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‣ Knockdown of ASIC1 and Epithelial Sodium Channel Subunits Inhibits Glioblastoma Whole Cell Current and Cell Migration*

Kapoor, Niren; Bartoszewski, Rafal; Qadri, Yawar J.; Bebok, Zsuzsanna; Bubien, James K.; Fuller, Catherine M.; Benos, Dale J.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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High grade gliomas such as glioblastoma multiforme express multiple members of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)/Degenerin family, characteristically displaying a basally active amiloride-sensitive cation current not seen in normal human astrocytes or lower grade gliomas. Using quantitative real time PCR, we have shown higher expression of ASIC1, αENaC, and γENaC in D54-MG human glioblastoma multiforme cells compared with primary human astrocytes. We hypothesize that this glioma current is mediated by a hybrid channel composed of a mixture of ENaC and acid-sensing ion channel (ASIC) subunits. To test this hypothesis we made dominant negative cDNAs for ASIC1, αENaC, γENaC, and δENaC. D54-MG cells transfected with the dominant negative constructs for ASIC1, αENaC, or γENaC showed reduced protein expression and a significant reduction in the amiloride-sensitive whole cell current as compared with untransfected D54-MG cells. Knocking down αENaC or γENaC also abolished the high PK+/PNa+ of D54-MG cells. Knocking down δENaC in D54-MG cells reduced δENaC protein expression but had no effect on either the whole cell current or K+ permeability. Using co-immunoprecipitation we show interactions between ASIC1, αENaC, and γENaC...

‣ Gene Related to Anergy in Lymphocytes (GRAIL) Expression in CD4+ T Cells Impairs Actin Cytoskeletal Organization during T Cell/Antigen-presenting Cell Interactions*

Schartner, Jill M.; Simonson, William T.; Wernimont, Sarah A.; Nettenstrom, Lauren M.; Huttenlocher, Anna; Seroogy, Christine M.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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GRAIL (gene related to anergy in lymphocytes), is an E3 ubiquitin ligase with increased expression in anergic CD4+ T cells. The expression of GRAIL has been shown to be both necessary and sufficient for the induction of T cell (T) anergy. To date, several subsets of anergic T cells have demonstrated altered interactions with antigen-presenting cells (APC) and perturbed TCR-mediated signaling. The role of GRAIL in mediating these aspects of T cell anergy remains unclear. We used flow cytometry and confocal microscopy to examine T/APC interactions in GRAIL-expressing T cells. Increased GRAIL expression resulted in reduced T/APC conjugation efficiency as assessed by flow cytometry. Examination of single T/APC conjugates by confocal microscopy revealed altered polarization of polymerized actin and LFA-1 to the T/APC interface. When GRAIL expression was knocked down, actin polarization to the T/APC interface was restored, demonstrating that GRAIL is necessary for alteration of actin cytoskeletal rearrangement under anergizing conditions. Interestingly, proximal TCR signaling including calcium flux and phosphorylation of Vav were not disrupted by expression of GRAIL in CD4+ T cells. In contrast, interrogation of distal signaling events demonstrated significantly decreased JNK phosphorylation in GRAIL-expressing T cells. In sum...

‣ Multi-step loading of human minichromosome maintenance proteins in live human cells; Running title: Maximal loading of MCM2/4 in late G1

Symeonidou, Ioanna Eleni; Kotsantis, Panagiotis; Roukos, Vassilis; Rapsomaniki, Maria Anna; Grecco, Hernan Edgardo; Bastiaens, Philippe; Taraviras, Stavros; Lygerou, Zoi
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:ar-repo/semantics/artículo; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
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Once-per-cell cycle replication is regulated through the assembly onto chromatin of multisubunit protein complexes that license DNA for a further round of replication. Licensing consists of the loading of the hexameric MCM2-7 complex onto chromatin during G1 phase and is dependent on the licensing factor Cdt1. In vitro experiments have suggested a two-step binding mode for minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins, with transient initial interactions converted to stable chromatin loading. Here, we assess MCM loading in live human cells using an in vivo licensing assay on the basis of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching of GFP-tagged MCM protein subunits through the cell cycle. We show that, in telophase, MCM2 and MCM4 maintain transient interactions with chromatin, exhibiting kinetics similar to Cdt1. These are converted to stable interactions from early G1 phase. The immobile fraction of MCM2 and MCM4 increases during G1 phase, suggestive of reiterative licensing. In late G1 phase, a large fraction of MCM proteins are loaded onto chromatin, with maximal licensing observed just prior to S phase onset. Fluorescence loss in photobleaching experiments show subnuclear concentrations of MCM-chromatin interactions that differ as G1 phase progresses and do not colocalize with sites of DNA synthesis in S phase.; Fil: Symeonidou...