Pannexins (Panx) are a class of integral membrane proteins that have been proposed to exhibit characteristics similar to those of connexin family members. In this study, we utilized Cx43-positive BICR-M1Rk cells to stably express Panx1, Panx3, or Panx1-green fluorescent protein (GFP) to assess their trafficking, cell surface dynamics, and interplay with the cytoskeletal network. Expression of a Sar1 dominant negative mutant revealed that endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi transport of Panx1 and Panx3 was mediated via COPII-dependent vesicles. Distinct from Cx43-GFP, fluorescence recovery after photobleaching studies revealed that both Panx1-GFP and Panx3-GFP remained highly mobile at the cell surface. Unlike Cx43, Panx1-GFP exhibited no detectable interrelationship with microtubules. Conversely, cytochalasin B-induced disruption of microfilaments caused a severe loss of cell surface Panx1-GFP, a reduction in the recoverable fraction of Panx1-GFP that remained at the cell surface, and a decrease in Panx1-GFP vesicular transport. Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation and co-sedimentation assays revealed actin as a novel binding partner of Panx1. Collectively, we conclude that although Panx1 and Panx3 share a common endoplasmic reticulum to Golgi secretory pathway to Cx43...
Cell-penetrating peptides can cross cell membranes and are commonly seen as biologically inert molecules. However, we found that some cell-penetrating peptides could remodel actin cytoskeleton in oncogene-transformed NIH3T3/EWS-Fli cells. These cells have profound actin disorganization related to their tumoral transformation. These arginine- and/or tryptophan-rich peptides could cross cell membrane and induce stress fiber formation in these malignant cells, whereas they had no perceptible effect in non-tumoral fibroblasts. In addition, motility (migration speed, random motility coefficient, wound healing) of the tumor cells could be decreased by the cell-permeant peptides. Although the peptides differently influenced actin polymerization in vitro, they could directly bind monomeric actin as determined by NMR and calorimetry studies. Therefore, cell-penetrating peptides might interact with intracellular protein partners, such as actin. In addition, the fact that they could reverse the tumoral phenotype is of interest for therapeutic purposes.
Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is thought to be required for apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) release from mitochondria in caspase-independent apoptosis. The mechanism by which AIF is released through PARP-1 remains unclear. Here, we provide evidence that PARP-1-independent AIF release and cell death are induced by a trienoic fatty acid, α-eleostearic acid (α-ESA). α-ESA induced the caspase-independent and AIF-initiated apoptotic death of neuronal cell lines, independently of PARP-1 activation. The cell death was inhibited by the MEK inhibitor U0126 and by knockdown of MEK using small interfering RNA. However, inhibitors for JNK, p38 inhibitors, calpain, phospholipase A2, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, did not block cell death. AIF was translocated to the nucleus after the induction of apoptosis by α-ESA in differentiated PC12 cells without activating caspase-3 and PARP-1. The α-ESA-mediated cell death was not inhibited by PARP inhibitor 3,4-dihydro-5-[4-(1-piperidinyl)butoxyl]-1(2H)-isoquinoline and by knockdown of PARP-1 using small interfering RNA. Unlike N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine treatment, histone-phosphorylated histone 2AX was not phosphorylated by α-ESA, which suggests no DNA damage. Overexpression of Bcl-2 did not inhibit the cell death. α-ESA caused a small quantity of superoxide production in the mitochondria...
Initiation of a cell cycle in an adult neuron leads to cell death, placing great importance on the mechanisms that normally suppress the neuronal cell cycle. We have previously shown that the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk5 is an important part of this process, but only when it is present in the nucleus. We report here that Cdk5 nuclear localization relies on its binding to the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27. Cdk5 has no intrinsic nuclear localization signal; in the absence of p27, two weak nuclear export signals that bind CRM1 cause it to shuttle to the cytoplasm. When a neuron is subjected to stress, such as exposure to β-amyloid, the Cdk5-p27 interaction is lost, reducing Cdk5 levels in the nucleus and depriving the neuron of a major cell cycle suppression mechanism. Caspase-3 is activated within hours, but death is not immediate; elevated levels of cytoplasmic Cdk5 appear to retard neuronal death by a mechanism that may involve Bcl2. These data suggest a model in which Cdk5 exerts a double protective function in neurons: chronically suppressing the cell cycle when located in the nucleus and transiently delaying cell death in the cytoplasm.
A cancer/testis antigen, CAGE, is widely expressed in various cancer tissues and
cancer cell lines but not in normal tissues except the testis. In the present
study, ectopic expression of CAGE in fibroblast cells resulted in foci
formation, suggesting its cell-transforming ability. Using stable HeLa
transfectant clones with the tetracycline-inducible CAGE gene,
we found that CAGE overexpression stimulated both anchorage-dependent and
-independent cell growth in vitro and promoted tumor growth in
a xenograft mouse model. Cell cycle analysis showed that CAGE augments the
levels of cyclin D1 and E, thereby activating cyclin-associated cyclin-dependent
kinases and subsequently accelerating the G1 to S progression.
Moreover, increased cyclin D1 and E levels in CAGE-overexpressing cells were
observed even in a growth arrested state, indicating a direct effect of CAGE on
G1 cyclin expression. CAGE-induced expression of cyclins D1 and E
was found to be mediated by AP-1 and E2F-1 transcription factors...
The recent discovery that GRP78/BiP, a typical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumenal chaperone, can be expressed on the cell surface, interacting with an increasing repertoire of surface proteins and acting as receptor in signaling pathways, represents a paradigm shift in its biological function. However, the mechanism of GRP78 trafficking from the ER to the cell surface is not well understood. Using a combination of cellular, biochemical, and mutational approaches, we tested multiple hypotheses. Here we report that ER stress actively promotes GRP78 localization on the cell surface, whereas ectopic expression of GRP78 is also able to cause cell surface relocation in the absence of ER stress. Moreover, deletion of the C-terminal ER retention motif in GRP78 alters its cell surface presentation in a dose-dependent manner; however, mutation of the putative O-linked glycosylation site Thr648 of human GRP78 is without effect. We also identified the exposure of multiple domains of GRP78 on the cell surface and determined that binding of extracellular GRP78 to the cell surface is unlikely. A new topology model for cell surface GRP78 is presented.
Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) associates with both integrins and growth factor receptors in the control of cell motility and survival. Loss of FAK during mouse development results in lethality at embryonic day 8.5 (E8.5) and a block in cell proliferation. Because FAK serves as both a scaffold and signaling protein, gene knock-outs do not provide mechanistic insights in distinguishing between these modes of FAK function. To determine the role of FAK activity during development, a knock-in point mutation (lysine 454 to arginine (R454)) within the catalytic domain was introduced by homologous recombination. Homozygous FAKR454/R454 mutation was lethal at E9.5 with defects in blood vessel formation as determined by lack of yolk sac primary capillary plexus formation and disorganized endothelial cell patterning in FAKR454/R454 embryos. In contrast to the inability of embryonic FAK−/− cells to proliferate ex vivo, primary FAKR454/R454 mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) were established from E8.5 embryos. R454 MEFs exhibited no difference in cell growth compared with normal MEFs, and R454 FAK localized to focal adhesions but was not phosphorylated at Tyr-397. In E8.5 embryos and primary MEFs, FAK R454 mutation resulted in decreased c-Src Tyr-416 phosphorylation. R454 MEFs exhibited enhanced focal adhesion formation...
Cellular prostatic acid phosphatase (cPAcP), an authentic tyrosine phosphatase, is proposed to function as a negative growth regulator of prostate cancer (PCa) cells in part through its dephosphorylation of ErbB-2. Nevertheless, the direct interaction between cPAcP and ErbB-2 has not been shown nor the specific dephosphorylation site of ErbB-2 by cPAcP. In this report, our data show that the phosphorylation level of ErbB-2 primarily at Tyr1221/2 correlates with the growth rate of both LNCaP and MDA PCa2b human PCa cells. Further, cPAcP reciprocally co-immunoprecipitated with ErbB-2 in a non-permissive growth condition. Expression of wild type cPAcP, but not inactive mutant, by cDNA in cPAcP-null LNCaP C-81 cells results in decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of ErbB-2 including Tyr1221/2. Concurrently, Tyr317 phosphorylation of p52Shc, proliferating cell nuclear antigen expression, and cell growth are decreased in these cells. Conversely, decreased cPAcP expression by short hairpin RNA in LNCaP C-33 cells was associated with elevated phosphorylation of ErbB-2 initially at Tyr1221/2. Its downstream p52Shc, ERK1/2, Akt, Src, STAT-3, and STAT-5 were activated, and cell proliferation, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and cyclin D1 expression were increased. Stable subclones of C-33 cells by small interfering PAcP had elevated Tyr1221/2 phosphorylation of ErbB-2 and exhibited androgen-independent growth and increased tumorigenicity in xenograft female animals. In summary...
Modulation of integrin αvβ5 regulates vascular permeability, angiogenesis, and tumor dissemination. In addition, we previously found a role for p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4) in selective regulation of integrin αvβ5-mediated cell motility (Zhang, H., Li, Z., Viklund, E. K., and Strömblad, S. (2002) J. Cell Biol. 158, 1287–1297). This report focuses on the molecular mechanisms of this regulation. We here identified a unique PAK4-binding membrane-proximal integrin β5-SERS-motif involved in controlling cell attachment and migration. We also mapped the integrin β5-binding site within PAK4. We found that PAK4 binding to integrin β5 was not sufficient to promote cell migration, but that PAK4 kinase activity was required for PAK4 promotion of cell motility. Importantly, PAK4 specifically phosphorylated the integrin β5 subunit at Ser-759 and Ser-762 within the β5-SERS-motif. Point mutation of these two serine residues abolished the PAK4-induced cell migration, indicating a functional role for these phosphorylations in migration. Our results may give important leads to the functional regulation of integrin αvβ5, with implications for vascular permeability, angiogenesis, and cancer dissemination.
GIPC1/synectin, a single PDZ domain-containing protein, binds to numerous proteins and is involved in multiple biological processes, including cell migration. We reported previously that MyoGEF, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, plays a role in regulating breast cancer cell polarization and invasion. Here, we identify GIPC1 as an interacting partner of MyoGEF. Both in vitro and in vivo binding assays show that the GIPC1 PDZ domain binds to the PDZ-binding motif at the C terminus of MyoGEF. Immunofluorescence analysis shows that GIPC1 and MyoGEF colocalize to the cell leading edge. Depletion of GIPC1 by RNAi in MDA-MB-231 cells causes cells to shift from a polarized to a rounded morphology. Matrigel invasion assays show that RNAi-mediated depletion of GIPC1 dramatically decreases MDA-MB-231 cell invasion. Notably, an anti-MyoGEF peptide antibody, whose epitope is located at the C terminus of MyoGEF, interferes with GIPC1-MyoGEF complex formation. Treatment of MDA-MB-231 cells with the anti-MyoGEF peptide antibody disrupts cell polarization and invasion. Thus, our results suggest that GIPC1-MyoGEF complex formation plays an important role in regulating MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell polarization and invasion.
Rab1a is a member of the Rab family of small GTPases with a well characterized function in the regulation of vesicle trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus and within Golgi compartments. The integrin family heterodimeric transmembrane proteins serve as major receptors for extracellular matrix proteins, which play essential roles in cell adhesion and migration. Although effects on intracellular trafficking of integrins or other key cargos by Rab1a could influence cell migration, the regulatory mechanisms linking Rab1a to cell migration are not well understood. Here, we report identification of Rab1a as a novel regulator of cell migration using an unbiased RNAi screen targeting GTPases. Inhibition of Rab1a reduced integrin-mediated cell adhesion and spreading on fibronectins, reduced integrin β1 localization to lipid rafts, and decreased recycling of integrin β1 to the plasma membrane. Analysis of Rab1a effector molecules showed that p115 mediated Rab1a regulation of integrin recycling and lipid raft localization in cell migration. Taken together, these results suggest a novel function for Rab1a in the regulation of cell migration through controlling integrin β1 recycling and localization to lipid rafts via a specific downstream effector pathway.
AKT phosphorylates components of the intrinsic cell survival machinery and promotes survival to various stimuli. In the present study, we identified CDC-like kinase 2 (CLK2) as a new substrate of AKT activation and elucidated its role in cell survival to ionizing radiation. AKT directly binds to and phosphorylates CLK2 on serine 34 and threonine 127, in vitro and in vivo. CLK2 phosphorylation was detected in HeLa cells overexpressing active AKT. In addition, we demonstrated that ionizing radiation induces CLK2 phosphorylation via AKT activation. In contrast, the suppression of endogenous AKT expression by siRNA inhibited CLK2 phosphorylation in response to 2 gray of γ-ray or insulin. Furthermore, we examined the effect of CLK2 on the survival of irradiated CCD-18Lu cells overexpressing Myc-CLK2. CLK2 overexpression significantly increased cell growth and inhibited cell death induced by 2 gray. The role of CLK2 in cell survival to ionizing radiation was dependent on the phosphorylation of serine 34 and threonine 127. Our results suggest that AKT activation controls cell survival to ionizing radiation by phosphorylating CLK2, revealing an important regulatory mechanism required for promoting cell survival.
Drugs that target microtubules are thought to inhibit cell division and cell migration by suppressing dynamic instability, a “search and capture” behavior that allows microtubules to probe their environment. Here, we report that subtoxic drug concentrations are sufficient to inhibit plus-end microtubule dynamic instability and cell migration without affecting cell division or microtubule assembly. The higher drug concentrations needed to inhibit cell division act through a novel mechanism that generates microtubule fragments by stimulating microtubule minus-end detachment from their organizing centers. The frequency of microtubule detachment in untreated cells increases at prophase suggesting that it is a regulated cellular process important for spindle assembly and function. We conclude that drugs produce differential dose-dependent effects at microtubule plus and minus-ends to inhibit different microtubule-mediated functions.
The Slit-Robo GTPase-activating proteins (srGAPs) are critical for neuronal migration through inactivation of Rho GTPases Cdc42, Rac1, and RhoA. Here we report that srGAP2 physically interacts with protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5). srGAP2 localizes to the cytoplasm and plasma membrane protrusion. srGAP2 knockdown reduces cell adhesion spreading and increases cell migration, but has no effect on cell proliferation. PRMT5 binds to the N terminus of srGAP2 (225–538 aa) and methylates its C-terminal arginine residue Arg-927. The methylation mutant srGAP2-R927A fails to rescue the cell spreading rate, is unable to localize to the plasma membrane leading edge, and perturbs srGAP2 homodimer formation mediated by the F-BAR domain. These results suggest that srGAP2 arginine methylation plays important roles in cell spreading and cell migration through influencing membrane protrusion.
Non-proteolytic activities of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have recently been shown to impact cell migration, but the precise mechanism remains to be understood. We previously demonstrated that the hemopexin (PEX) domain of MMP-9 is a prerequisite for enhanced cell migration. Using a biochemical approach, we now report that dimerization of MMP-9 through the PEX domain appears necessary for MMP-9-enhanced cell migration. Following a series of substitution mutations within the MMP-9 PEX domain, blade IV was shown to be critical for homodimerization, whereas blade I was required for heterodimerization with CD44. Blade I and IV mutants showed diminished enhancement of cell migration compared with wild type MMP-9-transfected cells. Peptides mimicking motifs in the outermost strands of the first and fourth blades of the MMP-9 PEX domain were designed. These peptides efficiently blocked MMP-9 dimer formation and inhibited motility of COS-1 cells overexpressing MMP-9, HT-1080, and MDA-MB-435 cells. Using a shRNA approach, CD44 was found to be a critical molecule in MMP-9-mediated cell migration. Furthermore, an axis involving a MMP-9-CD44-EGFR signaling pathway in cell migration was identified using antibody array and specific receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors. In conclusion...
Membrane trafficking is dictated by dynamic molecular interactions involving discrete determinants in the cargo proteins and the intracellular transport machineries. We have previously reported that cell surface expression of GPR15, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that serves as a co-receptor for HIV, is correlated with the mode III binding of 14-3-3 proteins to the receptor C terminus. Here we provide a mechanistic basis for the role of 14-3-3 in promoting the cell surface expression of GPR15. The Ala mutation of penultimate phospho-Ser (S359A) that abolishes 14-3-3 binding resulted in substantially reduced O-glycosylation and the cell surface expression of GPR15. The surface membrane protein CD8 fused with the C-terminal tail of GPR15S359A mutant was re-localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In the context of S359A mutation, the additional mutations in the upstream stretch of basic residues (RXR motif) restored O-glycosylation and the cell surface expression. The RXR motif was responsible for the interaction with coatomer protein I (COPI), which was inversely correlated with the 14-3-3 binding and cell surface expression. These results suggest that 14-3-3 binding promotes cell surface expression of GPR15 by releasing the receptor from ER retrieval/retention pathway that is mediated by the interaction of RXR motif and COPI. Moreover...
ATF5 loss of function has been shown previously to cause apoptotic cell death in glioblastoma and breast cancer cells but not in non-transformed astrocytes and human breast epithelial cells. The mechanism for the cell type-dependent survival function of ATF5 is unknown. We report here that the anti-apoptotic factor BCL-2 is a downstream target of ATF5 that mediates the prosurvival function of ATF5 in C6 glioma cells and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ATF5 binds to an ATF5-specific regulatory element that is downstream of and adjacent to the negative regulatory element in the BCL-2 P2 promoter, stimulating BCL-2 expression. Highlighting the critical role of BCL-2 in ATF5-dependent cancer cell survival, expression of BCL-2 blocks death of C6 and MCF-7 cells induced by dominant-negative ATF5, and depletion of BCL-2 impairs ATF5-promoted cell survival. Moreover, we found that BCL-2 expression is not regulated by ATF5 in non-transformed rat astrocytes, mouse embryonic fibroblasts, and human breast epithelial cells, where expression of BCL-2 but not ATF5 is required for cell survival. These findings identify BCL-2 as an essential mediator for the cancer-specific cell survival function of ATF5 in glioblastoma and breast cancer cells and provide direct evidence that the cell type-specific function of ATF5 derives from differential regulation of downstream targets by ATF5 in different types of cells.
Loss of properly regulated cell death and cell survival pathways can contribute to the development of cancer and cancer metastasis. Cell survival signals are modulated by many different receptors, including integrins. Bit-1 is an effector of anoikis (cell death due to loss of attachment) in suspended cells. The anoikis function of Bit-1 can be counteracted by integrin-mediated cell attachment. Here, we explored integrin regulation of Bit-1 in adherent cells. We show that knockdown of endogenous Bit-1 in adherent cells decreased cell survival and re-expression of Bit-1 abrogated this effect. Furthermore, reduction of Bit-1 promoted both staurosporine and serum-deprivation induced apoptosis. Indeed knockdown of Bit-1 in these cells led to increased apoptosis as determined by caspase-3 activation and positive TUNEL staining. Bit-1 expression protected cells from apoptosis by increasing phospho-IκB levels and subsequently bcl-2 gene transcription. Protection from apoptosis under serum-free conditions correlated with bcl-2 transcription and Bcl-2 protein expression. Finally, Bit-1-mediated regulation of bcl-2 was dependent on focal adhesion kinase, PI3K, and AKT. Thus, we have elucidated an integrin-controlled pathway in which Bit-1 is...
Satellite cells are well known as a postnatal skeletal muscle stem cell reservoir that under injury conditions participate in repair. However, mechanisms controlling satellite cell quiescence and activation are the topic of ongoing inquiry by many laboratories. In this study, we investigated whether loss of the cell cycle regulatory factor, pRb, is associated with the re-entry of quiescent satellite cells into replication and subsequent stem cell expansion. By ablation of Rb1 using a Pax7CreER,Rb1 conditional mouse line, satellite cell number was increased 5-fold over 6 months. Furthermore, myoblasts originating from satellite cells lacking Rb1 were also increased 3-fold over 6 months, while terminal differentiation was greatly diminished. Similarly, Pax7CreER,Rb1 mice exhibited muscle fiber hypotrophy in vivo under steady state conditions as well as a delay of muscle regeneration following cardiotoxin-mediated injury. These results suggest that cell cycle re-entry of quiescent satellite cells is accelerated by lack of Rb1, resulting in the expansion of both satellite cells and their progeny in adolescent muscle. Conversely, that sustained Rb1 loss in the satellite cell lineage causes a deficit of muscle fiber formation. However, we also show that pharmacological inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 activity...
Cell migration is essential for several important biological outcomes and is involved in various developmental disorders and disease states including cancer cell invasiveness and metastasis. A fundamental step in cell migration is the development of a leading edge. By using HeLa carcinoma cells as an initial model system, we uncovered a surprising role for the heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and its ability to bind the protein cross-linking enzyme, tissue transglutaminase (tTG), in cancer cell migration. Treatment of HeLa cells with EGF results in the activation of a plasma membrane-associated pool of tTG and its redistribution to the leading edges of these cells, which are essential events for EGF-stimulated HeLa cell migration. However, we then found that the ability of tTG to be localized to the leading edge is dependent on Hsp70. Similarly, the localization of tTG to the leading edges of MDAMB231 breast carcinoma cells, where it also plays an essential role in their migration, has a strict requirement for Hsp70. Treatment of these different cell lines with inhibitors against the ATP hydrolytic activity of Hsp70 prevented tTG from localizing to their leading edges and thereby blocked EGF-stimulated HeLa cell migration, as well as the constitutive migration normally exhibited by MDAMB231 cells. These findings highlight a new and unconventional role for the chaperonin activity of Hsp70 in the localization of a key regulatory protein (tTG) at the leading edges of cancer cells and the important consequences that this holds for their ability to migrate.