cellular geometry

Marshall, Wallace F
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/08/2011 Português
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Cells are highly complex and orderly machines, with defined shapes and a startling variety of internal organizations. Complex geometry is a feature of both free-living unicellular organisms and cells inside multicellular animals. Where does the geometry of a cell come from? Many of the same questions that arise in developmental biology can also be asked of cells, but in most cases we do not know the answers. How much of cellular organization is dictated by global cell polarity cues as opposed to local interactions between cellular components? Does cellular structure persist across cell generations? What is the relationship between cell geometry and tissue organization? What ensures that intracellular structures are scaled to the overall size of the cell? Cell biology is only now beginning to come to grips with these questions.

‣ Cellular senescence: a link between cancer and age-related degenerative disease?

Campisi, Judith; Andersen, Julie; Kapahi, Pankaj; Melov, Simon
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cellular senescence is an established cellular stress response that acts primarily to prevent the proliferation of cells that experience potentially oncogenic stress. In recent years, it has become increasingly apparent that the senescence response is a complex phenotype, which has a variety of cell non-autonomous effects. The senescence-associated secretory phenotype, or SASP, entails the secretion of numerous cytokines, growth factors and proteases. The SASP can have beneficial or detrimental effects, depending on the physiological context. One recently described beneficial effect is to aid tissue repair. Among the detrimental effects, the SASP can disrupt normal tissue structures and function, and, ironically, can promote malignant phenotypes in nearby cells. These detrimental effects in many ways recapitulate the degenerative and hyperplastic pathologies that develop during aging. Because the SASP is largely a response to genomic or epigenomic damage, we suggest it may be a model for a cellular damage response that can propagate damage signals both within and among tissues. We propose that both the degenerative and hyperplastic diseases of aging may be fueled by such damage signals.

‣ Searching for Cellular Partners of Hantaviral Nonstructural Protein NSs: Y2H Screening of Mouse cDNA Library and Analysis of Cellular Interactome

Rönnberg, Tuomas; Jääskeläinen, Kirsi; Blot, Guillaume; Parviainen, Ville; Vaheri, Antti; Renkonen, Risto; Bouloy, Michele; Plyusnin, Alexander
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/04/2012 Português
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Hantaviruses (Bunyaviridae) are negative-strand RNA viruses with a tripartite genome. The small (S) segment encodes the nucleocapsid protein and, in some hantaviruses, also the nonstructural protein (NSs). The aim of this study was to find potential cellular partners for the hantaviral NSs protein. Toward this aim, yeast two-hybrid (Y2H) screening of mouse cDNA library was performed followed by a search for potential NSs protein counterparts via analyzing a cellular interactome. The resulting interaction network was shown to form logical, clustered structures. Furthermore, several potential binding partners for the NSs protein, for instance ACBD3, were identified and, to prove the principle, interaction between NSs and ACBD3 proteins was demonstrated biochemically.

‣ Cellular solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

Renault, Marie; Tommassen-van Boxtel, Ria; Bos, Martine P.; Post, Jan Andries; Tommassen, Jan; Baldus, Marc
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Decrypting the structure, function, and molecular interactions of complex molecular machines in their cellular context and at atomic resolution is of prime importance for understanding fundamental physiological processes. Nuclear magnetic resonance is a well-established imaging method that can visualize cellular entities at the micrometer scale and can be used to obtain 3D atomic structures under in vitro conditions. Here, we introduce a solid-state NMR approach that provides atomic level insights into cell-associated molecular components. By combining dedicated protein production and labeling schemes with tailored solid-state NMR pulse methods, we obtained structural information of a recombinant integral membrane protein and the major endogenous molecular components in a bacterial environment. Our approach permits studying entire cellular compartments as well as cell-associated proteins at the same time and at atomic resolution.

‣ Synthetically-encoded ultrashort-channel nanowire transistors for fast, point-like cellular signal detection

Cohen-Karni, Tzahi; Casanova, Didier; Cahoon, James F.; Qing, Quan; Bell, David C.; Lieber, Charles M.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Nanostructures, which have sizes comparable to biological functional units involved in cellular communication, offer the potential for enhanced sensitivity and spatial resolution compared to planar metal and semiconductor structures. Silicon nanowire (SiNW) field-effect transistors (FETs) have been used as a platform for biomolecular sensors, which maintain excellent signal-to-noise ratios while operating on lengths scales that enable efficient extra- and intra-cellular integration with living cells. Although the NWs are tens of nanometers in diameter, the active region of the NW FET devices typically spans microns, limiting both the length and time scales of detection achievable with these nanodevices. Here, we report a new synthetic method that combines gold-nanocluster catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) and vapor-solid-solid (VSS) NW growth modes to produce synthetically encoded NW devices with ultrasharp (<5 nm) n-type highly-doped (n++) to lightly-doped (n) transitions along the NW growth direction, where n++ regions serve as source/drain (S/D) electrodes and the n-region functions as an active FET channel. Using this method, we synthesized short-channel n++/n/n++ SiNW FET devices with independently controllable diameters and channel lengths. SiNW devices with channel lengths of 50...

‣ High-throughput study of alpha-synuclein expression in yeast using microfluidics for control of local cellular microenvironment

Rosa, Patrícia; Tenreiro, Sandra; Chu, Virginia; Outeiro, Tiago F.; Conde, João Pedro
Fonte: American Institute of Physics Publicador: American Institute of Physics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 09/02/2012 Português
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Microfluidics is an emerging technology which allows the miniaturization, integration, and automation of fluid handling processes. Microfluidic systems offer low sample consumption, significantly reduced processing time, and the prospect of massive parallelization. A microfluidic platform was developed for the control of the soluble cellular microenvironment of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells, which enabled high-throughput monitoring of the controlled expression of alpha-synuclein (aSyn), a protein involved in Parkinson’s disease. Y-shaped structures were fabricated using particle desorption mass spectrometry-based soft-lithography techniques to generate biomolecular gradients along a microchannel. Cell traps integrated along the microchannel allowed the positioning and monitoring of cells in precise locations, where different, well-controlled chemical environments were established. S. cerevisiae cells genetically engineered to encode the fusion protein aSyn-GFP (green fluorescent protein) under the control of GAL1, a galactose inducible promoter, were loaded in the microfluidic structure. A galactose concentration gradient was established in the channel and a time-dependent aSyn-GFP expression was obtained as a function of the positioning of cells along the galactose gradient. Our results demonstrate the applicability of this microfluidic platform to the spatiotemporal control of cellular microenvironment and open a range of possibilities for the study of cellular processes based on single-cell analysis.

‣ Positron Emission Tomography—Computer Tomography Scan Used as a Monitoring Tool Following Cellular Therapy in Cerebral Palsy and Mental Retardation—A Case Report

Sharma, Alok; Sane, Hemangi; Paranjape, Amruta; Gokulchandran, Nandini; Kulkarni, Pooja; Nagrajan, Anjana; Badhe, Prerna
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the non-progressive neurological diseases caused by damage to the brain tissue at birth, which leads to physical, cognitive and perceptive symptoms. Even after lifelong medical and therapeutic management there are residual deficits which affect the quality of life of the patients and their families. We examined a maximally rehabilitated, 20 year old male suffering from CP and Mental Retardation (MR). He had diplegic gait and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) score of 44 with affected fine motor activities, balance, speech and higher functions. Positron Emission Tomography—Computer Tomography (PET-CT) scan identified frontal, temporal, parietal, occipital, left cerebellar lobes, amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampus as the affected areas. He was treated with cellular therapy of Autologous Bone Marrow Derived Mono-Nuclear Cells (MNCs) transplantation followed by multidisciplinary rehabilitation. Six months following therapy, PET-CT scan showed significant increase in metabolic activity in all four lobes, mesial temporal structures and left cerebellar hemisphere, also supported by clinical improvement in IQ, social behavior, speech, balance and daily functioning. These findings provide preliminary evidence to support the efficacy of cellular therapy for the treatment of CP with MR. PET-CT scan can also be viewed as an impressive tool to monitor the effects of cellular therapy.

‣ Primary Cilia and Dendritic Spines: Different but Similar Signaling Compartments

Nechipurenko, Inna V.; Doroquez, David B.; Sengupta, Piali
Fonte: Korea Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology Publicador: Korea Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Primary non-motile cilia and dendritic spines are cellular compartments that are specialized to sense and transduce environmental cues and presynaptic signals, respectively. Despite their unique cellular roles, both compartments exhibit remarkable parallels in the general principles, as well as molecular mechanisms, by which their protein composition, membrane domain architecture, cellular interactions, and structural and functional plasticity are regulated. We compare and contrast the pathways required for the generation and function of cilia and dendritic spines, and suggest that insights from the study of one may inform investigations into the other of these critically important signaling structures.

‣ The cellular distribution of extracellular superoxide dismutase in macrophages is altered by cellular activation but unaffected by the naturally occurring R213G substitution

Gottfredsen, Randi H.; Goldstrohm, David A.; Hartney, John M.; Larsen, Ulrike G.; Bowler, Russell P.; Petersen, Steen V.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) is responsible for the dismutation of the superoxide radical produced in the extracellular space and known to be expressed by inflammatory cells, including macrophages and neutrophils. Here we show that EC-SOD is produced by resting macrophages and associated with the cell surface via the extracellular matrix (ECM)-binding region. Upon cellular activation induced by lipopolysaccharide, EC-SOD is relocated and detected both in the cell culture medium and in lipid raft structures. Although the secreted material presented a significantly reduced ligand-binding capacity, this could not be correlated to proteolytic removal of the ECM-binding region, because the integrity of the material recovered from the medium was comparable to that of the cell surface-associated protein. The naturally occurring R213G amino acid substitution located in the ECM-binding region of EC-SOD is known to affect the binding characteristics of the protein. However, the analysis of macrophages expressing R213G EC-SOD did not present evidence of an altered cellular distribution. Our results suggest that EC-SOD plays a dynamic role in the inflammatory response mounted by activated macrophages.