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‣ Why religion is nothing special but is central

Bloch, Maurice
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2008 Português
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It is proposed that explaining religion in evolutionary terms is a misleading enterprise because religion is an indissoluble part of a unique aspect of human social organization. Theoretical and empirical research should focus on what differentiates human sociality from that of other primates, i.e. the fact that members of society often act towards each other in terms of essentialized roles and groups. These have a phenomenological existence that is not based on everyday empirical monitoring but on imagined statuses and communities, such as clans or nations. The neurological basis for this type of social, which includes religion, will therefore depend on the development of imagination. It is suggested that such a development of imagination occurred at about the time of the Upper Palaeolithic ‘revolution’.

‣ Rethinking secularism

Calhoun, Craig
Fonte: Institute for Advanced Studies in Culture Publicador: Institute for Advanced Studies in Culture
Tipo: Article; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2010 Português
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"Secularism is often treated as a sort of absence. It’s what is left if religion fades. It’s the exclusion of religion from the public sphere but somehow in itself neutral. This is misleading. We need is to see secularism as a presence. It is something, and therefore in need of elaboration and understanding. It shapes not only religion but also culture more broadly. Whether we see it as an ideology, as a worldview, as a stance toward religion, as a constitutional approach, or as simply an aspect of some other project--of science, or a philosophical system--secularism is something we need to think through, rather than merely the absence of religion." - Introductory paragraph.

‣ And the wisdom to know the difference? Freedom, control and the sociology of religion (Association for the Sociology of Religion 2002 presidential address)

Barker, Eileen
Fonte: Association for the Sociology of Religion Publicador: Association for the Sociology of Religion
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2003 Português
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‣ America is not losing its religion – population trends mean that it is simply becoming more religiously diverse.

Brown, R. Khari; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 03/06/2015 Português
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A recent Pew study found that there has been an increase in the number of Americans who claim to have ‘no-religion’. Does this mean that religion in the U.S. is on the way out? In new research which examines data from three national surveys, R. Khari Brown, Robert Joseph Taylor, and Linda M. Chatters find that African Americans and African Caribbean Americans are less likely than Non-Hispanic Whites, Hispanic Americans, and Asian Americans to identify as non-religious, with the latter group the most likely to identify as non-religious. They write that the recent shifts in religious affiliation may have less to do with Americans abandoning religion to America shifting towards increasing religious diversity.

‣ The Smith Commission must not ignore the status of state religion in Scotland

Bonney, Norman
Fonte: Democratic Audit UK Publicador: Democratic Audit UK
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 20/11/2014 Português
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The Smith Commission is the body tasked with recommending proposals for the final status of Scottish devolution following the referendum on Scottish independence. Norman Bonney argues that state religion should not be left out of the equation, and the special constitutional status of Presbytarianism and the continued role of Bishops in the House of Lords occasionally voting on Scottish matters should be looked at and reformed.

‣ Praying for both teams: how religion both facilitates and dampens anti-immigration sentiment

Bloom, Ben-Nun Pazit; Arikan, Gizem; Courtemanche, Marie
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/08/2015 Português
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The majority of the populations of many countries, the US included, identify with some kind of religion. At the same time, anti-immigrant sentiments are on the rise in many countries. Does religion foster intolerance towards migrants or encourage greater acceptance of them? In new research which uses experiments conducted with a variety of religious groups, Pazit Ben-Nun Bloom, Gizem Arikan , and Marie Courtemanche find that when religious group identities are emphasized people become less tolerant of migrants, but when themes of religious compassion are brought to mind, they are more likely to be sympathetic. They caution, however, that such attempts at invoking compassion may be unlikely to convince the more conservative among the devout.

‣ As European society tackles discrimination and strengthens equality, the Church of England’s rejection of female bishops shows how religion is likely to appear increasingly out of touch

Power, Mick
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/11/2012 Português
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This week the Synod of the Church of England voted against the appointment of female bishops. Mick Power argues that the decision reflects deep-rooted principles of inequality between the sexes, which can be traced through the historical development of the major faiths. As European society tackles discrimination and strengthens the equality of its citizens, religion is likely to appear increasingly out of touch.

‣ Increased social and political equality in Europe has led to a decline in the popularity of religion

Power, Mick
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 10/10/2012 Português
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The number of Europeans identifying as part of an organised religion has fallen significantly since the beginning of the 20th century. Mick Power assesses the reasons behind the decline in religious practice and belief in Europe, arguing that a number of specific factors, such as greater social equality in comparison to countries like the United States, have played a role. The Catholic Church has also been particularly affected by the use of a patriarchal system of control and the recent sex abuse scandals which have damaged its reputation.

‣ Book review: the management of religion is an inevitable part of modern government

Marti, Gerardo
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 02/07/2012 Português
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Despite previous predictions from sociologists, religion not only occupies an important place for many in our modern world, but remains even more accessible through increased levels of literacy and access to mass media. Religion and the State argues that it is the duty of modern states to intervene in religious affairs to minimise inter-faith conflict. Gerardo Marti finds that the book gives the subject of secularisation the analytical depth that it deserves. Religion and the State: A Comparative Sociology, edited by Jack Barbalet, Adam Possamai and Bryan S. Turner. December 2011. Anthem Press.

‣ Baptized Georgian: religious conversion to Christianity in autonomous Ajaria

Pelkmans, Mathijs
Fonte: Max Planck Gesellschaft Publicador: Max Planck Gesellschaft
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2005 Português
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In the Caucasus as elsewhere in the former Soviet Union, religion gained important momentum in the decade following the demise of communism. But while the renewed importance and visibility of religion is often explained as a return to pre-Soviet religious practice, in Ajaria – Georgia’s southwestern Autonomous Republic – the religious dynamics radically contest this explanation. Whereas before the Soviet era Ajarians adhered to Islam, an accelerating process of conversion to Christianity was observable in the years following the Soviet collapse. This paper looks at inhabitants of ‘Muslim’ Ajaria who have converted to Christianity, arguing that their conversion can be understood as an attempt to realign history and community with a strong sense of national identity. But although the intention of conversion was to restore historical and societal incongruities, the act of baptism was often disruptive in nature. To soften the resulting tensions with neighbors and families, the converts mobilized a host of metaphors that evoked the historical Christian legacy, demonized the ‘other’ embodied in the Turk or the Ottoman epoch, and pointed to the progressive nature of Christianity and its role in alleviating Ajaria’s ‘backwardness’. However...

‣ Book review: A secular Europe: law and religion in the European constitutional landscape

Power, Mick
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 09/01/2013 Português
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A Secular Europe assesses the problem of accommodating diverse religious practices across Europe within a secular legal framework. Mick Power finds that although there is some repetition due to many of the chapters being published previously as separate papers, the book offers a valuable contribution to the debate on how European states should approach the issue of religion.

‣ Tasting Freedom: happiness, religion and economic transition

Lelkes, Orsolya
Fonte: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Centre for Analysis of Social Exclusion, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/2002 Português
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Economic transition lowered happiness on average, but did not affect all equally. This paper uses Hungarian survey data to study the impact of religion and economic transition on happiness. Religious involvement contributes positively to individuals¿ self-reported well-being. Controlling for personal characteristics of the respondents, money is a less important source of happiness for the religious. The impact of economic transition has varied greatly across different groups. The main winners from increasing economic freedom were the entrepreneurs. The religious were little affected by the changes. This implies that greater ideological freedom, measured by a greater social role of churches, may not influence happiness per se.

‣ Religion: ally, threat or just religion?

Phillips, Anne
Fonte: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development Publicador: United Nations Research Institute for Social Development
Tipo: Book Section; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2009 Português
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‣ Moral facts and scientific fiction: 19th century theological reactions to Darwinism in Germany

Kleeberg, Bernhard
Fonte: Department of Economic History, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Economic History, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /08/2005 Português
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When the German translation of Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published in 1860, it intensified a conflict that German theologians had been fighting since the early 19th century. Arguments against the secular relativising or even thorough dismissal of the scientific, philosophical and social importance of the bible now had to be supplemented with arguments against the anti-teleological consequences of Darwin’s theory. But though they all agreed in rejecting these consequences, German theologians considerably differed in respect to the epistemological status they granted to Darwinian and biblical accounts of man and nature. Whether they considered the truths of science and religion as corresponding, complementary, independent, or incompatible depended on their judgments on the relation between (scientific) facts, theories, and (cultural) convictions. These judgments were shaped in a specific way: Darwinism in Germany was mainly associated with Ernst Haeckel’s monistic evolutionism that explicitly claimed to be science as well as a new religion. Furthermore, romantic and idealistic natural philosophy were very influential in developmental biology, bolstering anti-selectionist theories that were easier to reconcile with religion. Though literal interpretations of the scriptural account of nature became more or less abandoned by the end of the century...

‣ Book review: Habermas and religion

Delanty, Gerard
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 17/09/2013 Português
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"Habermas and religion." Craig Calhoun, Eduardo Mendieta and Jonathan VanAntwerpen (eds.). Polity Press. October 2013. --- Habermas and Religion aims to present a series of original and sustained engagements with Habermas’s writing on religion in the public sphere. Contributors to the volume respond both to Habermas’s ambitious and well-developed philosophical project and to his most recent work on religion. The book closes with an extended response from Habermas – itself a major statement from one of today’s most important thinkers. The volume is essential reading for philosophers and sociologists of religion and generally for anyone concerned with religion and politics, writes Gerard Delanty.

‣ Book Review: God and international relations: christian theology and world politics

Walters , James
Fonte: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science Publicador: Blog post from London School of Economics & Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /05/2012 Português
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Religion is prevalent in world politics today, and international relation theory is at pains to understand and explain this phenomenon. This unique study aims to introduce political theology as an appropriate tool to the study of international relations, revealing the Christian foundations of the discipline and delivering a critique of some of its most fundamental theoretical elements, such as its secular view of religion as part of the irrational and its negation of theism in its understanding of responsibility in world politics. James Walters finds a refreshing book that reminds us that the line between the religious and the non-religious is more fluid than late modernity has come to think.

‣ Limitations on religion in a liberal democratic polity: Christianity and Islam in the public order of the European Union

McCrea, Ronan
Fonte: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: Department of Law, London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /12/2007 Português
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This paper examines aspects of the European Union’s approach to the accession of new member states and the integration of immigrants to show how the Union has viewed religion as a potential threat to the autonomy of the public sphere and to individual autonomy in the private sphere and has required acceptance of limitations on religious influence over law and law-making from both applicant states and individual migrants. It notes how, in common with the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights, the EU has been willing to interfere with privacy and individual autonomy in order to protect such principles from the consequences of unlimited religious influence on law and society. Finally the paper considers how the Union’s attempts to uphold limitations on religion in the public sphere have been complicated by the partial and contested nature of the secularity of its existing members. It shows how an Islamic presence in the public sphere has been identified by the Union as particularly threatening to the liberal democracy in contrast to its ready acceptance of the public roles of culturally and historically entrenched Christian denominations in many member states.

‣ Education and the Europeanization of religious freedoms: France and Greece in comparative perspective

Markoviti, Margarita
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /09/2013 Português
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A European consensus on the centrality of education for the guarantee and promotion of religious freedoms has emerged over the last two decades. Initially articulated in the human rights discourse of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms and subsequently elaborated through the Council of Europe’s Recommendations, Declarations, Research Projects and Reference Books, this frame of reference forms a normative and legislative basis for states in Europe. Long national traditions of particular approaches to the ‘protected spaces’ of religion and education, however, render the development of common policies and practices amongst states problematic. This thesis examines the impact of the European framework of freedoms of religion and education on states’ education systems. An important contribution to the scholarship of social constructivism and interpretivist studies, the thesis contextualizes the research question within the conceptual framework of Europeanization. The nature and extent of the Europeanization process are approached through the structured comparative study of two cases: France and Greece. The respective educational provisions towards religion classify these countries as two of the hardest critical cases in this area of Europeanization in seemingly opposing ways. The thesis utilizes discourse analysis of the key documents of national education...

‣ The changing dynamics of religion and national identity: Greece and Ireland in a comparative perspective

Halikiopoulou, Daphne
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /02/2007 Português
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It is widely accepted among secularisation theorists (Wilson 1966,1982; Dobbelaere, 1981; Berger 1981; Bruce, 1999,2002) that the more modern a society becomes, the more likely it is to secularise - i.e. the social and political significance of religion will most likely diminish. At the opposite end of the theoretical debate, scholarly work seeking to explain the recent phenomenon of the re-affirmation of religious values argues that the consequence of modernisation is not secularisation but rather the resurgence of religion (Huntington, 1996; Kepel, 1994; Juergensmeyer, 1993, 2000). With religion gaining salience in some societies but losing ground in others, this ongoing debate appears more critical than ever. The cases of Ireland and Greece are pertinent examples: The Republic of Ireland is experiencing secularising tendencies and the legitimacy of the Church is being increasingly challenged, while in Greece the role of religion remains strong, if not strengthened in recent years, and the legitimacy of the Church is maintained. For secularisation theorists, failure to secularise is likely in instances where there is an explicit link between religion and nationalism-'Cultural defence' or the 'nationalist pattern' (Martin, 1978). But while both cases constitute instances of cultural defence...

‣ The global resurgence of religion and the desecularization of American foreign policy, 1990-2012

Bettiza, Gregorio
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 Português
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This thesis conceptually and empirically explores how American foreign policy is changing under the domestic and international pressures brought about by social and cultural processes associated with the global resurgence of religion. It argues that in response to these pressures the American foreign policy establishment, and American diplomatic, foreign assistance and national security practices and institutions are gradually undergoing, since the end of the Cold War andespecially following September 11, processes of “desecularization”. In order to explain these foreign policy changes, this thesis develops a Historical Sociological (HS) approach to Foreign Policy Analysis (FPA). This theoretical framework allows investigating the complex causal mechanisms that have led to the emergence of “desecularizing actors” at the domestic American level, which are embedded or responding to macro-processes of religious resurgence at home and abroad. These desecularizing actors have mobilized at the micro-level to challenge at critical historical junctures what they perceive is the problematic secular character of American foreign policy intellectual traditions, state practices and policy-making structures. In order to advance their preferred inherently religious policy agendas...