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‣ Canopy insect herbivores in the Azorean Laurisilva forests: key host plant species in a highly generalist insect community

Ribeiro, Sérvio P.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Gaspar, Clara; Melo, Catarina; Serrano, Artur R. M.; Amaral, João; Aguiar, Carlos; André, Genage; Quartau, José A.
Fonte: Wiley-Blackwell Publicador: Wiley-Blackwell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2005 Português
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Copyright © ECOGRAPHY 2005.; This article explores patterns of insect herbivore distribution in the canopy of the Laurisilva forests on seven islands in the Azores archipelago. To our knowledge, this is one of the first extensive studied of this type in tree or shrub canopies of oceanic island ecosystems. One of the most frequently debated characteristics of such ecosystems is the likely prevalence of vague, ill-defined niches due to taxonomic disharmony, which may have implications for insect-plant interactions. For instance, an increase in ecological opportunities for generalist species is expected due to the lack of predator groups and reduced selection for chemical defence in host plants. The following two questions were addressed: 1) Are specialists rare species, and insect herbivore species randomly distributed among host plant species in the Azores? 2) Are the variances in insect herbivore species composition, frequency and richness explained by host plants or by regional island effects? We expect a proportional distribution of herbivore species between host plants, influenced by host frequency and distinct island effects; otherwise, deviation from expectation might suggest habitat preference for specific host tree crowns. Canopy beating tray samples were performed on seven islands...

‣ The P2 capsid protein of the nonenveloped rice dwarf phytoreovirus induces membrane fusion in insect host cells

Zhou, Feng; Pu, Yingying; Wei, Taiyuan; Liu, Huijun; Deng, Wulan; Wei, Chunhong; Ding, Biao; Omura, Toshihiro; Li, Yi
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Insect transmission is an essential process of infection for numerous plant and animal viruses. How an insect-transmissible plant virus enters an insect cell to initiate the infection cycle is poorly understood, especially for nonenveloped plant and animal viruses. The capsid protein P2 of rice dwarf virus (RDV), which is nonenveloped, is necessary for insect transmission. Here, we present evidence that P2 shares structural features with membrane-fusogenic proteins encoded by enveloped animal viruses. When RDV P2 was ectopically expressed and displayed on the surface of insect Spodoptera frugiperda cells, it induced membrane fusion characterized by syncytium formation at low pH. Mutational analyses identified the N-terminal and a heptad repeat as being critical for the membrane fusion-inducing activity. These results are corroborated with results from RDV-infected cells of the insect vector leafhopper. We propose that the RDV P2-induced membrane fusion plays a critical role in viral entry into insect cells. Our report that a plant viral protein can induce membrane fusion has broad significance in studying the mechanisms of virus entry into insect cells and insect transmission of nonenveloped plant and animal viruses.

‣ Conidiation Color Mutants of Aspergillus fumigatus Are Highly Pathogenic to the Heterologous Insect Host Galleria mellonella

Jackson, Jennifer C.; Higgins, Laura A.; Lin, Xiaorong
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/01/2009 Português
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The greater wax moth Galleria mellonella has been widely used as a heterologous host for a number of fungal pathogens including Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. A positive correlation in pathogenicity of these yeasts in this insect model and animal models has been observed. However, very few studies have evaluated the possibility of applying this heterologous insect model to investigate virulence traits of the filamentous fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, the leading cause of invasive aspergillosis. Here, we have examined the impact of mutations in genes involved in melanin biosynthesis on the pathogenicity of A. fumigatus in the G. mellonella model. Melanization in A. fumigatus confers bluish-grey color to conidia and is a known virulence factor in mammal models. Surprisingly, conidial color mutants in B5233 background that have deletions in the defined six-gene cluster required for DHN-melanin biosynthesis caused enhanced insect mortality compared to the parent strain. To further examine and confirm the relationship between melanization defects and enhanced virulence in the wax moth model...

‣ No post-Cretaceous ecosystem depression in European forests? Rich insect-feeding damage on diverse middle Palaeocene plants, Menat, France

Wappler, Torsten; Currano, Ellen D.; Wilf, Peter; Rust, Jes; Labandeira, Conrad C.
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Insect herbivores are considered vulnerable to extinctions of their plant hosts. Previous studies of insect-damaged fossil leaves in the US Western Interior showed major plant and insect herbivore extinction at the Cretaceous–Palaeogene (K–T) boundary. Further, the regional plant–insect system remained depressed or ecologically unbalanced throughout the Palaeocene. Whereas Cretaceous floras had high plant and insect-feeding diversity, all Palaeocene assemblages to date had low richness of plants, insect feeding or both. Here, we use leaf fossils from the middle Palaeocene Menat site, France, which has the oldest well-preserved leaf assemblage from the Palaeocene of Europe, to test the generality of the observed Palaeocene US pattern. Surprisingly, Menat combines high floral diversity with high insect activity, making it the first observation of a ‘healthy’ Palaeocene plant–insect system. Furthermore, rich and abundant leaf mines across plant species indicate well-developed host specialization. The diversity and complexity of plant–insect interactions at Menat suggest that the net effects of the K–T extinction were less at this greater distance from the Chicxulub, Mexico, impact site. Along with the available data from other regions...

‣ Insect Ferritins: typical or atypical?

Pham, Daphne Q. D.; Winzerling, Joy J.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Insects transmit millions of cases of disease each year, and cost millions of dollars in agricultural losses. The control of insect-borne diseases is vital for numerous developing countries, and the management of agricultural insect pests is a very serious business for developed countries. Control methods should target insect-specific traits in order to avoid non-target effects, especially in mammals. Since insect cells have had a billion years of evolutionary divergence from those of vertebrates, they differ in many ways that might be promising for the insect control field—especially, in iron metabolism because current studies have indicated that significant differences exist between insect and mammalian systems. Insect iron metabolism differs from that of vertebrates in the following respects. Insect ferritins have a heavier mass than mammalian ferritins. Unlike their mammalian counterparts, the insect ferritin subunits are often glycosylated and are synthesized with a signal peptide. The crystal structure of insect ferritin also shows a tetrahedral symmetry consisting of 12 heavy chain and 12 light chain subunits in contrast to that of mammalian ferritin that exhibits an octahedral symmetry made of 24 heavy chain and 24 light chain subunits. Insect ferritins associate primarily with the vacuolar system and serve as iron transporters—quite the opposite of the mammalian ferritins...

‣ The Composite Insect Trap: An Innovative Combination Trap for Biologically Diverse Sampling

Russo, Laura; Stehouwer, Rachel; Heberling, Jacob Mason; Shea, Katriona
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/06/2011 Português
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Documentation of insect diversity is an important component of the study of biodiversity, community dynamics, and global change. Accurate identification of insects usually requires catching individuals for close inspection. However, because insects are so diverse, most trapping methods are specifically tailored to a particular taxonomic group. For scientists interested in the broadest possible spectrum of insect taxa, whether for long term monitoring of an ecosystem or for a species inventory, the use of several different trapping methods is usually necessary. We describe a novel composite method for capturing a diverse spectrum of insect taxa. The Composite Insect Trap incorporates elements from four different existing trapping methods: the cone trap, malaise trap, pan trap, and flight intercept trap. It is affordable, resistant, easy to assemble and disassemble, and collects a wide variety of insect taxa. Here we describe the design, construction, and effectiveness of the Composite Insect Trap tested during a study of insect diversity. The trap catches a broad array of insects and can eliminate the need to use multiple trap types in biodiversity studies. We propose that the Composite Insect Trap is a useful addition to the trapping methods currently available to ecologists and will be extremely effective for monitoring community level dynamics...

‣ Alteration of Forest Structure Modifies the Distribution of Scale Insect, Stigmacoccus garmilleri, in Mexican Tropical Montane Cloud Forests

Gamper, Heather A.; Koptur, Suzanne; García-Franco, Jose; Stapper, Andres Plata
Fonte: University of Wisconsin Library Publicador: University of Wisconsin Library
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/09/2011 Português
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Stigmacoccus garmilleri Foldi (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) is an ecologically important honeydew-producing scale insect associated with oak trees (Quercus spp.) in highland forests of Veracruz, Mexico. The honeydew exudates of S. garmilleri serve as a significant nutrient source to many species of birds, insects, and sooty molds. Oak trees found in the forest interior, forest edge, and those scattered in pasture areas support scale insect colonies, though the pattern of insect infestations on trees within these varying landscape types has not been elucidated. This study aims to describe the distribution of scale insect infestation and any distinctions in honeydew production based on tree location. Scale insect density, honeydew volume, and sugar concentration were surveyed throughout a continuous landscape that included both patches of forest and scattered pasture trees. In addition, the anal filament through which the honeydew drop is secreted was also measured and was experimentally removed to test and measure regrowth. Scale insect densities on tree trunks were greatest on pasture trees, while intermediate densities were found on trees at the forest edge, and low densities on interior forest trees, suggesting that trees in disturbed areas are more susceptible to scale insect infestation. Trees with small diameters at breast height had significantly higher insect densities than trees with medium to large diameters. Trunk aspect (North...

‣ Organic Farming and Landscape Structure: Effects on Insect-Pollinated Plant Diversity in Intensively Managed Grasslands

Power, Eileen F.; Kelly, Daniel L.; Stout, Jane C.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/05/2012 Português
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Parallel declines in insect-pollinated plants and their pollinators have been reported as a result of agricultural intensification. Intensive arable plant communities have previously been shown to contain higher proportions of self-pollinated plants compared to natural or semi-natural plant communities. Though intensive grasslands are widespread, it is not known whether they show similar patterns to arable systems nor whether local and/or landscape factors are influential. We investigated plant community composition in 10 pairs of organic and conventional dairy farms across Ireland in relation to the local and landscape context. Relationships between plant groups and local factors (farming system, position in field and soil parameters) and landscape factors (e.g. landscape complexity) were investigated. The percentage cover of unimproved grassland was used as an inverse predictor of landscape complexity, as it was negatively correlated with habitat-type diversity. Intensive grasslands (organic and conventional) contained more insect-pollinated forbs than non-insect pollinated forbs. Organic field centres contained more insect-pollinated forbs than conventional field centres. Insect-pollinated forb richness in field edges (but not field centres) increased with increasing landscape complexity (% unimproved grassland) within 1...

‣ Targeting of insect epicuticular lipids by the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: hydrocarbon oxidation within the context of a host-pathogen interaction

Pedrini, Nicolás; Ortiz-Urquiza, Almudena; Huarte-Bonnet, Carla; Zhang, Shizhu; Keyhani, Nemat O.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/02/2013 Português
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Broad host range entomopathogenic fungi such as Beauveria bassiana attack insect hosts via attachment to cuticular substrata and the production of enzymes for the degradation and penetration of insect cuticle. The outermost epicuticular layer consists of a complex mixture of non-polar lipids including hydrocarbons, fatty acids, and wax esters. Long chain hydrocarbons are major components of the outer waxy layer of diverse insect species, where they serve to protect against desiccation and microbial parasites, and as recognition molecules or as a platform for semiochemicals. Insect pathogenic fungi have evolved mechanisms for overcoming this barrier, likely with sets of lipid degrading enzymes with overlapping substrate specificities. Alkanes and fatty acids are substrates for a specific subset of fungal cytochrome P450 monooxygenases involved in insect hydrocarbon degradation. These enzymes activate alkanes by terminal oxidation to alcohols, which are further oxidized by alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases, whose products can enter β-oxidation pathways. B. bassiana contains at least 83 genes coding for cytochrome P450s (CYP), a subset of which are involved in hydrocarbon oxidation, and several of which represent new CYP subfamilies/families. Expression data indicated differential induction by alkanes and insect lipids and four CYP proteins have been partially characterized after heterologous expression in yeast. Gene knockouts revealed a phenotype for only one (cyp52X1) out of six genes examined to date. CYP52X1 oxidizes long chain fatty acids and participates in the degradation of specific epicuticular lipid components needed for breaching the insect waxy layer. Examining the hydrocarbon oxidizing CYP repertoire of pathogens involved in insect epicuticle degradation can lead to the characterization of enzymes with novel substrate specificities. Pathogen targeting may also represent an important co-evolutionary process regarding insect cuticular hydrocarbon synthesis.

‣ Engineering the Protein N-Glycosylation Pathway in Insect Cells for Production of Biantennary, Complex N-Glycans†

Hollister, Jason; Grabenhorst, Eckart; Nimtz, Manfred; Conradt, Harald; Jarvis, Donald L.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 17/12/2002 Português
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Insect cells, like other eucaryotic cells, modify many of their proteins by N-glycosylation. However, the endogenous insect cell N-glycan processing machinery generally does not produce complex, terminally sialylated N-glycans such as those found in mammalian systems. This difference in the N-glycan processing pathways of insect cells and higher eucaryotes imposes a significant limitation on their use as hosts for baculovirus-mediated recombinant glycoprotein production. To address this problem, we previously isolated two transgenic insect cell lines that have mammalian β1,4-galactosyltransferase or β1,4- galactosyltransferase and α2,6-sialyltransferase genes. Unlike the parental insect cell line, both transgenic cell lines expressed the mammalian glycosyltransferases and were able to produce terminally galactosylated or sialylated N-glycans. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the structures of the N-glycans produced by these transgenic insect cell lines in further detail. Direct structural analyses revealed that the most extensively processed N-glycans produced by the transgenic insect cell lines were novel, monoantennary structures with elongation of only the α1,3 branch. This led to the hypothesis that the transgenic insect cell lines lacked adequate endogenous N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase II activity for biantennary N-glycan production. To test this hypothesis and further extend the N-glycan processing pathway in Sf9 cells...

‣ A Cross-Taxon Analysis of Insect-Associated Bacterial Diversity

Jones, Ryan Thomas; Sanchez, Leticia Gonzales; Fierer, Noah
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 16/04/2013 Português
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Although it is well known that plants and animals harbor microbial symbionts that can influence host traits, the factors regulating the structure of these microbial communities often remain largely undetermined. This is particularly true for insect-associated microbial communities, as few cross-taxon comparisons have been conducted to date. To address this knowledge gap and determine how host phylogeny and ecology affect insect-associated microbial communities, we collected 137 insect specimens representing 39 species, 28 families, and 8 orders, and characterized the bacterial communities associated with each specimen via 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacterial taxa within the phylum Proteobacteria were dominant in nearly all insects sampled. On average, the insect-associated bacterial communities were not very diverse, with individuals typically harboring fewer than 8 bacterial phylotypes. Bacterial communities also tended to be dominated by a single phylotype; on average, the most abundant phylotype represented 54.7% of community membership. Bacterial communities were significantly more similar among closely related insects than among less-related insects, a pattern driven by within-species community similarity but detected at every level of insect taxonomy tested. Diet was a poor predictor of bacterial community composition. Individual insect species harbored remarkably unique communities: the distribution of 69.0% of bacterial phylotypes was limited to unique insect species...

‣ Insight into the Genetic Components of Community Genetics: QTL Mapping of Insect Association in a Fast-Growing Forest Tree

DeWoody, Jennifer; Viger, Maud; Lakatos, Ferenc; Tuba, Katalin; Taylor, Gail; Smulders, Marinus J. M.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 19/11/2013 Português
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Identifying genetic sequences underlying insect associations on forest trees will improve the understanding of community genetics on a broad scale. We tested for genomic regions associated with insects in hybrid poplar using quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses conducted on data from a common garden experiment. The F2 offspring of a hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides) cross were assessed for seven categories of insect leaf damage at two time points, June and August. Positive and negative correlations were detected among damage categories and between sampling times. For example, sap suckers on leaves in June were positively correlated with sap suckers on leaves (P<0.001) but negatively correlated with skeletonizer damage (P<0.01) in August. The seven forms of leaf damage were used as a proxy for seven functional groups of insect species. Significant variation in insect association occurred among the hybrid offspring, including transgressive segregation of susceptibility to damage. NMDS analyses revealed significant variation and modest broad-sense heritability in insect community structure among genets. QTL analyses identified 14 genomic regions across 9 linkage groups that correlated with insect association. We used three genomics tools to test for putative mechanisms underlying the QTL. First...

‣ A novel baculovirus vector for the production of nonfucosylated recombinant glycoproteins in insect cells

Mabashi-Asazuma, Hideaki; Kuo, Chu-Wei; Khoo, Kay-Hooi; Jarvis, Donald L
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Glycosylation is an important attribute of baculovirus-insect cell expression systems, but some insect cell lines produce core α1,3-fucosylated N-glycans, which are highly immunogenic and render recombinant glycoproteins unsuitable for human use. To address this problem, we exploited a bacterial enzyme, guanosine-5′-diphospho (GDP)-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-d-mannose reductase (Rmd), which consumes the GDP-l-fucose precursor. We expected this enzyme to block glycoprotein fucosylation by blocking the production of GDP-l-fucose, the donor substrate required for this process. Initially, we engineered two different insect cell lines to constitutively express Rmd and isolated subclones with fucosylation-negative phenotypes. However, we found the fucosylation-negative phenotypes induced by Rmd expression were unstable, indicating that this host cell engineering approach is ineffective in insect systems. Thus, we constructed a baculovirus vector designed to express Rmd immediately after infection and facilitate the insertion of genes encoding any glycoprotein of interest for expression later after infection. We used this vector to produce a daughter encoding rituximab and found, in contrast to an Rmd-negative control, that insect cells infected with this virus produced a nonfucosylated form of this therapeutic antibody. These results indicate that our Rmd+ baculoviral vector can be used to solve the immunogenic core α1...

‣ Trace amines inhibit insect odorant receptor function through antagonism of the co-receptor subunit

Chen, Sisi; Luetje, Charles W.
Fonte: F1000Research Publicador: F1000Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 03/04/2014 Português
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Many insect behaviors are driven by olfaction, making insect olfactory receptors (ORs) appealing targets for insect control.  Insect ORs are odorant-gated ion channels, with each receptor thought to be composed of a representative from a large, variable family of odorant binding subunits and a highly conserved co-receptor subunit (Orco), assembled in an unknown stoichiometry.  Synthetic Orco directed agonists and antagonists have recently been identified.  Several Orco antagonists have been shown to act via an allosteric mechanism to inhibit OR activation by odorants.  The high degree of conservation of Orco across insect species results in Orco antagonists having broad activity at ORs from a variety of insect species and suggests that the binding site for Orco ligands may serve as a modulatory site for compounds endogenous to insects or may be a target of exogenous compounds, such as those produced by plants.  To test this idea, we screened a series of biogenic and trace amines, identifying several as Orco antagonists.  Of particular interest were tryptamine, a plant-produced amine, and tyramine, an amine endogenous to the insect nervous system.  Tryptamine was found to be a potent antagonist of Orco, able to block Orco activation by an Orco agonist and to allosterically inhibit activation of ORs by odorants.  Tyramine had effects similar to those of tryptamine...

‣ Evidence-based recommendations on storing and handling specimens for analyses of insect microbiota

Hammer, Tobin J.; Dickerson, Jacob C.; Fierer, Noah
Fonte: PeerJ Inc. Publicador: PeerJ Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 18/08/2015 Português
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Research on insect microbiota has greatly expanded over the past decade, along with a growing appreciation of the microbial contributions to insect ecology and evolution. Many of these studies use DNA sequencing to characterize the diversity and composition of insect-associated microbial communities. The choice of strategies used for specimen collection, storage, and handling could introduce biases in molecular assessments of insect microbiota, but such potential influences have not been systematically evaluated. Likewise, although it is common practice to surface sterilize insects prior to DNA extraction, it is not known if this time-consuming step has any effect on microbial community analyses. To resolve these methodological unknowns, we conducted an experiment wherein replicate individual insects of four species were stored intact for two months using five different methods—freezing, ethanol, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), cetrimonium bromide (CTAB), and room-temperature storage without preservative—and then subjected to whole-specimen 16S rRNA gene sequencing to assess whether the structure of the insect-associated bacterial communities was impacted by these different storage strategies. Overall, different insect species harbored markedly distinct bacterial communities...

‣ Mitigation of biological adhesion to aircraft leading edge surfaces

Kok, Mariana
Fonte: University of Limerick Publicador: University of Limerick
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; all_ul_research; ul_published_reviewed; ul_theses_dissertations
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peer-reviewed; Contamination caused by insects on aircraft leading edge surfaces can result in premature transition of the boundary layer, leading to an increase in skin friction drag and fuel consumption. Consequently, the use of novel low surface energy coatings to mitigate insect residue adhesion was investigated. In order to determine the effect of surface characteristics on insect residue adhesion a range of surfaces, from superhydrophobic to hydrophilic, were evaluated. Surfaces were characterized in terms of their microstructure and hydrophobic properties by profilometry and dynamic contact angle measurements, respectively. Insect impact tests were conducted using two different test facilities, an insect delivery device and a laboratory scale wind tunnel, both capable of producing single and multiple insect impacts at speeds of ca. 100 m/s. Topography of insect residues was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). A screening and evaluation technique, utilizing a modified wet abrasion scrub tester, was developed to determine the effectiveness of candidate coatings against insect residue adhesion. The test method provided a direct quantification of insect residue adhesion to a surface. The use of an analogue as a substitute to live insect testing was evaluated...

‣ Community- Weighted Mean Plant Traits Predict Small Scale Distribution of Insect Root Herbivore Abundance

Sonnemann, Ilja; Pfestorf, Hans; Jeltsch, Florian; Wurst, Susanne
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 30/10/2015 Português
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Small scale distribution of insect root herbivores may promote plant species diversity by creating patches of different herbivore pressure. However, determinants of small scale distribution of insect root herbivores, and impact of land use intensity on their small scale distribution are largely unknown. We sampled insect root herbivores and measured vegetation parameters and soil water content along transects in grasslands of different management intensity in three regions in Germany. We calculated community-weighted mean plant traits to test whether the functional plant community composition determines the small scale distribution of insect root herbivores. To analyze spatial patterns in plant species and trait composition and insect root herbivore abundance we computed Mantel correlograms. Insect root herbivores mainly comprised click beetle (Coleoptera, Elateridae) larvae (43%) in the investigated grasslands. Total insect root herbivore numbers were positively related to community-weighted mean traits indicating high plant growth rates and biomass (specific leaf area, reproductive- and vegetative plant height), and negatively related to plant traits indicating poor tissue quality (leaf C/N ratio). Generalist Elaterid larvae, when analyzed independently...

‣ Traces within traces : holes, pits and galleries in walls and filling of insect trace fossils in paleosols

Mikulás, R.; Genise, J.F.
Fonte: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona Publicador: Universidade Autônoma de Barcelona
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2003 Português
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Fossil insect nests with constructed walls (ichnogenera Uruguay ROSELLI 1938, Palmiraichnus ROSELLI 1987, Rosellichnus GENISE and BOWN 1996), as well as fossil brood masses from dung beetles (Monesichnus ROSELLI 1987) often display pits or galleries made by inquilines, parasitoids, cleptoparasites and scavengers, which develop and/or feed inside them. Some of these “traces within traces” can be distinguished, using morphologic criteria, as separate ichnotaxa. Tombownichnus n. igen. is represented by circular to subcircular holes or paraboloid external pits occurring in discrete walls of chambers made of agglutinated soil material. T. plenus n. isp. consists of a complete perforation, mostly cylindrical in longitudinal section, which pierces whole thickness of the cell wall. Tombownichnus parabolicus n. isp. includes incomplete perforations, i.e. pits, parabolic, conic or subcylindrical in longitudinal section, on the external surface of the chamber wall. Lazaichnus fistulosus n. igen., n. isp. is composed of circular to subcircular holes occurring in constructed walls of chambers made of agglutinated soil material, which are connected to an internal gallery in their infillings. The trace fossils described herein may be the first formal records of this hitherto neglected but promising field of ichnologic research.

‣ Fly fishing for GSTs: a unified nomenclature for mammalian and insect glutathione transferases

Chelvanayagam, Gareth; Parker, Michael William; Board, Philip
Fonte: Elsevier Publicador: Elsevier
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Previously, due to the paucity of sequence data, only two broad classes of glutathione transferases (GSTs) were identified in insects. The recent completion of the sequencing of the Drosophila melanogaster genome has allowed the identification of a considerable number of insect GSTs via a systematic comparison of the genome with sequences from established GST classes. Strikingly, many GST classes found in mammals also occur in Drosophila. These results suggest that the nomenclature originally proposed for invertebrates GSTs, can be extended to harmonise with that used for humans and other species.

‣ Differential effects of land use on ant and herbivore insect communities associated with Caryocar brasiliense (Caryocaraceae)

S. Neves,Frederico; F. Braga,Rodrigo; S. Araújo,Lucimar; I. Campos,Ricardo; Fagundes,Marcílio
Fonte: Revista de Biología Tropical Publicador: Revista de Biología Tropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2012 Português
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Simplification of natural habitats leads to a modification of the community associated with a host plant. Pequi trees (Caryocar brasiliense) are common to find in central Brazil, especially in the middle of monocultures, such as soy, corn, pasturelands or Eucalyptus plantations. On this scenario we hypothesized that habitat modification differentially affects the diversity of ants and herbivore insects associated with this species. The aim of the work was to test if C. brasiliense trees located in human modified habitats, support a lower species richness and abundance of ants, and a greater species richness and abundance of insect herbivores, compared to preserved cerrado habitats. The study was conducted in a Cerrado area located in Northern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Ants and herbivore insects were collected monthly during 2005 using beating technique. The results showed that ant species richness was higher in pequi trees located in preserved Cerrado, followed by trees in pastureland and Eucalyptus plantation, respectively. The ant abundance was lower in the Eucalyptus plantation but no difference in ant abundance was observed between trees in pastureland and the preserved Cerrado. Moreover, herbivore insects exhibited lower number of species and individuals in trees located in the preserved Cerrado than in the pastureland and Eucalyptus plantation. We concluded that habitats simplified by human activities may result in diversity loss and may change species interactions.