Página 8 dos resultados de 45945 itens digitais encontrados em 0.051 segundos

‣ RGD-independent Cell Adhesion via a Tissue Transglutaminase-Fibronectin Matrix Promotes Fibronectin Fibril Deposition and Requires Syndecan-4/2 and α5β1 Integrin Co-signaling*

Wang, Zhuo; Collighan, Russell J.; Gross, Stephane R.; Danen, Erik H. J.; Orend, Gertraud; Telci, Dilek; Griffin, Martin
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Fibronectin (FN) deposition mediated by fibroblasts is an important process in matrix remodeling and wound healing. By monitoring the deposition of soluble biotinylated FN, we show that the stress-induced TG-FN matrix, a matrix complex of tissue transglutaminase (TG2) with its high affinity binding partner FN, can increase both exogenous and cellular FN deposition and also restore it when cell adhesion is interrupted via the presence of RGD-containing peptides. This mechanism does not require the transamidase activity of TG2 but is activated through an RGD-independent adhesion process requiring a heterocomplex of TG2 and FN and is mediated by a syndecan-4 and β1 integrin co-signaling pathway. By using α5 null cells, β1 integrin functional blocking antibody, and a α5β1 integrin targeting peptide A5-1, we demonstrate that the α5 and β1 integrins are essential for TG-FN to compensate RGD-induced loss of cell adhesion and FN deposition. The importance of syndecan-2 in this process was shown using targeting siRNAs, which abolished the compensation effect of TG-FN on the RGD-induced loss of cell adhesion, resulting in disruption of actin skeleton formation and FN deposition. Unlike syndecan-4, syndecan-2 does not interact directly with TG2 but acts as a downstream effector in regulating actin cytoskeleton organization through the ROCK pathway. We demonstrate that PKCα is likely to be the important link between syndecan-4 and syndecan-2 signaling and that TG2 is the functional component of the TG-FN heterocomplex in mediating cell adhesion via its direct interaction with heparan sulfate chains.

‣ Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGF-A) Induces Endothelial and Cancer Cell Migration through Direct Binding to Integrin α9β1: IDENTIFICATION OF A SPECIFIC α9β1 BINDING SITE*

Oommen, Saji; Gupta, Shiv K.; Vlahakis, Nicholas E.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Integrin α9β1 mediates accelerated cell adhesion and migration through interactions with a number of diverse extracellular ligands. We have shown previously that it directly binds the vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) A, C, and D and contributes to VEGF-induced angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis. Until now, the α9β1 binding site in VEGF has not been identified. Here, we report that the three-amino acid sequence, EYP, encoded by exon 3 of VEGF-A is essential for binding of VEGF to integrin α9β1 and induces adhesion and migration of endothelial and cancer cells. EYP is specific for α9β1 binding and neither requires nor activates VEGFR-2, the cognate receptor for VEGF-A. Following binding to EYP, integrin α9β1 transduces cell migration through direct activation of the integrin signaling intermediates Src and focal adhesion kinase. This interaction is biologically important because it mediates in vitro endothelial cell tube formation, wound healing, and cancer cell invasion. These novel findings identify EYP as a potential site for directed pharmacotherapy.

‣ Calcium-sensing Receptor Decreases Cell Surface Expression of the Inwardly Rectifying K+ Channel Kir4.1*

Cha, Seung-Kuy; Huang, Chunfa; Ding, Yaxian; Qi, Xiaoping; Huang, Chou-Long; Miller, R. Tyler
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The Ca2+-sensing receptor (CaR) regulates salt and water transport in the kidney as demonstrated by the association of gain of function CaR mutations with a Bartter syndrome-like, salt-wasting phenotype, but the precise mechanism for this effect is not fully established. We found previously that the CaR interacts with and inactivates an inwardly rectifying K+ channel, Kir4.1, which is expressed in the distal nephron that contributes to the basolateral K+ conductance, and in which loss of function mutations are associated with a complex phenotype that includes renal salt wasting. We now find that CaR inactivates Kir4.1 by reducing its cell surface expression. Mutant CaRs reduced Kir4.1 cell surface expression and current density in HEK-293 cells in proportion to their signaling activity. Mutant, activated Gαq reduced cell surface expression and current density of Kir4.1, and these effects were blocked by RGS4, a protein that blocks signaling via Gαi and Gαq. Other α subunits had insignificant effects. Knockdown of caveolin-1 blocked the effect of Gαq on Kir4.1, whereas knockdown of the clathrin heavy chain had no effect. CaR had no comparable effect on the renal outer medullary K+ channel, an apical membrane distal nephron K+ channel that is internalized by clathrin-coated vesicles. Co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that the CaR and Kir4.1 physically associate with caveolin-1 in HEK cells and in kidney extracts. Thus...

‣ Cell Cycle Sensing of Oxidative Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Oxidation of a Specific Cysteine Residue in the Transcription Factor Swi6p*

Chiu, Joyce; Tactacan, Carole M.; Tan, Shi-Xiong; Lin, Ruby C. Y.; Wouters, Merridee A.; Dawes, Ian W.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Yeast cells begin to bud and enter the S phase when growth conditions are favorable during the G1 phase. When subjected to some oxidative stresses, cells delay entry at G1, allowing repair of cellular damage. Hence, oxidative stress sensing is coordinated with the regulation of cell cycle. We identified a novel function of the cell cycle regulator of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Swi6p, as a redox sensor through its cysteine residue at position 404. When alanine was substituted at this position, the resultant mutant, C404A, was sensitive to several reactive oxygen species and oxidants including linoleic acid hydroperoxide, the superoxide anion, and diamide. This mutant lost the ability to arrest in G1 phase upon treatment with lipid hydroperoxide. The Cys-404 residue of Swi6p in wild-type cells was oxidized to a sulfenic acid when cells were subjected to linoleic acid hydroperoxide. Mutation of Cys-404 to Ala abolished the down-regulation of expression of the G1 cyclin genes CLN1, CLN2, PCL1, and PCL2 that occurred when cells of the wild type were exposed to the lipid hydroperoxide. In conclusion, oxidative stress signaling for cell cycle regulation occurs through oxidation of the G1/S-speicific transcription factor Swi6p and consequently leads to suppression of the expression of G1 cyclins and a delay in cells entering the cell cycle.

‣ Identification of Novel Binding Partners (Annexins) for the Cell Death Signal Phosphatidylserine and Definition of Their Recognition Motif*

Rosenbaum, Sabrina; Kreft, Sandra; Etich, Julia; Frie, Christian; Stermann, Jacek; Grskovic, Ivan; Frey, Benjamin; Mielenz, Dirk; Pöschl, Ernst; Gaipl, Udo; Paulsson, Mats; Brachvogel, Bent
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Identification and clearance of apoptotic cells prevents the release of harmful cell contents thereby suppressing inflammation and autoimmune reactions. Highly conserved annexins may modulate the phagocytic cell removal by acting as bridging molecules to phosphatidylserine, a characteristic phagocytosis signal of dying cells. In this study five members of the structurally and functionally related annexin family were characterized for their capacity to interact with phosphatidylserine and dying cells. The results showed that AnxA3, AnxA4, AnxA13, and the already described interaction partner AnxA5 can bind to phosphatidylserine and apoptotic cells, whereas AnxA8 lacks this ability. Sequence alignment experiments located the essential amino residues for the recognition of surface exposed phosphatidylserine within the calcium binding motifs common to all annexins. These amino acid residues were missing in the evolutionary young AnxA8 and when they were reintroduced by site directed mutagenesis AnxA8 gains the capability to interact with phosphatidylserine containing liposomes and apoptotic cells. By defining the evolutionary conserved amino acid residues mediating phosphatidylserine binding of annexins we show that the recognition of dying cells represent a common feature of most annexins. Hence...

‣ DJ-1 Enhances Cell Survival through the Binding of Cezanne, a Negative Regulator of NF-κB*

McNally, R. Sean; Davis, Beckley K.; Clements, Casey M.; Accavitti-Loper, Mary Ann; Mak, Tak W.; Ting, Jenny P.-Y.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Heightened DJ-1 (Park7) expression is associated with a reduction in chemotherapeutic-induced cell death and poor prognosis in several cancers, whereas the loss of DJ-1 function is found in a subgroup of Parkinson disease associated with neuronal death. This study describes a novel pathway by which DJ-1 modulates cell survival. Mass spectrometry shows that DJ-1 interacts with BBS1, CLCF1, MTREF, and Cezanne/OTUD7B/Za20d1. Among these, Cezanne is a known deubiquitination enzyme that inhibits NF-κB activity. DJ-1/Cezanne interaction is confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation of overexpressed and endogenous proteins, maps to the amino-terminal 70 residues of DJ-1, and leads to the inhibition of the deubiquitinating activity of Cezanne. Microarray profiling of shRNA-transduced cells shows that DJ-1 and Cezanne regulate IL-8 and ICAM-1 expression in opposing directions. Similarly, DJ-1 enhances NF-κB nuclear translocation and cell survival, whereas Cezanne reduces these outcomes. Analysis of mouse Park7−/− primary cells confirms the regulation of ICAM-1 by DJ-1 and Cezanne. As NF-κB is important in cellular survival and transformation, IL-8 functions as an angiogenic factor and pro-survival signal, and ICAM-1 has been implicated in tumor progression...

‣ Calpain-mediated Proteolysis of Paxillin Negatively Regulates Focal Adhesion Dynamics and Cell Migration*

Cortesio, Christa L.; Boateng, Lindsy R.; Piazza, Timothy M.; Bennin, David A.; Huttenlocher, Anna
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The dynamic turnover of integrin-mediated adhesions is important for cell migration. Paxillin is an adaptor protein that localizes to focal adhesions and has been implicated in cell motility. We previously reported that calpain-mediated proteolysis of talin1 and focal adhesion kinase mediates adhesion disassembly in motile cells. To determine whether calpain-mediated paxillin proteolysis regulates focal adhesion dynamics and cell motility, we mapped the preferred calpain proteolytic site in paxillin. The cleavage site is between the paxillin LD1 and LD2 motifs and generates a C-terminal fragment that is similar in size to the alternative product paxillin delta. The calpain-generated proteolytic fragment, like paxillin delta, functions as a paxillin antagonist and impairs focal adhesion disassembly and migration. We generated mutant paxillin with a point mutation (S95G) that renders it partially resistant to calpain proteolysis. Paxillin-deficient cells that express paxillin S95G display increased turnover of zyxin-containing adhesions using time-lapse microscopy and also show increased migration. Moreover, cancer-associated somatic mutations in paxillin are common in the N-terminal region between the LD1 and LD2 motifs and confer partial calpain resistance. Taken together...

‣ Monocarboxylate Transporter-1 Is Required for Cell Death in Mouse Chondrocytic ATDC5 Cells Exposed to Interleukin-1β via Late Phase Activation of Nuclear Factor κB and Expression of Phagocyte-type NADPH Oxidase*

Yoshimura, Kentaro; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Yasuhara, Rika; Maruyama, Toshifumi; Akiyama, Tomohito; Yamada, Atsushi; Takami, Masamichi; Suzawa, Tetsuo; Tsunawaki, Shoko; Tachikawa, Tetsuhiko; Baba, Kazuyoshi; Kamijo, Ryutaro
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) induces cell death in chondrocytes in a nitric oxide (NO)- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent manner. In this study, increased production of lactate was observed in IL-1β-treated mouse chondrocytic ATDC5 cells prior to the onset of their death. IL-1β-induced cell death in ATDC5 cells was suppressed by introducing an siRNA for monocarboxylate transporter-1 (MCT-1), a lactate transporter distributed in plasma and mitochondrial inner membranes. Mct-1 knockdown also prevented IL-1β-induced expression of phagocyte-type NADPH oxidase (NOX-2), an enzyme specialized for production of ROS, whereas it did not have an effect on inducible NO synthase. Suppression of IL-1β-induced cell death by Nox-2 siRNA indicated that NOX-2 is involved in cell death. Phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor of κBα (IκBα) from 5 to 20 min after the addition of IL-1β was not affected by Mct-1 siRNA. In addition, IκBα was slightly decreased after 12 h of incubation with IL-1β, and the decrease was prominent after 36 h, whereas activation of p65/RelA was observed from 12 to 48 h after exposure to IL-1β. These changes were not seen in Mct-1-silenced cells. Forced expression of IκBα super repressor as well as treatment with the IκB kinase inhibitor BAY 11-7082 suppressed NOX-2 expression. Furthermore...

‣ MicroRNA Cluster 302–367 Enhances Somatic Cell Reprogramming by Accelerating a Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Transition*

Liao, Baojian; Bao, Xichen; Liu, Longqi; Feng, Shipeng; Zovoilis, Athanasios; Liu, Wenbo; Xue, Yanting; Cai, Jie; Guo, Xiangpeng; Qin, Baoming; Zhang, Ruosi; Wu, Jiayan; Lai, Liangxue; Teng, Maikun; Niu, Liwen; Zhang, Biliang; Esteban, Miguel A.; Pei, Dua
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging critical regulators of cell function that frequently reside in clusters throughout the genome. They influence a myriad of cell functions, including the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells, also termed reprogramming. Here, we have successfully delivered entire miRNA clusters into reprogramming fibroblasts using retroviral vectors. This strategy avoids caveats associated with transient transfection of chemically synthesized miRNA mimics. Overexpression of 2 miRNA clusters, 106a–363 and in particular 302–367, allowed potent increases in induced pluripotent stem cell generation efficiency in mouse fibroblasts using 3 exogenous factors (Sox2, Klf4, and Oct4). Pathway analysis highlighted potential relevant effectors, including mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition, cell cycle, and epigenetic regulators. Further study showed that miRNA cluster 302–367 targeted TGFβ receptor 2, promoted increased E-cadherin expression, and accelerated mesenchymal-to-epithelial changes necessary for colony formation. Our work thus provides an interesting alternative for improving reprogramming using miRNAs and adds new evidence for the emerging relationship between pluripotency and the epithelial phenotype.

‣ N-Linked Glycosylation Regulates Human Proteinase-activated Receptor-1 Cell Surface Expression and Disarming via Neutrophil Proteinases and Thermolysin

Xiao, Yu Pei; Morice, Alyn H.; Compton, Steven J.; Sadofsky, Laura
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Proteinase-activated receptor 1 (PAR1) induces activation of platelet and vascular cells after proteolytic cleavage of its extracellular N terminus by thrombin. In pathological situations, other proteinases may be generated in the circulation and might modify the responses of PAR1 by cleaving extracellular domains. In this study, epitope-tagged wild-type human PAR1 (hPAR1) and a panel of N-linked glycosylation-deficient mutant receptors were permanently expressed in epithelial cells (Kirsten murine sarcoma virus-transformed rat kidney cells and CHO cells). We have analyzed the role of N-linked glycosylation in regulating proteinase activation/disarming and cell global expression of hPAR1. We reported for the first time that glycosylation in the N terminus of hPAR1 downstream of the tethered ligand (especially Asn75) governs receptor disarming to trypsin, thermolysin, and the neutrophil proteinases elastase and proteinase 3 but not cathepsin G. In addition, hPAR1 is heavily N-linked glycosylated and sialylated in epithelial cell lines, and glycosylation occurs at all five consensus sites, namely, Asn35, Asn62, Asn75, Asn250, and Asn259. Removing these N-linked glycosylation sequons affected hPAR1 cell surface expression to varying degrees...

‣ Idas, a Novel Phylogenetically Conserved Geminin-related Protein, Binds to Geminin and Is Required for Cell Cycle Progression*

Pefani, Dafni-Eleutheria; Dimaki, Maria; Spella, Magda; Karantzelis, Nickolas; Mitsiki, Eirini; Kyrousi, Christina; Symeonidou, Ioanna-Eleni; Perrakis, Anastassis; Taraviras, Stavros; Lygerou, Zoi
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms relies on an intricate balance between cell proliferation and differentiation. Geminin regulates the cell cycle by directly binding and inhibiting the DNA replication licensing factor Cdt1. Geminin also interacts with transcriptional regulators of differentiation and chromatin remodelling factors, and its balanced interactions are implicated in proliferation-differentiation decisions during development. Here, we describe Idas (Idas being a cousin of the Gemini in Ancient Greek Mythology), a previously uncharacterised coiled-coil protein related to Geminin. We show that human Idas localizes to the nucleus, forms a complex with Geminin both in cells and in vitro through coiled-coil mediated interactions, and can change Geminin subcellular localization. Idas does not associate with Cdt1 and prevents Geminin from binding to Cdt1 in vitro. Idas depletion from cells affects cell cycle progression; cells accumulate in S phase and are unable to efficiently progress to mitosis. Idas protein levels decrease in anaphase, whereas its overexpression causes mitotic defects. During development, we show that Idas exhibits high level expression in the choroid plexus and the cortical hem of the mouse telencephalon. Our data highlight Idas as a novel Geminin binding partner...

‣ Enhanced Lysosomal Activity Is Involved in Bax Inhibitor-1-induced Regulation of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress Response and Cell Death against ER Stress: INVOLVEMENT OF VACUOLAR H+-ATPASE (V-ATPASE)*

Lee, Geum-Hwa; Kim, Do-Sung; Kim, Hyung-Tae; Lee, Jung-Wook; Chung, Chin-Ha; Ahn, Taeho; Lim, Jung Min; Kim, In-Ki; Chae, Han-Jung; Kim, Hyung-Ryong
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1) is an evolutionarily conserved protein that protects cells against endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress while also affecting the ER stress response. In this study, we examined BI-1-induced regulation of the ER stress response as well as the control of the protein over cell death under ER stress. In BI-1-overexpressing cells (BI-1 cells), proteasome activity was similar to that of control cells; however, the lysosomal fraction of BI-1 cells showed sensitivity to degradation of BSA. In addition, areas and polygonal lengths of lysosomes were greater in BI-1 cells than in control cells, as assessed by fluorescence and electron microscopy. In BI-1 cells, lysosomal pH was lower than in control cells and lysosomal vacuolar H+-ATPase(V-ATPase), a proton pump, was activated, suggesting high H+ uptake into lysosomes. Even when exposed to ER stress, BI-1 cells maintained high levels of lysosomal activities, including V-ATPase activity. Bafilomycin, a V-ATPase inhibitor, leads to the reversal of BI-1-induced regulation of ER stress response and cell death due to ER stress. In BI-1 knock-out mouse embryo fibroblasts, lysosomal activity and number per cell were relatively lower than in BI-1 wild-type cells. This study suggests that highly maintained lysosomal activity may be one of the mechanisms by which BI-1 exerts its regulatory effects on the ER stress response and cell death.

‣ Unsaturated Fatty Acids Drive Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase (ADAM)-dependent Cell Adhesion, Proliferation, and Migration by Modulating Membrane Fluidity*

Reiss, Karina; Cornelsen, Isabell; Husmann, Matthias; Gimpl, Gerald; Bhakdi, Sucharit
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The disintegrin-metalloproteinases ADAM10 and ADAM17 mediate the release of several cell signaling molecules and cell adhesion molecules such as vascular endothelial cadherin or L-selectin affecting endothelial permeability and leukocyte transmigration. Dysregulation of ADAM activity may contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the control of ADAM functions are still incompletely understood. Atherosclerosis is characterized by lipid plaque formation and local accumulation of unsaturated free fatty acids (FFA). Here, we show that unsaturated FFA increase ADAM-mediated substrate cleavage. We demonstrate that these alterations are not due to genuine changes in enzyme activity, but correlate with changes in membrane fluidity as revealed by measurement of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching analyses. ELISA and immunoblot experiments conducted with granulocytes, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes revealed rapid increase of ectodomain shedding of ADAM10 and ADAM17 substrates upon membrane fluidization. Large amounts of unsaturated FFA may be liberated from cholesteryl esters in LDL that is entrapped in atherosclerotic lesions. Incubation of cells with thus modified LDL resulted in rapid cleavage of ADAM substrates with corresponding functional consequences on cell proliferation...

‣ Ribosomal 18 S RNA Processing by the IGF-I-responsive WDR3 Protein Is Integrated with p53 Function in Cancer Cell Proliferation*

McMahon, Mary; Ayllón, Verónica; Panov, Kostya I.; O'Connor, Rosemary
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) signaling is strongly associated with cell growth and regulates the rate of synthesis of the rRNA precursor, the first and the key stage of ribosome biogenesis. In a screen for mediators of IGF-I signaling in cancer, we recently identified several ribosome-related proteins, including NEP1 (nucleolar essential protein 1) and WDR3 (WD repeat 3), whose homologues in yeast function in ribosome processing. The WDR3 gene and its locus on chromosome 1p12-13 have previously been linked with malignancy. Here we show that IGF-I induces expression of WDR3 in transformed cells. WDR3 depletion causes defects in ribosome biogenesis by affecting 18 S rRNA processing and also causes a transient down-regulation of precursor rRNA levels with moderate repression of RNA polymerase I activity. Suppression of WDR3 in cells expressing functional p53 reduced proliferation and arrested cells in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. This was associated with activation of p53 and sequestration of MDM2 by ribosomal protein L11. Cells lacking functional p53 did not undergo cell cycle arrest upon suppression of WDR3. Overall, the data indicate that WDR3 has an essential function in 40 S ribosomal subunit synthesis and in ribosomal stress signaling to p53-mediated regulation of cell cycle progression in cancer cells.

‣ Liaisons between Survivin and Plk1 during Cell Division and Cell Death*

Colnaghi, Rita; Wheatley, Sally P.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Survivin and Plk1 kinase are important mediators of cell survival that are required for chromosome alignment, cytokinesis, and protection from apoptosis. Interference with either survivin or Plk1 activity manifests many similar outcomes: prometaphase delay/arrest, multinucleation, and increased apoptosis. Moreover, the expression of both survivin and Plk1 is deregulated in cancer. Given these similarities, we speculated that these two proteins may cooperate during mitosis and/or in cell death pathways. Here we report that survivin and Plk1 interact during mitosis and that Plk1 phosphorylates survivin at serine 20. Importantly, we find that overexpression of a non-phosphorylatable version, S20A, is unable to correct chromosomes connected to the spindle in a syntelic manner during prometaphase and allows cells harboring these maloriented chromosomes to enter anaphase, evading the spindle tension checkpoint. By contrast, the constitutive phosphomimic, S20D, completes congression and division ahead of schedule and, unlike S20A, is able to support proliferation in the absence of the endogenous protein. Despite the importance of this residue in mitosis, its mutation does not appear to affect the anti-apoptotic activity of survivin in response to TRAIL. Together...

‣ Biotechnology Apprenticeship for Secondary-Level Students: Teaching Advanced Cell Culture Techniques for Research

Lewis, Jennifer R.; Kotur, Mark S.; Butt, Omar; Kulcarni, Sumant; Riley, Alyssa A.; Ferrell, Nick; Sullivan, Kathryn D.; Ferrari, Mauro
Fonte: American Society for Cell Biology Publicador: American Society for Cell Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2002 Português
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The purpose of this article is to discuss small-group apprenticeships (SGAs) as a method to instruct cell culture techniques to high school participants. The study aimed to teach cell culture practices and to introduce advanced imaging techniques to solve various biomedical engineering problems. Participants designed and completed experiments using both flow cytometry and laser scanning cytometry during the 1-month summer apprenticeship. In addition to effectively and efficiently teaching cell biology laboratory techniques, this course design provided an opportunity for research training, career exploration, and mentoring. Students participated in active research projects, working with a skilled interdisciplinary team of researchers in a large research institution with access to state-of-the-art instrumentation. The instructors, composed of graduate students, laboratory managers, and principal investigators, worked well together to present a real and worthwhile research experience. The students enjoyed learning cell culture techniques while contributing to active research projects. The institution's researchers were equally enthusiastic to instruct and serve as mentors. In this article, we clarify and illuminate the value of small-group laboratory apprenticeships to the institution and the students by presenting the results and experiences of seven middle and high school participants and their instructors.

‣ Mutant Huntingtin Alters Cell Fate in Response to Microtubule Depolymerization via the GEF-H1-RhoA-ERK Pathway*

Varma, Hemant; Yamamoto, Ai; Sarantos, Melissa R.; Hughes, Robert E.; Stockwell, Brent R.
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Cellular responses to drug treatment show tremendous variations. Elucidating mechanisms underlying these variations is critical for predicting therapeutic responses and developing personalized therapeutics. Using a small molecule screening approach, we discovered how a disease causing allele leads to opposing cell fates upon pharmacological perturbation. Diverse microtubule-depolymerizing agents protected mutant huntingtin-expressing cells from cell death, while being toxic to cells lacking mutant huntingtin or those expressing wild-type huntingtin. Additional neuronal cell lines and primary neurons from Huntington disease mice also showed altered survival upon microtubule depolymerization. Transcription profiling revealed that microtubule depolymerization induced the autocrine growth factor connective tissue growth factor and activated ERK survival signaling. The genotype-selective rescue was dependent upon increased RhoA protein levels in mutant huntingtin-expressing cells, because inhibition of RhoA...

‣ Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier Ligase Activity of Mms21 Is Required for Maintenance of Chromosome Integrity during the Unperturbed Mitotic Cell Division Cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae*

Rai, Ragini; Varma, Satya P. M. V.; Shinde, Nikhil; Ghosh, Shilpa; Kumaran, Srikala P.; Skariah, Geena; Laloraya, Shikha
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The SUMO ligase activity of Mms21/Nse2, a conserved member of the Smc5/6 complex, is required for resisting extrinsically induced genotoxic stress. We report that the Mms21 SUMO ligase activity is also required during the unchallenged mitotic cell cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. SUMO ligase-defective cells were slow growing and spontaneously incurred DNA damage. These cells required caffeine-sensitive Mec1 kinase-dependent checkpoint signaling for survival even in the absence of extrinsically induced genotoxic stress. SUMO ligase-defective cells were sensitive to replication stress and displayed synthetic growth defects with DNA damage checkpoint-defective mutants such as mec1, rad9, and rad24. MMS21 SUMO ligase and mediator of replication checkpoint 1 gene (MRC1) were epistatic with respect to hydroxyurea-induced replication stress or methyl methanesulfonate-induced DNA damage sensitivity. Subjecting Mms21 SUMO ligase-deficient cells to transient replication stress resulted in enhancement of cell cycle progression defects such as mitotic delay and accumulation of hyperploid cells. Consistent with the spontaneous activation of the DNA damage checkpoint pathway observed in the Mms21-mediated sumoylation-deficient cells, enhanced frequency of chromosome breakage and loss was detected in these mutant cells. A mutation in the conserved cysteine 221 that is engaged in coordination of the zinc ion in Loop 2 of the Mms21 SPL-RING E3 ligase catalytic domain resulted in strong replication stress sensitivity and also conferred slow growth and Mec1 dependence to unchallenged mitotically dividing cells. Our findings establish Mms21-mediated sumoylation as a determinant of cell cycle progression and maintenance of chromosome integrity during the unperturbed mitotic cell division cycle in budding yeast.

‣ Transcriptional Suppression of Connexin43 by TBX18 Undermines Cell-Cell Electrical Coupling in Postnatal Cardiomyocytes

Kapoor, Nidhi; Galang, Giselle; Marbán, Eduardo; Cho, Hee Cheol
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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T-box transcription factors figure prominently in embryonic cardiac cell lineage specifications. Mesenchymal precursor cells expressing Tbx18 give rise to the heart's pacemaker, the sinoatrial node (SAN). We sought to identify targets of TBX18 transcriptional regulation in the heart by forced adenoviral overexpression in postnatal cardiomyocytes. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) transduced with GFP showed sarcolemmal, punctate Cx43 expression. In contrast, TBX18-transduced NRCMs exhibited sparse Cx43 expression. Both the transcript and protein levels of Cx43 were greatly down-regulated within 2 days of TBX18 transduction. Direct injection of TBX18 in the guinea pig heart in vivo inhibited Cx43 expression. The repressor activity of TBX18 on Cx43 was highly specific; protein levels of Cx45 and Cx40, which comprise the main gap junctions in the SAN and conduction system, were unchanged by TBX18. A reporter-based promoter assay demonstrated that TBX18 directly represses the Cx43 promoter. Phenotypically, TBX18-NRCMs exhibited slowed intercellular calcein dye transfer kinetics (421 ± 54 versus control 127 ± 43 ms). Intracellular Ca2+ oscillations in control NRCM monolayers were highly synchronized. In contrast, TBX18 overexpression led to asynchronous Ca2+ oscillations...

‣ Involvement of Autophagy in Oncogenic K-Ras-induced Malignant Cell Transformation*

Kim, Min-Jung; Woo, Soo-Jung; Yoon, Chang-Hwan; Lee, Jae-Seong; An, Sungkwan; Choi, Yung-Hyun; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Yoon, Gyesoon; Lee, Su-Jae
Fonte: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Publicador: American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
547.8465%
Autophagy has recently been implicated in both the prevention and progression of cancer. However, the molecular basis for the relationship between autophagy induction and the initial acquisition of malignancy is currently unknown. Here, we provide the first evidence that autophagy is essential for oncogenic K-Ras (K-RasV12)-induced malignant cell transformation. Retroviral expression of K-RasV12 induced autophagic vacuole formation and malignant transformation in human breast epithelial cells. Interestingly, pharmacological inhibition of autophagy completely blocked K-RasV12-induced, anchorage-independent cell growth on soft agar. Both mRNA and protein levels of ATG5 and ATG7 (autophagy-specific genes 5 and 7, respectively) were increased in cells overexpressing K-RasV12. Targeted suppression of ATG5 or ATG7 expression by short hairpin (sh) RNA inhibited cell growth on soft agar and tumor formation in nude mice. Moreover, inhibition of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with antioxidants clearly attenuated K-RasV12-induced ATG5 and ATG7 induction, autophagy, and malignant cell transformation. MAPK pathway components were activated in cells overexpressing K-RasV12, and inhibition of JNK blunted induction of ATG5 and ATG7 and subsequent autophagy. In addition...