Página 1 dos resultados de 1200 itens digitais encontrados em 0.015 segundos

‣ Válvula nasal: anatomia e fisiologia; Nasal valve: anatomy and physiology

NIGRO, Carlos Eduardo Nazareth; NIGRO, Josiane Faria de Aguiar; MION, Olavo; MELLO JR, João Ferreira
Fonte: ABORL-CCF Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial Publicador: ABORL-CCF Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
582.63633%
A porção anterior das cavidades nasais, da narina à válvula nasal (VN), é a região de maior resistência nasal ao fluxo aerífero, de suma importância para a fisiologia nasal. Na literatura existem terminologias diferentes para se referir às mesmas estruturas anatômicas e, ainda, o mesmo termo se referindo a estruturas anatômicas diferentes. OBJETIVO: Realizamos este trabalho com o objetivo de revisarmos o funcionamento da VN e definirmos com mais clareza estruturas anatômicas da porção anterior das cavidades nasais, principalmente a região da VN. CONCLUSÃO: Existe controvérsia na literatura quanto à nomenclatura das estruturas da VN. Neste trabalho definimos VN como uma estrutura tridimensional compreendida anteriormente pelo ostium internum e posteriormente pelo isthmus nasi.; The anterior portion of the nasal cavities, from the nostril to the nasal valve (NV), is the place of highest nasal resistance to airflow, paramount to nasal physiology. There are different terminologies for the same anatomic structures in the literature. AIM: The aim of this paper was to study the NV function and define clearly the structures of the anterior portion of the nasal cavities, mainly the region of the NV. CONCLUSION: Internum ostium is the anterior segment and isthmus nasi is the posterior segment of the NV region.

‣ Computer game-based and traditional learning method: a comparison regarding students’ knowledge retention

Melo, Silmara Rondon; Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim de
Fonte: London Publicador: London
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
598.3001%
Abstract Background Educational computer games are examples of computer-assisted learning objects, representing an educational strategy of growing interest. Given the changes in the digital world over the last decades, students of the current generation expect technology to be used in advancing their learning requiring a need to change traditional passive learning methodologies to an active multisensory experimental learning methodology. The objective of this study was to compare a computer game-based learning method with a traditional learning method, regarding learning gains and knowledge retention, as means of teaching head and neck Anatomy and Physiology to Speech-Language and Hearing pathology undergraduate students. Methods Students were randomized to participate to one of the learning methods and the data analyst was blinded to which method of learning the students had received. Students’ prior knowledge (i.e. before undergoing the learning method), short-term knowledge retention and long-term knowledge retention (i.e. six months after undergoing the learning method) were assessed with a multiple choice questionnaire. Students’ performance was compared considering the three moments of assessment for both for the mean total score and for separated mean scores for Anatomy questions and for Physiology questions. Results Students that received the game-based method performed better in the pos-test assessment only when considering the Anatomy questions section. Students that received the traditional lecture performed better in both post-test and long-term post-test when considering the Anatomy and Physiology questions. Conclusions The game-based learning method is comparable to the traditional learning method in general and in short-term gains...

‣ Uso de jogo interativo na aprendizagem de estudantes de fonoaudiologia sobre o sistema miofuncional orofacial; Use of interactive game in speech language and hearing sciences students learning about the orofacial myofunctional system

Rondon, Silmara
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 19/10/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
604.83668%
O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar dois métodos de aprendizagem sobre Anatomia e Fisiologia do Sistema Miofuncional Orofacial (SMFO) em estudantes do segundo ano do curso de Fonoaudiologia: método interativo (com uso de um jogo computacional) e método tradicional (com uso de textos resumidos associados a figuras pertinentes), no que se refere à aprendizagem e à retenção de conhecimento. Foram sujeitos do estudo 29 estudantes do segundo ano do curso de Fonoaudiologia os quais estavam cursando uma disciplina sobre Anatomia e Fisiologia do SMFO. A disciplina incluía aulas expositivas e um horário de estudo em que foram aplicados os dois métodos de aprendizagem propostos. Cada estudante foi alocado randomicamente em um dentre dois grupos: Grupo I (GI) 15 estudantes os quais foram submetidos ao método de aprendizagem por meio do jogo computacional; Grupo II (GII) 14 estudantes os quais foram submetidos ao método de aprendizagem tradicional. Os dois métodos foram desenvolvidos com a mesma duração (uma hora, uma vez por semana) e foram aplicados pelo mesmo tutor. O processo de randomização dos grupos foi mascarado. Os estudantes foram avaliados quanto aos conhecimentos prévios (préteste: antes da aplicação dos métodos de aprendizagem); quanto à retenção de conhecimento em curto prazo (pós-teste: imediatamente após a conclusão da aplicação dos métodos de aprendizagem) e quanto à retenção de conhecimento em longo prazo (pós-teste tardio: seis meses após a conclusão da aplicação dos métodos de aprendizagem). A avaliação foi realizada por aplicação de um questionário...

‣ Educação mediada por tecnologia em fonoaudiologia: uma comparação entre três métodos de aprendizagem sobre o sistema miofuncional orofacial; Technology-mediated learning in speech-language and hearing sciences: a comparison between three learning methods about the orofacial miofuncional system

Melo, Silmara Rondon
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/06/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
578.90184%
O objetivo deste estudo foi comparar três métodos de aprendizagem sobre Anatomia e Fisiologia do Sistema Miofuncional Orofacial (SMFO) em relação ao desempenho prático e à motivação para a aprendizagem de estudantes de Fonoaudiologia. Participaram 36 estudantes do segundo ano de graduação, em disciplina obrigatória, após assinatura de termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido. Cada estudante foi alocado randomicamente em um dentre três grupos: Grupo I (GI) - 12 participantes do Método Interativo 1 (MI1); Grupo II (GII) - 12 participantes do Método Interativo 2 (MI2); Grupo III (GIII) - 12 participantes do Método Tradicional (MT). Os métodos de aprendizagem foram aplicados durante horário de estudo complementar semanal (uma hora de duração), após aula expositiva da disciplina, contendo os mesmos tópicos de estudo relacionados à aula. Concluída a aplicação dos três métodos de aprendizagem, foi aplicada avaliação de desempenho prático sendo requerido dos estudantes que realizassem procedimentos referentes à avaliação fonoaudiológica segundo critérios do protocolo de Avaliação Miofuncional Orofacial com Escores - Expandido. Em outro dia, foi aplicado o questionário Instructional Materials Motivation Survey (IMMS) para avaliação da motivação para a aprendizagem. O questionário avalia quatro aspectos da motivação: atenção...

‣ Anatomy and physiology of Cattail as related to different population densities

CORRÊA,F.F.; MADAIL,R.H.; BARBOSA,S.; PEREIRA,M.P.; CASTRO,E.M.; SORIANO,C.T.G.; PEREIRA,F.J.
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira da Ciência das Plantas Daninhas Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira da Ciência das Plantas Daninhas
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
790.39414%
The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of the population density of Typha angustifolia plants in the anatomical and physiological characteristics. Plants were collected from populations of high density (over 50% of colonization capacity) and low density (less than 50% of colonization capacity) and cultivated under controlled greenhouse conditions. Plants from both populations were grown in plastic trays containing 4 L of nutritive solution for 60 days. At the end of this period, the relative growth rate, leaf area ratio, net assimilatory rate, root/shoot ratio, leaf anatomy, root anatomy, and catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities were evaluated. Plants from high density populations showed increased growth rate and root/shoot ratio. Low density populations showed higher values of stomatal index and density in leaves, as well as increased palisade parenchyma thickness. Root epidermis and exodermis thickness as well as the aerenchyma proportion of high density populations were reduced, these plants also showed increased vascular cylinder proportion. Only catalase activity was modified between the high and low density populations, showing increased values in low density populations. Therefore, different Typha angustifolia plants show differences in its anatomy and physiology related to its origins on high and low density conditions. High density population plants shows increased growth capacity related to lower apoplastic barriers in root and this may be related to increased nutrient uptake capacity.

‣ Leaf anatomy and carbon isotope composition in Coffea species related to photosynthetic pathway

Carelli,Maria Luiza Carvalho; Queiroz-Voltan,Rachel Benetti; Fahl,Joel Irineu; Trivelin,Paulo César Ocheuze
Fonte: Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology Publicador: Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/04/2003 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
675.1353%
Possible presence of vascular bundle sheath cells and its relation to photosynthetic pathway, leaf anatomy and carbon isotope composition (delta13C) were examined in six species of genus Coffea: C. arabica (cvs. Catuaí Vermelho, Mundo Novo, Bourbon Vermelho and Icatu Amarelo), C. canephora (cvs. Apoatã and Guarini), C. liberica, C. dewevrei, C. salvatrix and C. stenophylla. In all genotypes, the vascular bundle was surrounded by a layer of cells with numerous chloroplasts in a centrifugal position. Visually no differences could be seen between the spongy parenchyma cells and the bundle sheath cells, neither in size nor in chloroplast number. The leaf delta13C values ranged between a maximum of - 26.2 ‰ in C. salvatrix and a minimum of -29.7 ‰ in C. liberica. A strong correlation (r = 0.972, p = 0.001) between delta13C and anatomical characteristics was observed in coffee species. C. salvatrix exhibited the highest delta13C values and the most compact mesophyll, with more palisade and spongy parenchyma cells in contact with the vascular bundle sheath.

‣ The Role of the Periaqueductal Gray in the Modulation of Pain in Males and Females: Are the Anatomy and Physiology Really that Different?

Loyd, Dayna R.; Murphy, Anne Z.
Fonte: Hindawi Publishing Corporation Publicador: Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
678.64875%
Anatomical and physiological studies conducted in the 1960s identified the periaqueductal gray (PAG) and its descending projections to the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) and spinal cord dorsal horn, as a primary anatomical pathway mediating opioid-based analgesia. Since these initial studies, the PAG-RVM-spinal cord pathway has been characterized anatomically and physiologically in a wide range of vertebrate species. Remarkably, the majority of these studies were conducted exclusively in males with the implicit assumption that the anatomy and physiology of this circuit were the same in females; however, this is not the case. It is well established that morphine administration produces greater antinociception in males compared to females. Recent studies indicate that the PAG-RVM pathway contributes to the sexually dimorphic actions of morphine. This manuscript will review our anatomical, physiological, and behavioral data identifying sex differences in the PAG-RVM pathway, focusing on its role in pain modulation and morphine analgesia.

‣ Automatic anatomy recognition via multiobject oriented active shape models

Chen, Xinjian; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Alavi, Abass; Torigian, Drew A.
Fonte: American Association of Physicists in Medicine Publicador: American Association of Physicists in Medicine
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
573.67305%
Purpose: This paper studies the feasibility of developing an automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) system in clinical radiology and demonstrates its operation on clinical 2D images.

‣ Normal Bone Anatomy and Physiology

Clarke, Bart
Fonte: American Society of Nephrology Publicador: American Society of Nephrology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2008 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
684.57234%
This review describes normal bone anatomy and physiology as an introduction to the subsequent articles in this section that discuss clinical applications of iliac crest bone biopsy. The normal anatomy and functions of the skeleton are reviewed first, followed by a general description of the processes of bone modeling and remodeling. The bone remodeling process regulates the gain and loss of bone mineral density in the adult skeleton and directly influences bone strength. Thorough understanding of the bone remodeling process is critical to appreciation of the value of and interpretation of the results of iliac crest bone histomorphometry. Osteoclast recruitment, activation, and bone resorption is discussed in some detail, followed by a review of osteoblast recruitment and the process of new bone formation. Next, the collagenous and noncollagenous protein components and function of bone extracellular matrix are summarized, followed by a description of the process of mineralization of newly formed bone matrix. The actions of biomechanical forces on bone are sensed by the osteocyte syncytium within bone via the canalicular network and intercellular gap junctions. Finally, concepts regarding bone remodeling, osteoclast and osteoblast function...

‣ A Cross-Sectional Survey of the Association between Bilateral Topical Prostaglandin Analogue Use and Ocular Adnexal Features

Shah, Mamta; Lee, Grace; Lefebvre, Daniel Robert; Kronberg, Benjamin; Loomis, Stephanie; Brauner, Stacey; Turalba, Angela Valera; Rhee, Douglas J; Freitag, Suzanne Kay; Pasquale, Louis
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
584.63355%
We studied the relation between prostaglandin analogue use and ocular adnexal features. We used a prospective, cross-sectional study involving 157 current, 15 past, and 171 never users of prostaglandin analogues. Patients 50 years of age or older and without conditions affecting ocular adnexal anatomy underwent glaucoma medication use history, external digital photography and systematic external adnexal exam. Two masked readers assessed the digital photos for upper lid dermatochalasis and lower lid steatoblepharon using a validated grading scheme. Another masked clinical examiner also assessed upper lid ptosis, levator muscle function, and inferior scleral show. We performed ordinal logistic regression analysis accounting for multiple covariates to assess the relation between prostaglandin analogue use and adnexal features. Multivariable analyses indicated there was a 230-fold increased risk of incremental involution of dermatochalasis (odds ratio (OR) = 2.30; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.43–3.69; p = 5.44E-04) and a 249-fold increased risk of incremental loss of lower lid steatoblepharon (OR = 2.49; 95% CI, 1.54–4.03; p = 1.98E-04) associated with current prostaglandin analogue use (bimatoprost 0.03%, travoprost 0.005%, or latanoprost 0.004%) versus prostaglandin analogue never or past users. Upper lid ptosis (OR = 4.04; 95% CI...

‣ Aerobic Capacity, Activity Levels and Daily Energy Expenditure in Male and Female Adolescents of the Kenyan Nandi Sub-Group

Gibson, Alexander R.; Ojiambo, Robert; Konstabel, Kenn; Lieberman, Daniel E.; Reilly, John J.; Speakman, John R.; Pitsiladis, Yannis P.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
586.86145%
The relative importance of genetic and socio-cultural influences contributing to the success of east Africans in endurance athletics remains unknown in part because the pre-training phenotype of this population remains incompletely assessed. Here cardiopulmonary fitness, physical activity levels, distance travelled to school and daily energy expenditure in 15 habitually active male (13.9±1.6 years) and 15 habitually active female (13.9±1.2) adolescents from a rural Nandi primary school are assessed. Aerobic capacity () was evaluated during two maximal discontinuous incremental exercise tests; physical activity using accelerometry combined with a global positioning system; and energy expenditure using the doubly labelled water method. The of the male and female adolescents were 73.9±5.7 ml. kg−1. min−1 and 61.5±6.3 ml. kg−1. min−1, respectively. Total time spent in sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous physical activities per day was 406±63 min (50% of total monitored time), 244±56 min (30%), 75±18 min (9%) and 82±30 min (10%). Average total daily distance travelled to and from school was 7.5±3.0 km (0.8–13.4 km). Mean daily energy expenditure, activity-induced energy expenditure and physical activity level was 12.2±3.4 MJ. day−1...

‣ Modulation of Ocular Surface Glycocalyx Barrier Function by a Galectin-3 N-terminal Deletion Mutant and Membrane-Anchored Synthetic Glycopolymers

Mauris, Jerome; Mantelli, Flavio; Woodward, Ashley M.; Cao, Ziyhi; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Panjwani, Noorjahan; Godula, Kamil; Argüeso, Pablo
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
587.69395%
Background: Interaction of transmembrane mucins with the multivalent carbohydrate-binding protein galectin-3 is critical to maintaining the integrity of the ocular surface epithelial glycocalyx. This study aimed to determine whether disruption of galectin-3 multimerization and insertion of synthetic glycopolymers in the plasma membrane could be used to modulate glycocalyx barrier function in corneal epithelial cells. Methodology/Principal Findings Abrogation of galectin-3 biosynthesis in multilayered cultures of human corneal epithelial cells using siRNA, and in galectin-3 null mice, resulted in significant loss of corneal barrier function, as indicated by increased permeability to the rose bengal diagnostic dye. Addition of β-lactose, a competitive carbohydrate inhibitor of galectin-3 binding activity, to the cell culture system, transiently disrupted barrier function. In these experiments, treatment with a dominant negative inhibitor of galectin-3 polymerization lacking the N-terminal domain, but not full-length galectin-3, prevented the recovery of barrier function to basal levels. As determined by fluorescence microscopy, both cellobiose- and lactose-containing glycopolymers incorporated into apical membranes of corneal epithelial cells...

‣ Bmp7 Maintains Undifferentiated Kidney Progenitor Population and Determines Nephron Numbers at Birth

Tomita, Mayumi; Asada, Misako; Asada, Nariaki; Nakamura, Jin; Oguchi, Akiko; Higashi, Atsuko Y.; Endo, Shuichiro; Robertson, Elizabeth; Kimura, Takeshi; Kita, Toru; Economides, Aris N.; Kreidberg, Jordan; Yanagita, Motoko
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
578.58117%
The number of nephrons, the functional units of the kidney, varies among individuals. A low nephron number at birth is associated with a risk of hypertension and the progression of renal insufficiency. The molecular mechanisms determining nephron number during embryogenesis have not yet been clarified. Germline knockout of bone morphogenetic protein 7 (Bmp7) results in massive apoptosis of the kidney progenitor cells and defects in early stages of nephrogenesis. This phenotype has precluded analysis of Bmp7 function in the later stage of nephrogenesis. In this study, utilization of conditional null allele of Bmp7 in combination with systemic inducible Cre deleter mice enabled us to analyze Bmp7 function at desired time points during kidney development, and to discover the novel function of Bmp7 to inhibit the precocious differentiation of the progenitor cells to nephron. Systemic knockout of Bmp7 in vivo after the initiation of kidney development results in the precocious differentiation of the kidney progenitor cells to nephron, in addition to the prominent apoptosis of progenitor cells. We also confirmed that in vitro knockout of Bmp7 in kidney explant culture results in the accelerated differentiation of progenitor population. Finally we utilized colony-forming assays and demonstrated that Bmp7 inhibits epithelialization and differentiation of the kidney progenitor cells. These results indicate that the function of Bmp7 to inhibit the precocious differentiation of the progenitor cells together with its anti-apoptotic effect on progenitor cells coordinately maintains renal progenitor pool in undifferentiated status...

‣ Blood Oxygen Depletion Is Independent of Dive Function in a Deep Diving Vertebrate, the Northern Elephant Seal

Meir, Jessica U.; Robinson, Patrick W.; Vilchis, L. Ignacio; Kooyman, Gerald L.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ponganis, Paul J.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
575.7118%
Although energetics is fundamental to animal ecology, traditional methods of determining metabolic rate are neither direct nor instantaneous. Recently, continuous blood oxygen (O2) measurements were used to assess energy expenditure in diving elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), demonstrating that an exceptional hypoxemic tolerance and exquisite management of blood O2 stores underlie the extraordinary diving capability of this consummate diver. As the detailed relationship of energy expenditure and dive behavior remains unknown, we integrated behavior, ecology, and physiology to characterize the costs of different types of dives of elephant seals. Elephant seal dive profiles were analyzed and O2 utilization was classified according to dive type (overall function of dive: transit, foraging, food processing/rest). This is the first account linking behavior at this level with in vivo blood O2 measurements in an animal freely diving at sea, allowing us to assess patterns of O2 utilization and energy expenditure between various behaviors and activities in an animal in the wild. In routine dives of elephant seals, the blood O2 store was significantly depleted to a similar range irrespective of dive function, suggesting that all dive types have equal costs in terms of blood O2 depletion. Here...

‣ Myosin Va Plays a Role in Nitrergic Smooth Muscle Relaxation in Gastric Fundus and Corpora Cavernosa of Penis

Chaudhury, Arun; Cristofaro, Vivian; Carew, Josephine A.; Goyal, Raj K.; Sullivan, Maryrose P.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
572.86027%
The intracellular motor protein myosin Va is involved in nitrergic neurotransmission possibly by trafficking of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) within the nerve terminals. In this study, we examined the role of myosin Va in the stomach and penis, proto-typical smooth muscle organs in which nitric oxide (NO) mediated relaxation is critical for function. We used confocal microscopy and co-immunoprecipitation of tissue from the gastric fundus (GF) and penile corpus cavernosum (CCP) to localize myosin Va with nNOS and demonstrate their molecular interaction. We utilized in vitro mechanical studies to test whether smooth muscle relaxations during nitrergic neuromuscular neurotransmission is altered in DBA (dilute, brown, non-agouti) mice which lack functional myosin Va. Myosin Va was localized in nNOS-positive nerve terminals and was co-immunoprecipitated with nNOS in both GF and CCP. In comparison to C57BL/6J wild type (WT) mice, electrical field stimulation (EFS) of precontracted smooth muscles of GF and CCP from DBA animals showed significant impairment of nitrergic relaxation. An NO donor, Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), caused comparable levels of relaxation in smooth muscles of WT and DBA mice. These normal postjunctional responses to SNP in DBA tissues suggest that impairment of smooth muscle relaxation resulted from inhibition of NO synthesis in prejunctional nerve terminals. Our results suggest that normal physiological processes of relaxation of gastric and cavernosal smooth muscles that facilitate food accommodation and penile erection...

‣ Características anatômicas e fisiológicas de cafeeiros irrigados em diferentes níveis de adubação; Anatomical and physiological characteristics of coffee in different fertilizer levels

Gama, Tamara Cubiaki Pires da
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Lavras; Programa de Pós-graduação em Agronomia/Fitotecnia; UFLA; brasil; Departamento de Agricultura Publicador: Universidade Federal de Lavras; Programa de Pós-graduação em Agronomia/Fitotecnia; UFLA; brasil; Departamento de Agricultura
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em 04/11/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
598.2707%
Mineral nutrition contributes to the composition of the structural organization, causing changes in its anatomical structure that can change the tissue thickness and pigment content. The objective was to identify changes in the anatomy and physiology of coffee in different fertilizer levels (40, 70 100, 130 and 160%) in the first and second year after deployment. The first experiment consisted of coffee fertilized at different levels in the first year after implantation of the crop, being evaluated on the anatomical and physiological characteristics, as well as productivity in two seasons. The different levels of fertilization and assessment time caused differences in the internal structure, ie, the leaf anatomy and physiology of irrigated coffee. In general, the best results in the evaluated parameters were found at the level of 100% of fertilization, thus confirming the importance of mineral nutrition; and increased productivity was achieved at the level of 126% of fertilization. The second experiment was conducted with coffee fertilized at different levels in the second year after plowing of implementation, where we evaluate the characteristics of gas exchange, leaf anatomy and productivity in both rainy and dry seasons. Different levels of fertilization and assessment time caused differences in the internal structure...

‣ Embryonic Caffeine Exposure Acts via A1 Adenosine Receptors to Alter Adult Cardiac Function and DNA Methylation in Mice

Buscariollo, Daniela L.; Fang, Xiefan; Greenwood, Victoria; Xue, Huiling; Rivkees, Scott A.; Wendler, Christopher C.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
578.64875%
Evidence indicates that disruption of normal prenatal development influences an individual's risk of developing obesity and cardiovascular disease as an adult. Thus, understanding how in utero exposure to chemical agents leads to increased susceptibility to adult diseases is a critical health related issue. Our aim was to determine whether adenosine A1 receptors (A1ARs) mediate the long-term effects of in utero caffeine exposure on cardiac function and whether these long-term effects are the result of changes in DNA methylation patterns in adult hearts. Pregnant A1AR knockout mice were treated with caffeine (20 mg/kg) or vehicle (0.09% NaCl) i.p. at embryonic day 8.5. This caffeine treatment results in serum levels equivalent to the consumption of 2–4 cups of coffee in humans. After dams gave birth, offspring were examined at 8–10 weeks of age. A1AR+/+ offspring treated in utero with caffeine were 10% heavier than vehicle controls. Using echocardiography, we observed altered cardiac function and morphology in adult mice exposed to caffeine in utero. Caffeine treatment decreased cardiac output by 11% and increased left ventricular wall thickness by 29% during diastole. Using DNA methylation arrays, we identified altered DNA methylation patterns in A1AR+/+ caffeine treated hearts...

‣ An Insulin-to-Insulin Regulatory Network Orchestrates Phenotypic Specificity in Development and Physiology

Fernandes de Abreu, Diana Andrea; Caballero, Antonio; Fardel, Pascal; Stroustrup, Nicholas; Chen, Zhunan; Lee, KyungHwa; Keyes, William D.; Nash, Zachary M.; López-Moyado, Isaac F.; Vaggi, Federico; Cornils, Astrid; Regenass, Martin; Neagu, Anca; Ostojic
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
577.74445%
Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) play highly conserved roles in development and physiology. Most animal genomes encode multiple ILPs. Here we identify mechanisms for how the forty Caenorhabditis elegans ILPs coordinate diverse processes, including development, reproduction, longevity and several specific stress responses. Our systematic studies identify an ILP-based combinatorial code for these phenotypes characterized by substantial functional specificity and diversity rather than global redundancy. Notably, we show that ILPs regulate each other transcriptionally, uncovering an ILP-to-ILP regulatory network that underlies the combinatorial phenotypic coding by the ILP family. Extensive analyses of genetic interactions among ILPs reveal how their signals are integrated. A combined analysis of these functional and regulatory ILP interactions identifies local genetic circuits that act in parallel and interact by crosstalk, feedback and compensation. This organization provides emergent mechanisms for phenotypic specificity and graded regulation for the combinatorial phenotypic coding we observe. Our findings also provide insights into how large hormonal networks regulate diverse traits.

‣ Alterations in leaf anatomy and physiology caused by the red mite (Oligonychus ilicis) in plants of Coffea arabica

Fahl,Joel I.; Queiroz-Voltan,Rachel B.; Carelli,Maria Luiza C.; Schiavinato,Marlene A.; Prado,Ana K. S.; Souza,Júlio C.
Fonte: Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology Publicador: Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/03/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
583.7441%
Three degrees of red mite infestation (Oligonychus ilicis McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) were evaluated with regard to leaf anatomy, photosynthetic gas exchange and leaf ethylene production, in a commercial crop of approximately 12-year-old trees of Coffea arabica 'Catuaí Vermelho'. As a complementary study, foliar anatomy was also evaluated in a recuperated crop of C. arabica 'Mundo Novo' that had presented a high degree of red mite infestation during the dry period of the prior growing season. The red mite-infested leaves were bronze-coloured, with intensity proportional to the degree of internal damage. On feeding, the red mite introduces its stylet in the adaxial epidermis and, as a result, chloroplasts are destroyed in the feeding area. The number of chlorophyll-free cells in the palisade parenchyma was proportional to the intensity of attack by red mites. The cells of the spongy parenchyma, localized below the feeding areas of the mites, did not show any alterations, having intact chloroplasts, with the exception of some leaves that suffered from intense attack. Net photosynthesis rate declined, but only in leaves under intense red mite attack, due to destruction of chloroplasts in the attacked cells. Nevertheless, transpiration and stomatal conductance were unaffected by red mite. The concentrations of ethylene produced by the leaves were similar regardless of three levels of attack...

‣ Irrigação arterial do baço de gatos (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758). Estudo experimental anátomo-fisiológico; Arterial irrigation of the cat spleen. (Felis catus, Linnaeus, 1758). Experimental anatomical and physiological studies

Holzchuc, Marlene Pezzutti
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 15/09/1977 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
578.58117%
Segundo pode-se apurar, poucos foram os trabalhos destinados ao estudo da vascularização arterial do baço do gato (Felis catus), não obstante a sua importância para o melhor conhecimento da anatomia e fisiologia deste órgão e da sua aplicação nas indicações cirúrgicas. Com as técnicas utilizadas nesta pesquisa, pode-se identificar que os ramos arteriais que partem da artéria lienal destinavam-se às três regiões distintas, a dorsal, média e ventral estando elas separadas por zonas paucivasculares ou avasculares. Ainda mais, foi possível registrar o número de artérias penetrantes em cada uma destas regiões, bem como a disposição que ocupavam na porção hilar do órgão. Com o estudo da ligadura da artéria lienal ou de seus ramos endereçados às citadas regiões do baço e, até mesmo, de colaterais destes vasos, pode-se verificar que as referidas ligaduras não ocasionam comprometimento algum do órgão, em virtude da presença de inúmeras anastomoses, isto é, as que ocorrem entre as artérias gastroepiplóicas direita e esquerda, entre as artérias gástricas breves e colaterais da artéria gástrica esquerda, entre contribuições oriundas dos ramos destinados aos três mencionados territórios e entre colaterais da artéria lienal dirigidos ao grande epíploo e ao pâncreas dorsal. Ao contrário...