Últimos itens adicionados do Acervo: Harvard University

A Universidade de Harvard (em inglês: Harvard University) é uma universidade privada membro da Ivy League, localizada em Cambridge, Massachusetts, Estados Unidos, e cuja história, influência e riqueza tornam-a uma das mais prestigiadas universidades do mundo.

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‣ Stacking the Friday Workshop: An Introduction

Ramseyer, J. Mark
Fonte: Wiliam S. Richardson School of Law, University of Hawaii Publicador: Wiliam S. Richardson School of Law, University of Hawaii
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português

‣ Japan's Postal Savings Showdown

Scott, Hal Stewart; Cargill, Thomas F.
Fonte: Central Banking Publications Ltd. Publicador: Central Banking Publications Ltd.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português

‣ Self-Help and the Nature of Property

Smith, Henry Edward
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português

‣ The Myth of 'Rebalancing' Retaliation in WTO Dispute Settlement Practice

Spamann, Holger
Fonte: Oxford University Press Publicador: Oxford University Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
It is generally assumed that trade retaliation under the WTO performs some kind of ‘rebalancing’ by allowing the injured Member to suspend ‘concessions and obligations’ vis-à-vis the violating Member of a level equivalent to the level of ‘nullification and impairment’ suffered by the injured Member. This article argues that this perception is misguided. The article first questions if a sensible comparator exists with which equivalence for purposes of ‘rebalancing’ could be evaluated. It then argues that WTO arbitration decisions do not even succeed in their limited goal of providing for retaliation that will affect trade in the same amount as the WTO-inconsistent measure at issue. One reason is the use of an asymmetric and underspecified trade effects comparator. The other reason is very significant miscalculation of the trade effects of the violation, as shown by detailed legal-economic analysis of all relevant arbitration decisions. The decisions concerning countermeasures against prohibited export subsidies do not make any attempt at ‘rebalancing’ in the first place. The article considers political explanations of arbitration decisions. It concludes with some suggestions for improvement.

‣ Prolonged Humanitarianism: The Social Life of Aid in the Palestinian Territories

Atshan, Sa'ed Adel
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Palestinians in the Occupied Palestinian Territories (OPT), defined by international law as constituting the Gaza Strip and the West Bank (the latter includes East Jerusalem), are among the highest recipients of international humanitarian aid per capita in the world. In Prolonged Humanitarianism: The Social Life of Aid in the Palestinian Territories, I examine the impact of primarily Western aid on Palestinian society in the present phase of de-development in the OPT (2010-2013). I examine four domains in particular: medical relief, psychosocial humanitarianism, gender-based interventions, and security-sector support. My research reveals the interlinked nature of these domains as well as the blurring of development and humanitarian assistance in the OPT. A central purpose of this research is to provide an ethnographic account of contemporary Palestinian subjectivity under prolonged humanitarian governance, thereby contributing to scholarship on conflict and violence, modern Middle Eastern studies, the anthropology of policy and humanitarianism, and critical development studies.; Anthropology

‣ Mobile Patients, Static Response: (Mis)managing well-being amidst South Africa's dual epidemic

Saltzman, Amy Beth
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Drawing from medical anthropology's approach to global health, this dissertation examines well-being among HIV- and TB-infected labor migrants in South Africa. Based on forty-four months of fieldwork from 2005 to 2013, it narrates households' struggles to make ends meet materially and morally in a context of unemployment, scarcity, and epidemic.; Anthropology

‣ The World in a Book: Robert John Thornton's Temple of Flora (1797-­1812)

Mollendorf, Miranda Andrea
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
I argue in my dissertation that Robert John Thornton's (1768?-1837) Temple of Flora (folio 1799-1807, quarto 1812), also entitled "The Universal Empire of Love," represents personified botanical flowers of the British Empire in a colonial microcosm where anthropomorphic plants are allegorized as Europe's others. This book was a collectible item with plates issued in a series of subscriptions, which were always bound in different combinations so that no two copies were ever the same--a book that depicts a metamorphic view of nature through a series of alterations made to the individual plates, which reflects the diversity of exotic and familiar territories in the world and the mysteries within it. Thornton chose plants, flower symbolism, and landscape backgrounds "with scenery appropriated to their subject," to encapsulate the universe as a series of botanical scenes of exotic and familiar territories of Britain's past and present, and this botanical world includes four continents of the world symbolically represented as women through the relationship between image and text, the diversity of people and naturalia within these territories, and the passage of historical and chronological time. TheTemple of Flora is a textual space that involves strategies of possessing and knowing nature through the collection and conquest of plants that represent the colonial inhabitants of the British Empire ensconced in their territories and collected by wealthy Britons as a miniature colonial and exotic world bound between two covers.; History of Science

‣ Unions, Corporations, and Political Opt-Out Rights After 'Citizens United'

Sachs, Benjamin Ian
Fonte: Columbia Law Review Association, Inc. Publicador: Columbia Law Review Association, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Citizens United upends much of campaign finance law, but it maintains at least one feature of that legal regime: the equal treatment of corporations and unions. Prior to Citizens United, that is, corporations and unions were equally constrained in their ability to spend general treasury funds on federal electoral politics. After the decision, campaign finance law leaves both equally unconstrained and free to use their general treasuries to finance political expenditures. But the symmetrical treatment that Citizens United leaves in place masks a less visible, but equally significant, way in which the law treats union and corporate political spending differently. Namely, federal law prohibits a union from spending its general treasury funds on politics if individual employees object to such use—employees, in short, enjoy a federally protected right to opt out of funding union political activity. In contrast, corporations are free to spend their general treasuries on politics even if individual shareholders object—shareholders enjoy no right to opt out of financing corporate political activity. This Article assesses whether the asymmetric rule of political opt-out rights is justified. The Article first offers an affirmative case for symmetry grounded in the principle that the power to control access to economic opportunities—whether employment or investment based— should not be used to secure compliance with or support for the economic actor’s political agenda. It then addresses three arguments in favor of asymmetry. Given the relative weakness of these arguments...

‣ The Quantitative Empirics of Redistricting Litigation: Knowledge, Threats to Knowledge, and the Need for Less Districting

Greiner, Daniel James
Fonte: Yale Law School Publicador: Yale Law School
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
The experience of the past 50 years has taught us important lessons about the advancement in, but also the ultimate limits of, the quantitative empirics of redistricting. I provide a bird's eye view of the state of quantitative methods in redistricting, focusing particularly on the hardest problem in this area, inferences about racial bloc voting. I review some of the recent advances, particularly those that allow analysis of polities with more than two racial groups, and those that allow a combination of information from sampling techniques, such as exit polls, and so-called “ecological” data. But I also suggest that modern demographic and voting trends, along with a growing realization that there are some critical questions we will never be able to answer (at least not with quantitative information), provide reason for pessimism about how much useful evidence quantitative methods can ultimately produce. I suggest that the increasing limits of quantitative techniques, particularly with respect to voting patterns by race, provide an additional reason to explore the judicious use of alternative vote aggregation schemes, such as limited and cumulative voting.

‣ Using NMR to Identify Structural Features of Lin28-Regulated miRNAs and mRNAs and as a Tool for Comparing Differences in Cellular Metabolism

O'Day, Elizabeth Mary
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Part 1 of this thesis seeks to identify shared structural features of Lin28-regulated miRNAs and mRNAs. Lin28 is an evolutionarily conserved, RNA binding protein, highly expressed in stem cells and poorly differentiated cancers, that inhibits differentiation and helps maintain stem cell properties. Lin28 binds to both the loops of let-7 precursors to block let-7 biogenesis and to Lin28 responsive elements (LREs) in mRNAs either to enhance or inhibit translation. Lin28 RNA binding properties are not well defined. We used NMR spectroscopy, fluorescence assays and bioinformatics to identify common features of Lin28 targets. We show that Lin28 binds G-rich sequences that have properties of G-quartets (G4s). Based on mutational analysis, we show that G4s are important for Lin28 binding. Upon binding, Lin28 may unwind the G4 structure. Our findings suggest that Lin28 recognizes G-quartets in the RNAs it regulates and might function to unwind them. In part 2 of this thesis we use an unbiased NMR metabolite screening method to identify glucose metabolites differentially produced in BPLER and HMLER isogenic triple negative breast cancer cell lines that have dramatic differences in tumor initiating capacity. N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac)...

‣ The Influence of Beliefs on Children's and Adults' Cognition and Social Preferences

Heiphetz, Larisa Alexandra
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
Beliefs--mental representations of particular propositions as true--are fundamental to social cognition. Among the most influential beliefs are ideologies, which concern the way things should be and help people understand the social structures within which they live. Ideologies occupy a unique position because they contain elements of other types of beliefs. For example, to a Biblical literalist, the belief that the earth is 4000 years old may seem fact-like. Because not everyone agrees about ideologies, however, such beliefs may seem somewhat preference-like even to their strongest adherents. To investigate the role of social experience in reasoning about ideologies, we examined children and adults. Because children have significantly less experience with ideologies, their reasoning may diverge from adults. On the other hand, if children and adults respond similarly, this would indicate that vast amounts of experience are not necessary for adult-like belief-based cognition to emerge. Part 1 showed that 5-10 year old children and adults distinguished ideological beliefs from factual beliefs(a domain in which, if two people disagree, at least one must be wrong) and preference-based beliefs(a domain in which it is acceptable for people to disagree)...

‣ Transformations in Health Policy: An Analysis of Alzheimer's Disease Testing, Medicaid Enrollment, and Insurance Market Concentration

Wikler, Elizabeth McCarthy
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
This dissertation consists of three quantitative papers addressing contemporary issues in health policy. The first paper draws on a survey of 2,678 adults from the United States and four European countries to assess demand for a hypothetical early medical test for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Overall, 67% of respondents reported that they would be "very" or "somewhat" likely to get the test if it were available. Through logistic regression analysis, we find that interest was higher among those worried about developing AD, with an immediate blood relative with AD, and who have provided care for AD patients. Knowing that AD is fatal did not influence demand, except among those with an affected blood relative. We expect that a test becoming available could precipitate the creation of a large constituency of asymptomatic, diagnosed adults, affecting a range of health policy decisions. The second paper utilizes Current Population Survey data to explore state-level Medicaid enrollment rates among eligible parents between 2003 and 2010, focusing on the interaction of race and ethnicity and political ideology. Using logistic regression analysis, we find that average take-up for Hispanics in conservative states was 23%, whereas take-up was 38% for both whites and blacks in those states...

‣ Secrets of the Vajra Body: Dngos po'i gnas lugs and the Apotheosis of the Body in the Work of Rgyal ba Yang dgon pa

Miller, Willa Blythe
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
This dissertation looks at an attempt in Buddhist history to theorize the role and status of the body as the prime focus of soteriological discourse. It studies a text titled Explanation of the Hidden Vajra Body (Rdo rje lus kyi sbas bshad), composed by Yang dgon pa Rgyal mtshan dpal (1213-1258). This work, drawing on a wide range of canonical tantric Buddhist scriptures and Indic and Tibetan commentaries, lays out in detail a Buddhist theory of embodiment that brings together the worldly realities of the body with their enlightened transformation. This dissertation analyzes the ways Yang dgon pa theorizes the body as the essential ground of the salvific path, and endeavors to provide a thematic guide to his rich and complex discussion of what the body is and does, from a tantric perspective. The thesis parses a key term, dngos po'i gnas lugs, that Yang dgon pa uses as an organizing principle in Explanation of the Hidden. If taken literally, the term means something like "the nature of things" or "the nature of material substance," but Yang dgon pa deployed the term specifically to refer to the nature of the human psychophysical organism, in its ordinary state. By way of this term, Yang dgon pa argues that the body itself makes enlightenment possible. In the course of this thesis...

‣ Role of Kappa-Opioid Receptors in Stress-Induced Behaviors

Van't Veer, Ashlee Victoria
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
The development of anxiety and mood disorders often coincides with exposure to stress. Accumulating evidence indicates that both corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and dynorphin, the endogenous ligand for the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR), can mediate the effects of stress. My dissertation research utilized laboratory animals to investigate the role of KORs in stress-induced increases in the acoustic startle response, a metric often used to study stress effects in humans. Using wild-type mice, I first demonstrated that systemic administration of a KOR antagonist produced an anxiolytic-like effect on acoustic startle following central (intracerebroventricular) infusion of CRF. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that KOR blockade decreased c-Fos cell counts in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in both vehicle- and CRF-treated mice, and reduced CRF-induced increases in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Within the VTA, reductions were predominantly in dopaminergic neurons. KOR antagonist pretreatment also produced anxiolytic-like effects on footshock-potentiated startle, a model that quantifies context-specific fear conditioning. To complement the antagonist studies, we developed constitutive knockout mice that lack KORs throughout the brain (KOR-/-)...

‣ Revitalizing Romanticism: Novalis' Fichte Studien and the Philosophy of Organic Nonclosure

Jones, Kristin Alise
Fonte: Harvard University Publicador: Harvard University
Tipo: Thesis or Dissertation
Português
This dissertation offers a re-interpretation of Novalis' Fichte Studien. I argue that several recent scholarly readings of this text unnecessarily exclude "organicism," or a panentheistic notion of the Absolute, in favor of "nonclosure," or the endless, because impossibly completed search for knowledge of the Absolute. My reading instead shows that, in his earliest philosophical text, Novalis makes the case for a Kantian discursive consciousness that can know itself, on Jacobian grounds, to be the byproduct (or accident) of a self-conditioning being or organism, and even more specifically a byproduct of God's panentheistic organism, at the same time that Novalis does not allow the possibility of discursive immediacy with that absolute standpoint; the epistemic consequence is that, while empirical science can proceed in the good faith that it makes valid reference to being, nonetheless it can never know its description of being to be final or complete. I call this position "organic nonclosure," and argue that Novalis holds it consistently throughout his very brief philosophical career. The keys to understanding Novalis' reconciliation of organicism and nonclosure are contextual and textual. Contextually, Novalis appreciates the inadvertent organicism in Jacobi's metacritique of Kant and also applies Jacobi's organicist metacritique to Fichte as well...

‣ Broad Spectrum Antiangiogenic Treatment for Ocular Neovascular Diseases

Benny, Ofra; Nakai, Kei; Bazinet, Lauren; Nakao, Shintaro; Hafezi-Moghadam, Ali; Pakneshan, Pouya; Yoshimura, Takeru; Akula, James Daniel; Panigrahy, Dipak; D'Amato, Robert John
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Pathological neovascularization is a hallmark of late stage neovascular (wet) age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and the leading cause of blindness in people over the age of 50 in the western world. The treatments focus on suppression of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), while current approved therapies are limited to inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) exclusively. However, this treatment does not address the underlying cause of AMD, and the loss of VEGF's neuroprotective can be a potential side effect. Therapy which targets the key processes in AMD, the pathological neovascularization, vessel leakage and inflammation could bring a major shift in the approach to disease treatment and prevention. In this study we have demonstrated the efficacy of such broad spectrum antiangiogenic therapy on mouse model of AMD.Methods and Findings Lodamin, a polymeric formulation of TNP-470, is a potent broad-spectrum antiangiogenic drug. Lodamin significantly reduced key processes involved in AMD progression as demonstrated in mice and rats. Its suppressive effects on angiogenesis, vascular leakage and inflammation were studied in a wide array of assays including; a Matrigel, delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), Miles assay...

‣ Dopamine Transporter 3'UTR VNTR Genotype is a Marker of Performance on Executive Function Tasks in Children with ADHD

Karama, Sherif; Grizenko, Natalie; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Mbekou, Valentin; Polotskaia, Anna; Ter-Stepanian, Marina; De Guzman, Rosherrie; Bellingham, Johanne; Sengupta, Sarojini; Joober, Ridha; Doyle, Alysa Emily; Biederman, Joseph
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Background: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous disorder from both clinical and pathogenic viewpoints. Executive function deficits are considered among the most important pathogenic pathways leading to ADHD and may index part of the heterogeneity in this disorder. Methods: To investigate the relationship between the dopamine transporter gene (SLC6A3) 3'-UTR VNTR genotypes and executive function in children with ADHD, 196 children diagnosed with ADHD were sequentially recruited, genotyped, and tested using a battery of three neuropsychological tests aimed at assessing the different aspects of executive functioning. Results: Taking into account a correction for multiple comparisons, the main finding of this study is a significant genotype effect on performances on the Tower of London (F = 6.902, p = 0.009) and on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition (WISC-III) Freedom From Distractibility Index (F = 7.125, p = 0.008), as well as strong trends on Self Ordered Pointing Task error scores (F = 4,996 p = 0.026) and WISC-III Digit Span performance (F = 6.28, p = 0.023). Children with the 9/10 genotype exhibited, on average, a poorer performance on all four measures compared to children with the 10/10 genotype. No effect of genotype on Wisconsin Card Sorting Test measures of performance was detected. Conclusion: Results are compatible with the view that SLC6A3 genotype may modulate components of executive function performance in children with ADHD.

‣ Analysis of Human Sarcospan as a Candidate Gene for CFEOM1

O'Brien, Kristine F; Engle, Elizabeth Carson; Kunkel, Louis Martens
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Background: Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 1 (CFEOM1) is an autosomal dominant eye movement disorder linked to the pericentromere of chromosome 12 (12p11.2 - q12). Sarcospan is a member of the dystrophin associated protein complex in skeletal and extraocular muscle and maps to human chromosome 12p11.2. Mutations in the genes encoding each of the other components of the skeletal muscle sarcospan-sarcoglycan complex (α - δ sarcoglycan) have been shown to cause limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD2C-F). To determine whether mutations in the sarcospan gene are responsible for CFEOM1 we: (1) attempted to map sarcospan to the CFEOM1 critical region; (2) developed a genomic primer set to directly sequence the sarcospan gene in CFEOM1 patients; and (3) generated an anti-sarcospan antibody to examine extraocular muscle biopsies from CFEOM1 patients. Results: When tested by polymerase chain reaction, sarcospan sequence was not detected on yeast or bacterial artificial chromosomes from the CFEOM1 critical region. Sequencing of the sarcospan gene in CFEOM1 patients from 6 families revealed no mutations. Immunohistochemical studies of CFEOM1 extraocular muscles showed normal levels of sarcospan at the membrane. Finally, sarcospan was electronically mapped to bacterial artificial chromosomes that are considered to be outside of the CFEOM1 critical region. Conclusions: In this report we evaluate sarcospan as a candidate gene for CFEOM1. We have found that it is highly unlikely that sarcospan is involved in the pathogenesis of this disease. As of yet no sarcospan gene mutations have been found to cause muscular abnormalities.

‣ Increased mRNA Levels of TCF7L2 and MYC of the Wnt Pathway in Tg-ArcSwe Mice and Alzheimer's Disease Brain

Blom, Elin S.; Wang, Yijing; Skoglund, Lena; Hansson, Anita C.; Ubaldi, Massimo; Lourdusamy, Anbarasu; Sommer, Wolfgang H.; Mielke, Matthew; Heilig, Markus; Lannfelt, Lars; Nilsson, Lars N. G.; Ingelsson, Martin; Hyman, Bradley Theodore
Fonte: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research Publicador: SAGE-Hindawi Access to Research
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Several components in the Wnt pathway, including β-catenin and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta, have been implied in AD pathogenesis. Here, mRNA brain levels from five-month-old tg-ArcSwe and nontransgenic mice were compared using Affymetrix microarray analysis. With surprisingly small overall changes, Wnt signaling was the most affected pathway with altered expression of nine genes in tg-ArcSwe mice. When analyzing mRNA levels of these genes in human brain, transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) and v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC), were increased in Alzheimer's disease (AD) (P < .05). Furthermore, no clear differences in TCF7L2 and MYC mRNA were found in brains with frontotemporal lobar degeneration, suggesting that altered regulation of these Wnt-related genes could be specific to AD. Finally, mRNA levels of three neurogenesis markers were analyzed. Increased mRNA levels of dihydropyrimidinase-like 3 were observed in AD brain, suggesting that altered Wnt pathway regulation may signify synaptic rearrangement or neurogenesis.

‣ Is the way to man's heart (and lung) through the abdomen?

Owens, Robert Llewellyn; Harris, Robert Scott; Malhotra, Atul
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Intra-abdominal hypertension is increasingly recognized to be both prevalent and clinically important in medical and surgical intensive care units. Intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) can impact organ function throughout the body, and it can also complicate standard measurements used in intensive care units. The article by Krebs and colleagues reports the effect of IAP on respiratory function, gas exchange and hemodynamic function. Their results show a relatively small effect of modestly elevated IAP on these variables in their patient population. However, their work raises several questions for clinicians and researchers regarding the pathophysiology and management of IAP.