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‣ The defensive functions of plant inhibitors are not restricted to insect enzyme inhibition

SUMIKAWA, Joana Tomomi; BRITO, Marlon Vilela de; MACEDO, Maria Ligia Rodrigues; UCHOA, Adriana F.; MIRANDA, Antonio; ARAUJO, Ana Paula Ulian de; SILVA-LUCCA, Rosemeire A.; SAMPAIO, Misako Uemura; OLIVA, Maria Luiza Vilela
Fonte: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD Publicador: PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Three plant proteinase inhibitors BbKI (kallikrein inhibitor) and BbCI (cruzipain inhibitor) from Bauhinia bouhinioides, and a BrTI (trypsin inhibitor) from B. rufa, were examined for other effects in Callosobruchus maculatus development; of these only BrTI affected bruchid emergence. BrTI and BbKI share 81% identities in their primary sequences and the major differences between them are the regions comprising the RGD and RGE motifs in BrTI. These sequences were shown to be essential for BrTI insecticidal activity, since a modified BbKI [that is a recombinant form (BbKIm) with some amino acid residues replaced by those found in BrTI sequence] also strongly inhibited insect development. By using synthetic peptides related to the BrTI sequence, YLEAPVARGDGGLA-NH(2) (RGE) and IVYYPDRGETGL-NH(2) (RGE), it was found that the peptide with an RGE sequence was able to block normal development of C. maculatus larvae (ED(50) 0.16% and LD(50) 0.09%), this being even more effective than the native protein. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.; CAPES; Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES); Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq); CNPq; Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP); FAPESP; FAP/FADA (UNIFESP); FAP/FADA (UNIFESP)

‣ Inibidores de proteinase do tipo Bowman-Birk: evolução molecular, expressão na superfície de fagos filamentosos e seu papel na interação planta-inseto.; Bowman-birk proteinase inhibitors: molecular evolution, phage-display and its role on plant-insect interactions.

José, Márcia Ometto de Mello Alves
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 27/11/2002 Português
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Os inibidores inibidores de serino proteinases do tipo Bowman-Birk (BBI) possuem dois sítios ativos e são encontrados em plantas das famílias Fabaceae e Poaceae. Neste trabalho foi apresentada a estrutura primária e o padrão de expressão de 14 seqüências expressas (EST, expressed sequence tags) de BBI putativos encontradas no banco de dados do "Projeto Transcriptoma da Cana-de-açúcar" (SUCEST). Estas quatorze seqüências foram utilizadas em conjunto com outras 87 seqüências de BBI previamente descritas e depositadas no banco de dados "GenBank" para a construção de árvores filogenéticas da família BBI. A análise filogenética mostrou que os BBI de monocotiledôneas e dicotiledôneas podem ser claramente separados em diferentes grupos e a topologia das árvores filogenéticas sugere um padrão evolutivo diferente das famílias de BBI em plantas. Os inibidores de dicotiledôneas são bem conservados e acumularam diferenças sutis durante a evolução. Em contrapartida, os inibidores de monocotiledôneas são altamente variáveis, indicando a ocorrência de um processo evolutivo interessante, baseado em eventos de duplicação intragênica e mutação. Dois inibidores de serino proteinases, um de tripsina e outro de quimotripsina...

‣ Estudo da atividade respiratória de linhagens selvagens e transfectadas de células de insetos através de cultivos em biorreatores.; Study of breathing activity of wild and transfected line of insect cells through cultivations in bioreactors.

Pamboukian, Marilena Martins
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 06/07/2007 Português
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A velocidade específica de respiração (QO2) é um parâmetro fundamental para entender-se o metabolismo e o estado fisiológico celular, fornecendo informações úteis para o processo e controle em biorreatores. Neste trabalho, cultivou-se diferentes células de insetos em ambiente controlado medindo-se o QO2 e concentração crítica de oxigênio (Ccrít). Foram utilizadas nos ensaios células de insetos Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) não infectadas e células de Drosophila melanogaster (S2) selvagem e recombinantes, utilizadas na expressão de diferentes proteínas. Todas as experiências foram realizadas em biorreator Inceltech com volume de trabalho de 1L, mantido a temperatura de 28ºC, agitação de 100 rpm e oxigênio dissolvido (OD) a 40% da saturação de ar, com difusão por membrana de silicone com mistura gasosa (O2 e N2) e vazão gasosa constante. Foi utilizado meio de cultura Sf900II sem soro fetal bovino. O QO2 foi medido pelo método dinâmico e pelo balanço de oxigênio na fase líquida. Neste trabalho foi implementado um novo processo durante o método dinâmico para interromper completamente a transferência gasosa durante a execução deste método. Implementou-se também uma metodologia para medição de Ccrít. Chegou-se a concentrações máximas celulares (Xm)...

‣ Efeitos da ingestão de carboidratos com reguladores de crescimento de insetos na reprodução de Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae); Effects of the ingestion of carbohydrates with insect growth regulators on the reproduction of Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)

Jordão, Alexandre Luis
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/04/2009 Português
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O presente trabalho foi subdividido em quatro capítulos com os seguintes objetivos: (i) apresentar revisão bibliográfica abordando as principais referências presentes na literatura sobre a cultura da batata, Solanum tuberosum L. (Solanaceae), os aspectos bioecológicos da traça-da- -batatinha, Phthorimaea operculella (Zeller) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), os hormônios no desenvolvimento dos lepidópteros e a atuação de alguns reguladores de crescimento de insetos (RCIs); (ii) avaliar a ingestão dos carboidratos por adultos de P. operculella e sua influência na reprodução da espécie; (iii) testar parâmetros reprodutivos devido à ingestão de alguns ingredientes ativos presentes em RCIs; (iv) avaliar a ingestão de carboidratos aplicados sobre plantas de batata de maneira a ser possível a aplicação de RCIs como método de redução populacional da praga. Inicialmente, para comprovação da ingestão dos carboidratos, foi utilizada a técnica de marcadores coloridos, em que se ofereceu, por capilaridade via rolete dental, solução de mel a 10% contendo corante líquido artificial de coloração azul anis. Os insetos foram confinados em um recipiente cilíndrico construído com tubo de PVC rígido. Após três dias de oferecimento da alimentação...

‣ Diversidade de insetos e distribuição espacial em reflorestamentos e regeneração natural; Insect diversity and spatial distribution in reforestation and natural regeneration

Ferreira, Elisângela Novais Lopes
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 07/05/2014 Português
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Nesse estudo investigou-se a composição faunística de insetos florestais, contrastando a diversidade de fragmentos de mata nativa com reflorestamento. Empregou-se ferramentas analíticas, incluindo as de natureza estatística e também descritiva, capazes de avaliar as diferenças na abundância e riqueza de espécies entre as áreas florestais. Especificamente, comparou-se índices faunísticos entre as diferentes áreas, analisou-se a similaridade das áreas com base na abundância e diversidade de insetos e avaliou-se a distribuição e sobreposição de guildas. A análise de diferentes grupos taxonômicos revelou resultados distintos em termos de abundância, diversidade e riqueza, com significativa dependência dos diferentes habitats. As ordens Hymenopetara e Coleoptera foram influenciadas pela característica da vegetação de cada área de coleta. Nas áreas de mata nativa foram encontrados os maiores valores de diversidade para Hymenoptera e essas áreas foram as que exibiram maior semelhança em relação à composição de espécies. Pinus tecunumannii foi a área com menor diversidade para o grupo. Para espécies da família Cerambycidae esse resultado se repetiu. Para espécies da família Elateridae Eucalyptus urograndis foi a área mais diversa.; In this study...

‣ Efeito letal e subletal de inseticidas reguladores de crescimento ao predador Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen, 1861) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) em condições de laboratório; Lethal and sublethal effects of insect growth regulators over the predator Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen, 1861) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) under laboratory conditions

Ono, Éric Kodi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 16/10/2014 Português
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O uso de inseticidas em um agroecossistema pode interferir na densidade e ação dos inimigos naturais e comprometer a eficácia do controle biológico dentro de um programa de manejo integrado de pragas. Dessa forma, objetivou-se avaliar, em laboratório, os efeitos letal e subletais de inseticidas reguladores de crescimento sobre larvas e adultos com até 24 h de idade do predador Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen, 1861). Para isso, larvas recém-eclodidas foram submetidas à pulverização de 2 mL de calda, do respectivo tratamento, em torre de Potter ajustada para deposição de 1,8 ± 0,1 mg cm-2. Os inseticidas e doses (g i.a. L-1) avaliados foram: piriproxifem 0,2 (Tiger 100 EC), buprofezina 0,5 (Applaud 250), tebufenozida 0,22 (Mimic 240 SC), metoxifenozida 0,75 (Intrepid 240 SC), diflubenzurom 0,12 (Micromite 240 SC), lufenurom 0,05 (Match EC). Água destilada foi utilizada como tratamento controle. A mortalidade de larvas, pupas e adultos e o número de ovos depositados pelas fêmeas foram avaliados a cada 24 h. A viabilidade de ovos foi determinada a partir da terceira oviposição das fêmeas utilizando 100 ovos de cada indivíduo. Os efeitos letais foram observados em larvas tratadas com diflubenzurom, lufenurom e piriproxifem. Os inseticidas piriproxifem...

‣ The insect gall collection of the Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro: biome cerrado, rupestrian fields

Maia,VC; Rodrigues,AR; Ascendino,SHS; Boggi,M
Fonte: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia Publicador: Instituto Internacional de Ecologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2014 Português
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An inventory of the insect gall from Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) was elaborated based on samples of the collection of the Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro. Data on localities and host plants were obtained from the labels and information about the gall morphology (plant organ of occurrence, shape, and presence of trichomes) by observing the samples. The galling species was determined based on the literature. The collection includes 131 morphotypes of galls from Cerrado, obtained from 71 host plant species distributed in 50 genera and 30 botanical families (Table 1). All galls were collected in rupestrian fields (a rare vegetation physiognomy of the Brazilian Cerrado) in the state of Minas Gerais. As the collection comprises a great diversity of insect galls, it can be considered representative of this physiognomy.

‣ Practical aspects of insect control by juvenile hormone

Staal, Gerardus B.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1971 Português
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The development of juvenile hormone (JH) analogues for insect control, and their laboratory and field testing, are now being carried out on an industrial scale. Studies of the hormone action at the cellular level, and of the many implications of JH applications on various stages of the insect life-cycle, are lagging because such studies require long-term scientific involvement. Although many analogues have little specificity for particular insects, the ultimate effects may be very different. Various considerations that may influence the commercial development of JH are discussed.

‣ Aspects of research on insect growth hormones*

Gilbert, Lawrence I.; Applebaum, S.; Gorell, T. A.; Siddall, J. B.; Siew, Y. C.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //1971 Português
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Current research on insect growth hormones includes studies on the binding of hormones to receptor molecules, probably proteins. Evidence has been obtained that this process does in fact occur and may be the means whereby the hormones ”recognize” target tissues. Other studies on the possibility of a feedback effect when growth hormones are used for insect control suggest that there is a positive feedback relationship between the hormone titre and the activity of prothoracic glands and corpora allata, but the details are not yet clear. Cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate has an important role as ”second messenger” in vertebrate endocrinology and may also be important in insects. Studies have shown that adenyl cyclase is present in pupal epidermis and the preliminary results have shown that it can be stimulated by a steroid hormone.

‣ Insect hemolymph clotting : evidence for interaction between the coagulation system and the prophenoloxidase activating cascade

Li, Dongmei; Scherfer, Christoph; Korayem, Ahmed M.; Zhao, Zeng Qi; Schmidt, Otto; Theopold, Ulrich J.
Fonte: Pergamon-Elsevier Publicador: Pergamon-Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 Português
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Here we describe a novel approach to isolate proteins involved in insect hemolymph coagulation. In order to avoid problems in purifying clot proteins after they had been crosslinked, we performed an in vitro coagulation reaction with cell-free hemolymph from the lepidopteran Galleria mellonella and used the resulting complexes to produce a specific antiserum. The antiserum reacted with a subset of hemolymph proteins as well as with granular cells, but not with other hemocyte types of Galleria. Screening expression libraries identified some positive clones, which turned out to code for some previously characterized components of immune cascades, as well as some novel candidates for clotting factors. Known components include members of both the coagulation system and the prophenol-activating cascade, lending support to the idea that both systems work together during the formation of a hemolymph clot. Novel candidates for insect clotting factors include a mucin-like protein, a glutathione-S-transferase, and a distant member of the α-crystallin/small heat shock protein family. Using assays measuring the activity of transglutaminase, a key enzyme in clotting reactions in both vertebrates and invertebrates, we found a partial overlap between transglutaminase substrates and proteins recognized by the antiserum against the in vitro-induced clot.; http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/390/description#description; D. Li...

‣ Intradermal testing of horses with and without insect bite hypersensitivity in the Netherlands using an extract of native Culicoides species

van Oldruitenborgh-Oosterbaan, M.M.S.; van Poppel, M.; de Raat, I.J.; van den Boom, R.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.
Fonte: Wiley Publicador: Wiley
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Intradermal tests using a Culicoides nubeculosus extract have proven unreliable for diagnosis of equine insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) in the Netherlands. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of an extract derived from the Dutch species C. obsoletus and C. pulicaris. Thirteen pairs of horses were tested, each pair consisting of one horse with IBH and the other a healthy control. Each horse was injected intradermally with 0.1 mL of three concentrations of Culicoides whole body extract (1 : 1000 w/v, 1 : 10,000 w/v and 1 : 25,000 w/v), histamine solution (0.01 mg/mL, positive control) and phosphate-buffered saline (negative control). Skin responses were evaluated after 30 min and at 1, 4 and 24 h. At all time points the absolute wheal diameter elicited by Culicoides extract 1 : 1000 w/v was significantly larger (P < 0.01) in the IBH horses than in the control horses. Using the 1 : 10,000 w/v extract the difference was significant at 1, 4 and 24 h and using the 1 : 25,000 w/v extract only at 24 h. The relative wheal diameter was greater in IBH than in control horses at all concentrations and time points except at 0.5 h for the 1 : 10,000 w/v and 1 : 25,000 w/v concentrations. At the 1 : 1000 w/v concentration...

‣ Interaction of insect actomyosin with adenosine triphosphate; Interaction des insectes actomyosin avec l'adénosine triphosphate

Maruyama, K.
Fonte: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França Publicador: INRA - Instituto Nacional de Investigação Agronômica da França
Tipo: Journal Article-postprint
Português
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Some physiocochemical observations were made on the interaction between actomyosin from honeybee thoracic muscle and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ATP caused superprecipitation, viscosity drop, and light-scattering drop in insect actomyosin. On the other hand, actomyosin showed a powerful ATP-splitting enzyme action. The extent of these interactions of insect actomyosin with ATP was fairly coniparable with those of rabbit actomyosin. From the viewpoint of comparative biochemistry, these observations, in general, support the current theory that the ATP-actomyosin system is essential for muscular contraction.

‣ Eicosanoids in Insect Biology

STANLEY,DAVID W.; NOR ALIZA,A.R.; TUNAZ,HASAN; PUTNAM,SEAN M.; PARK,YOUNGJIN; BEDICK,JON C.
Fonte: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil Publicador: Sociedade Entomológica do Brasil
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/07/2002 Português
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Prostaglandins and related eicosanoids are oxygenated metabolites of certain C20 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Eicosanoids are best understood in the context of their clinical significance in human medicine. We suggest a new and broader view of eicosanoids, which we have been calling a 'biological paradigm'. Under this view, we note that eicosanoids were taken into roles as cellular signal moieties long before the origins of the Metazoa. During the evolutionary diversification of animals, eicosanoids have been recruited into an array of biological roles, some of which occur only in insects and other invertebrates. These multiple actions endow eicosanoids with unusual explanatory power in understanding biological phenomena. We review the roles of eicosanoids in two areas of invertebrate biology: mediation of insect immune reactions to bacteria and host-parasite interactions. Seen broadly, eicosanoids play important roles at the cellular, organismal and ecological levels of biological organization. We suggest that continued inquiry into the significance of eicosanoids will yield important new insights into insect biology.

‣ Herbivores on native and exotic Senecio plants : is host switching related to plant novelty and insect diet breadth under field conditions?

Castells Caballé, Eva; Morante, Maria; Goula, Marta; Pérez, Nicolás; Dantart, Jordi; Escolà, Anna
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2014 Português
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1. Native herbivores can establish novel interactions with alien plants after invasion. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether these new associations are quantitatively significant compared to the assemblages with native flora under natural conditions. 2. Herbivores associated with two exotic plants, namely Senecio inaequidens and S. pterophorus, and two coexisting natives, namely S. vulgaris and S. lividus, were surveyed in a replicated long-term field study to ascertain whether the plant herbivore assemblages in mixed communities are related to plant novelty and insect diet breadth. 3. Native herbivores used exotic Senecio as their host plants. Of the 19 species of Lepidoptera, Diptera, and Hemiptera found in this survey, 14 were associated with the exotic Senecio plants. Most of these species were polyphagous, yet we found a higher number of individuals with a narrow diet breadth, which is contrary to the assumption that host switching mainly occurs in generalist herbivores. 4. The Senecio specialist Sphenella marginata (Diptera: Tephritidae) was the most abundant and widely distributed insect species (ca. 80% of the identified specimens). Sphenella was associated with S. lividus, S. vulgaris and S. inaequidens and was not found on S. pterophorus. The presence of native plant congeners in the invaded community did not ensure an instantaneous ecological fitting between insects and alien plants. 5. We conclude that novel associations between native herbivores and introduced Senecio plants are common under natural conditions. Plant novelty is...

‣ Functionality of the 5- and intergenic IRES elements of cricket paralysis virus in a range of insect cell lines, and its relationship with viral activities

Masoumi, Amir; Hanzlik, Terry; Christian, Peter D
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Cricket paralysis virus (Dicistroviridae: Cripavirus) (CrPV) naturally has a wide range of insect hosts which is reflected in its ability to infect several cultured insect cell lines. The expression of viral gene products is controlled by two kinds of internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements, 5′ and intergenic (IG). Using seven cultured cell lines we tested the functionality of both IRES elements by transfection with bi-cistronic RNA constructs. In six of the seven cell lines, expression initiated from both IRES's was significantly higher than that from a control construct and in five of these six lines the expression from the 5′-IRES was higher than that from the IG-IRES. Permissiveness of each of the cell lines for replication of CrPV was tested by infection with purified virions and transfection with viral RNA. Only three of the cell lines were fully permissive for CrPV replication and no correlation between permissiveness and IRES activity was apparent. These results suggest that while IRES function is required for permissiveness, additional cellular and/or viral factors, involved in processing of viral products, packaging of viral particles and interacting with the cap-dependent translation machinery of host cells, are necessary for CrPV to be able to replicate in any given cell.

‣ First-instar morphology and sexual dimorphism in the gall-inducing scale insect Apiomorpha Rubsaamen (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae)

Cook, Lynette; Gullan, Penny J; Stewart, A
Fonte: Taylor & Francis Group Publicador: Taylor & Francis Group
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Sexual dimorphism among crawlers of the scale insect family Eriococcidae is reported for the first time. The general morphology of crawlers of the gall-inducing genus Apiomorpha (Eriococcidae) is presented and sexual dimorphism described. Sexual dimorphism appears to be associated with differential dispersal and settling-site preference of the sexes during the crawler stage. First-instar males of the A. pharetrata and A. munita species-groups settle only on the galls induced by their mothers or, in the case of A. munita, also galls of nearby females, whereas female crawlers disperse. Female crawlers of all species of Apiomorpha, and male crawlers of most species, are well suited for airborne dispersal. It is suggested that sexual dimorphism among crawlers of Apiomorpha, and some other scale insects, is the result of loss or reduction of those morphological features associated with dispersal. In addition, male crawlers of some species of Apiomorpha have sensory structures which may assist in the detection of sex-specific settling sites.

‣ Expression and purification of non-glycosylated Trypanosoma brucei transferrin receptor in insect cells

Maier, Alex; Steverding, Dietmar
Fonte: Academic Press Publicador: Academic Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The transferrin receptor of the parasite Trypanosoma brucei is a heterodimeric protein complex encoded by the 2 expression site-associated genes (ESAGs) 6 and 7. ESAG6 is a heterogeneously glycosylated protein of 50-60 kDa modified by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor at the C-terminus, while ESAG7 is a 40-42 kDa glycoprotein carrying an unmodified C-terminus. In order to determine whether glycosylation is necessary for dimer formation and ligand binding, the receptor was expressed in insect cells in the presence of tunicamycin. When insect cells were infected with recombinant ESAG6/ESAG7 double expressor baculovirus and grown in the presence of tunicamycin, non-glycosylated forms of ESAG6 and ESAG7 of 46 and 36 kDa, respectively, were synthesized. The non-glycosylated ESAG6 and ESAG7 were capable of forming a heterodimer and of binding transferrin. This results shows that glycosylation is not necessary for synthesis of a functional T. brucei transferrin receptor.

‣ Robot navigation inspired by principles of insect vision

Srinivasan, Mandyam V; Chahl, Javaan; Weber, K; Venkatesh, Svetha; Nagle, Martin; Zhang, Shao Wu
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Recent studies of insect visual behaviour and navigation reveal a number of elegant strategies that can be profitably applied to the design of autonomous robots. The peering behaviour of grasshoppers, for example, has inspired the design of new rangefinding systems. The centring response of bees flying through a tunnel has led to simple methods for navigating through corridors. Experimental investigation of the bee's "odometer" has led to the implementation of schemes for visually driven odometry. These and other visually mediated insect behaviours are described along with a number of applications to robot navigation.

‣ Seleção de espigas e debulha das sementes de milho (Zea mays L.): I- efeitos sobre a qualidade física e infestação por insetos; Selection of corn (Zea mays L.) ears and seed thrashing: I - effect on physical quality and insect infestation

Sato, O.; Cícero, S.M.
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/1992 Português
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O presente trabalho, teve como objetivo verificar os efeitos da seleção de espigas e da debulha das sementes de milho, realizada no campo e na unidade de beneficiamento de sementes, sobre a qualidade física e infestação por insetos. Para tanto, foram utilizadas sementes de quatro campos de produção de sementes fiscalizadas da safra 1985/86. As espigas amostradas, foram submetidas às debulhas manual e mecânica (debulhador estacionário acoplado ao trator no próprio local de produção e debulhador da unidade de beneficiamento de sementes da companhia produtora), com e sem seleção de espigas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que as sementes provenientes da debulha realizada mecanicamente no campo apresentaram maior incidência de danos mecânicos. A seleção das espigas com palha, realizada no campo, não foi eficiente para reduzir a infestação por insetos e nem melhorou a qualidade das sementes.; This work had the objective to verify the effects of ear selection and of corn seed thrashing, on their physical quality and insect infestation. Seeds from four fields of seed production, grown in the 1985/86 cropping season were sampled and thrashed (by hand and and mechanically). The results obtained, showed that the seeds derived from the mechanical thrashing at the field showed higher occurrence of mechanical damage than those thrashed under controlled condictions. The selection of ears with corn husk...

‣ Insect folivore damage in Nothofagus Blume trees of central Chile and its association with bottom-up plant community attributes

Altmann,Scott H
Fonte: Ecología austral Publicador: Ecología austral
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 Português
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The study of insect folivore damage in South American Nothofagus spp. is important for monitoring the health of these trees and for basic research, although empirical information is scarce. Previous evidence on N. macrocarpa (A.DC.) F.M. Vásquez and R.A. Rodr, and N. glauca (Phil.) Krasser trees of central Chile suggested that insect folivore damage in these species can be intense and here I explored damage levels of the two species and their relationship with bottom-up community attributes such as plant architecture, light availability and host age. Foliage samples were collected at fi ve fi eld sites at the end of the 2007-2008 productive season in trees of N. macrocarpa and N. glauca and damage was measured based on lamina removal (complete absence of lamina) and lamina necrosis, and then analzyed statistically in terms of lamina removal and folivore damage (lamina removal and necrosis). Data for N. macrocarpa were divided into two groups based on fi eld site elevation (high and low) whereas data for N. glauca corresponded strictly to low elevation sites. N. macrocarpa of lower elevation sites (low) had greater lamina removal and folivore damage than N. glauca and greater folivore damage than in individuals of N. macrocarpa (high). N. macrocarpa (low) associated with a lower aerial vegetative cover (and presumably more exposed to sun light) had greater lamina removal than individuals associated with a greater aerial vegetative cover (and presumably less exposed to sun light). Nothofagus glauca foliage with greater sun exposure showed greater lamina removal than that corresponding to lower sun exposure...