Um dos grupos de doenças mais importante que acomete o desenvolvimento da caixa craniana humana é o das craniossinostoses, caracterizado pelo fechamento prematuro de uma ou mais suturas cranianas. Entre as formas mendelianas das craniossinostoses sindrômicas, mutações dominantes em FGFR2 são uma das causas mais frequentes e estão associadas às síndromes de Apert, de Crouzon e de Pfeiffer. A sinalização intracelular subseqüente à ativação de FGFR2, tanto selvagem quanto mutante, é bastante intrincada e pode sofrer inúmeras bifurcações. As porções iniciais destas vias, imediatamente subsequentes à ativação do receptor, são relativamente bem compreendidas. Grande parte, porém, do controle dessas vias, principalmente no que tange a regulação transcricional e sua associação com alterações em comportamentos celulares, não é entendido. Assim sendo, os objetivos gerais deste trabalho foram: 1) estudar o potencial de diferenciação e o perfil diferencial de transcrição gênica de culturas primárias de células fibroblastóides isoladas a partir do periósteo das suturas coronais de pacientes acometidos por síndrome de Apert (heterozigotos para a mutação de ganho de função p.Ser252Trp em FGFR2...
"Published online: 26 July 2012"; Surface wettability and topography are recognized as critical factors influencing cell behavior on biomaterials. So far only few works have reported cell responses on surfaces exhibiting extreme wettability in combination with surface topography. The goal of this work is to study whether cell behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces is influenced by surface topography and polymer type. Biomimetic superhydrophobic rough surfaces of polystyrene and poly(l-lactic acid) with different micro/nanotopographies were obtained from smooth surfaces using a simple phase-separation based method. Total protein was quantified and showed a less adsorption of bovine serum albumin onto rough surfaces as compared to smooth surfaces of the same material. The mouse osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cell line and primary bovine articular chondrocytes were used to study cell attachment and proliferation. Cells attached and proliferate better in the smooth surfaces. The superhydrophobic surfaces allowed cells to adhere but inhibited their proliferation. This study indicates that surface wettability, rather than polymer type or the topography of the superhydrophobic surfaces, is a critical factor in determining cell behavior.
Great efforts have been made to introduce growth factors (GFs) onto 2D/3D constructs in
order to control cell behavior. Platelet Lysate (PL) presents itself as a cost-effective source of multiple
GFs and other proteins. The instruction given by a construct-PL combination will depend on how its
instructive cues are presented to the cells. The content, stability and conformation of the GFs affect
their instruction. Strategies for a controlled incorporation of PL are needed. Herein, PL was
incorporated into nanocoatings by layer-by-layer assembling with polysaccharides presenting
different sulfation degrees (SD) and charges. Heparin and several marine polysaccharides were tested
to evaluate their PL and GF incorporation capability. The consequent effects of those multilayers on
human adipose derived stem cells (hASCs) were assessed in short-term cultures. Both nature of the
polysaccharide and SD were important properties that influenced the adsorption of PL, vascular
endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor b (FGFb) and platelet derived growth factor
(PDGF). The sulfated polysaccharides-PL multilayers showed to be efficient in the promotion of
morphological changes, serum-free adhesion and proliferation of high passage hASCs (P>5). These
biomimetic multilayers promise to be versatile platforms to fabricate instructive devices allowing a
tunable incorporation of PL.
Fibroblastic and leukemic mouse cell lines were cultivated on a bovine serum albumin polymer covered with basic or acidic substances. Contact inhibition of fibroblast movement (cell overlapping) and division varied depending on prior treatment of the albumin polymer. The leukemic cells, which normally grow in suspension, attached and spread out on the polymers and could be carried as a monolayer. Preparation of surfaces capable of modulating different parameters of cell behavior in vitro is thus possible.
Cellular behavior in response to stimulatory cues is governed by information encoded within a complex intracellular signaling network. An understanding of how phenotype is determined requires the distributed characterization of signaling processes (e.g., phosphorylation states and kinase activities) in parallel with measures of resulting cell function. We previously applied quantitative mass spectrometry methods to characterize the dynamics of tyrosine phosphorylation in human mammary epithelial cells with varying human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression levels after treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF) or heregulin (HRG). We sought to identify potential mechanisms by which changes in tyrosine phosphorylation govern changes in cell migration or proliferation, two behaviors that we measured in the same cell system. Here, we describe the use of a computational linear mapping technique, partial least squares regression (PLSR), to detail and characterize signaling mechanisms responsible for HER2-mediated effects on migration and proliferation. PLSR model analysis via principal component inner products identified phosphotyrosine signals most strongly associated with control of migration and proliferation, as HER2 expression or ligand treatment were individually varied. Inspection of these signals revealed both previously identified and novel pathways that correlate with cell behavior. Furthermore...
The Sry-related high mobility group box transcription factor Sox17 is required for diverse developmental processes including endoderm formation, vascular development, and fetal hematopoietic stem cell maintenance. Expression of Sox17 in mature respiratory epithelial cells causes proliferation and lineage respecification, suggesting that Sox17 can alter adult lung progenitor cell fate. In this paper, we identify mechanisms by which Sox17 influences lung epithelial progenitor cell behavior and reprograms cell fate in the mature respiratory epithelium. Conditional expression of Sox17 in epithelial cells of the adult mouse lung demonstrated that cell cluster formation and respecification of alveolar progenitor cells toward proximal airway lineages were rapidly reversible processes. Prolonged expression of Sox17 caused the ectopic formation of bronchiolar-like structures with diverse respiratory epithelial cell characteristics in alveolar regions of lung. During initiation of progenitor cell behavior, Sox17 induced proliferation and increased the expression of the progenitor cell marker Sca-1 and genes involved in cell cycle progression. Notably, Sox17 enhanced cyclin D1 expression in vivo and activated cyclin D1 promoter activity in vitro. Sox17 decreased the expression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)-responsive cell cycle inhibitors in the adult mouse lung...
Skeletal defects resulting from trauma, tumors, or abnormal development frequently require surgical treatment to restore normal tissue function. To overcome the limitations associated with conventional surgical treatments, several tissue engineering approaches have been developed. In particular, the use of scaffolds enriched with stem cells appears to be a very promising strategy. A crucial issue in this approach is how to control stem cell behavior. In this respect, the effects of growth factors, scaffold surface characteristics, and external ‘active’ loading conditions on stem cell behavior have been investigated. Recently, it has become clear that the stiffness of a scaffold is a highly potent regulator of stem cell differentiation. In addition, the stiffness of a scaffold affects cell migration, which is important for the infiltration of host tissue cells. This review summarizes current knowledge on the role of the scaffold stiffness in the regulation of cell behavior. Furthermore, we discuss how this knowledge can be incorporated in scaffold design which may provide new opportunities in the context of orthopedic tissue engineering.
Signals, stresses, and myosin-dependent contractility influence cell geometry, tension, myosin dynamics, and pulsed constriction in the amnioserosa both cell-autonomously and -nonautonomously and feedback regulate cell behavior. Cell delamination is a locally patterned, nonautonomously regulated transition from pulsed to unpulsed constriction.
For many tissue engineering applications and studies to understand how materials fundamentally affect cellular functions, it is important to have the ability to synthesize biomaterials that can mimic elements of native cell–extracellular matrix interactions. Hydrogels possess many properties that are desirable for studying cell behavior. For example, hydrogels are biocompatible and can be biochemically and mechanically altered by exploiting the presentation of cell adhesive epitopes or by changing hydrogel crosslinking density. To establish physical and biochemical tunability, hydrogels can be engineered to alter their properties upon interaction with external driving forces such as pH, temperature, electric current, as well as exposure to cytocompatible irradiation. Additionally, hydrogels can be engineered to respond to enzymes secreted by cells, such as matrix metalloproteinases and hyaluronidases. This review details different strategies and mechanisms by which biomaterials, specifically hydrogels, can be manipulated dynamically to affect cell behavior. By employing the appropriate combination of stimuli and hydrogel composition and architecture, cell behavior such as adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation can be controlled in real time. This three-dimensional control in cell behavior can help create programmable cell niches that can be useful for fundamental cell studies and in a variety of tissue engineering applications.
The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) develops from multipotent progenitor cells, which proliferate and differentiate into the various cell types of the brain and spinal cord. Despite the wealth of knowledge from progenitor cell culture studies, there is a significant lack of understanding regarding dynamic progenitor cell behavior over the course of development. This is in part due to shortcomings in the techniques available to study these processes in living tissues as they are occurring. In order to investigate cell behavior under physiologically relevant conditions we established an ex vivo model of the developing rat spinal cord. This method allows us to directly observe specific populations of cells ex vivo in real time and over extended developmental periods as they undergo proliferation, migration, and differentiation in the CNS. Previous investigations of progenitor cell behavior have been limited in either spatial or temporal resolution (or both) due to the necessity of preserving tissue viability and avoiding phototoxic effects of fluorescent imaging. The method described here overcomes these obstacles. Using two-photon and confocal microscopy and transfected organotypic spinal cord slice cultures we have undertaken detailed imaging of a unique population of neural progenitors...
Cell polarization is an evolutionarily conserved process that facilitates asymmetric distribution of organelles and proteins, is an evolutionarily conserved property that is modified dynamically during physiological processes such as cell division, migration, and morphogenesis. The plasticity with which cells change their behavior and phenotype in response to cell intrinsic and extrinsic cues is an essential feature of normal physiology. In disease states such as cancer, cells lose their ability to behave normally in response to physiological cues. A molecular understanding of mechanisms that alter the behavior of cancer cells is limited. Cell polarity proteins are an recognized class of molecules that can receive and interpret both intrinsic and extrinsic signals to modulate cell behavior. In this review, we discuss how cell polarity proteins regulate a diverse array of biological processes and how they can contribute to alterations in the behavior of cancer cells.
In vitro cultures of endothelial cells are a widely used model system of the collective behavior of endothelial cells during vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. When seeded in an extracellular matrix, endothelial cells can form blood vessel-like structures, including vascular networks and sprouts. Endothelial morphogenesis depends on a large number of chemical and mechanical factors, including the compliancy of the extracellular matrix, the available growth factors, the adhesion of cells to the extracellular matrix, cell-cell signaling, etc. Although various computational models have been proposed to explain the role of each of these biochemical and biomechanical effects, the understanding of the mechanisms underlying in vitro angiogenesis is still incomplete. Most explanations focus on predicting the whole vascular network or sprout from the underlying cell behavior, and do not check if the same model also correctly captures the intermediate scale: the pairwise cell-cell interactions or single cell responses to ECM mechanics. Here we show, using a hybrid cellular Potts and finite element computational model, that a single set of biologically plausible rules describing (a) the contractile forces that endothelial cells exert on the ECM...
In addition to biochemical gradients and transcriptional networks, cell behavior is regulated by endogenous bioelectrical cues originating in the activity of ion channels and pumps, operating in a wide variety of cell types. Instructive signals mediated by changes in resting potential control proliferation, differentiation, cell shape, and apoptosis of stem, progenitor, and somatic cells. Of importance, however, cells are regulated not only by their own Vmem but also by the Vmem of their neighbors, forming networks via electrical synapses known as gap junctions. Spatiotemporal changes in Vmem distribution among nonneural somatic tissues regulate pattern formation and serve as signals that trigger limb regeneration, induce eye formation, set polarity of whole-body anatomical axes, and orchestrate craniofacial patterning. New tools for tracking and functionally altering Vmem gradients in vivo have identified novel roles for bioelectrical signaling and revealed the molecular pathways by which Vmem changes are transduced into cascades of downstream gene expression. Because channels and gap junctions are gated posttranslationally, bioelectrical networks have their own characteristic dynamics that do not reduce to molecular profiling of channel expression (although they couple functionally to transcriptional networks). The recent data provide an exciting opportunity to crack the bioelectric code...
Fonte: Universidade RicePublicador: Universidade Rice
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Relevância na Pesquisa
Perlecan/HSPG2, a large heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycan, normally is expressed in the basement membrane (BM) underlying epithelial and endothelial cells. During prostate cancer (PCa) cell invasion, a variety of proteolytic enzymes are expressed that digest BM components including perlecan. An enzyme upregulated in invasive PCa cells, matrilysin/matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7), was examined as a candidate for perlecan proteolysis both in silico and in vitro. Purified perlecan showed high sensitivity to MMP-7 digestion even when fully decorated with HS or when presented in native context connected with other BM proteins. In both conditions, MMP-7 produced discrete perlecan fragments corresponding to an origin in immunoglobulin (Ig) repeat region domain IV. While not predicted by in silico analysis, MMP-7 cleaved every subpart of recombinantly generated perlecan domain IV. Other enzymes relevant to PCa that were tested had limited ability to cleave perlecan including prostate specific antigen, hepsin, or fibroblast activation protein α. A long C-terminal portion of perlecan domain IV, Dm IV-3, induced a strong clustering phenotype in the metastatic PCa cell lines, PC-3 and C4-2. MMP-7 digestion of Dm IV-3 reverses the clustering effect into one favoring cell dispersion. In a C4-2 Transwell® invasion assay...
Measurements on embryonic epithelial tissues in a diverse range of organisms
have shown that the statistics of cell neighbor numbers are universal in
tissues where cell proliferation is the primary cell activity. Highly
simplified non-spatial models of proliferation are claimed to accurately
reproduce these statistics. Using a systematic critical analysis, we show that
non-spatial models are not capable of robustly describing the universal
statistics observed in proliferating epithelia, indicating strong spatial
correlations between cells. Furthermore we show that spatial simulations using
the Subcellular Element Model are able to robustly reproduce the universal
histogram. In addition these simulations are able to unify ostensibly divergent
experimental data in the literature. We also analyze cell neighbor statistics
in early stages of chick embryo development in which cell behaviors other than
proliferation are important. We find from experimental observation that cell
neighbor statistics in the primitive streak region, where cell motility and
ingression are also important, show a much broader distribution. A non-spatial
Markov process model provides excellent agreement with this broader histogram
indicating that cells in the primitive streak may have significantly weaker
spatial correlations. These findings show that cell neighbor statistics provide
a potentially useful signature of collective cell behavior.; Comment: PLoS one 2011
During angiogenesis, endothelial cells compete for the tip position during
angiogenesis: a phenomenon named tip cell overtaking. It is still unclear to
what extent tip cell overtaking is a side effect of sprouting or to what extent
a biological function. To address this question, we studied tip cell overtaking
in two existing cellular Potts models of angiogenic sprouting. In these models
angiogenic sprouting-like behavior emerges from a small set of plausible cell
behaviors and the endothelial cells spontaneously migrate forwards and
backwards within sprouts, suggesting that tip cell overtaking might occur as a
side effect of sprouting. In accordance with experimental observations, in our
simulations the cells' tendency to occupy the tip position can be regulated
when two cell lines with different levels of Vegfr2 expression are contributing
to sprouting (mosaic sprouting assay), where cell behavior is regulated by a
simple VEGF-Dll4-Notch signaling network. Our modeling results suggest that tip
cell overtaking occurs spontaneously due to the stochastic motion of cells
during sprouting. Thus, tip cell overtaking and sprouting dynamics may be
interdependent and should be studied and interpreted in combination.
VEGF-Dll4-Notch can regulate the ability of cells to occupy the tip cell
Cells grown in culture act as a model system for analyzing the effects of
anticancer compounds, which may affect cell behavior in a cell cycle
position-dependent manner. Cell synchronization techniques have been generally
employed to minimize the variation in cell cycle position. However,
synchronization techniques are cumbersome and imprecise and the agents used to
synchronize the cells potentially have other unknown effects on the cells. An
alternative approach is to determine the age structure in the population and
account for the cell cycle positional effects post hoc. Here we provide a
formalism to use quantifiable age distributions from live cell microscopy
experiments to parameterize an age-structured model of cell population
Angiogenesis involves the formation of new blood vessels by sprouting or
splitting of existing blood vessels. During sprouting, a highly motile type of
endothelial cell, called the tip cell, migrates from the blood vessels followed
by stalk cells, an endothelial cell type that forms the body of the sprout. To
get more insight into how tip cells contribute to angiogenesis, we extended an
existing computational model of vascular network formation based on the
cellular Potts model with tip and stalk differentiation, without making a
priori assumptions about the differences between tip cells and stalk cells. To
predict potential differences, we looked for parameter values that make tip
cells (a) move to the sprout tip, and (b) change the morphology of the
angiogenic networks. The screening predicted that if tip cells respond less
effectively to an endothelial chemoattractant than stalk cells, they move to
the tips of the sprouts, which impacts the morphology of the networks. A
comparison of this model prediction with genes expressed differentially in tip
and stalk cells revealed that the endothelial chemoattractant Apelin and its
receptor APJ may match the model prediction. To test the model prediction we
inhibited Apelin signaling in our model and in an in vitro model of angiogenic
In vitro cultures of endothelial cells are a widely used model system of the
collective behavior of endothelial cells during vasculogenesis and
angiogenesis. When seeded in an extracellular matrix, endothelial cells can
form blood vessel-like structures, including vascular networks and sprouts.
Endothelial morphogenesis depends on a large number of chemical and mechanical
factors, including the compliancy of the extracellular matrix, the available
growth factors, the adhesion of cells to the extracellular matrix, cell-cell
signaling, etc. Although various computational models have been proposed to
explain the role of each of these biochemical and biomechanical effects, the
understanding of the mechanisms underlying in vitro angiogenesis is still
incomplete. Most explanations focus on predicting the whole vascular network or
sprout from the underlying cell behavior, and do not check if the same model
also correctly captures the intermediate scale: the pairwise cell-cell
interactions or single cell responses to ECM mechanics. Here we show, using a
hybrid cellular Potts and finite element computational model, that a single set
of biologically plausible rules describing (a) the contractile forces that
endothelial cells exert on the ECM...
Control of cell proliferation is a fundamental aspect of tissue physiology
central to morphogenesis, wound healing and cancer. Although many of the
molecular genetic factors are now known, the system level regulation of growth
is still poorly understood. A simple form of inhibition of cell proliferation
is encountered in vitro in normally differentiating epithelial cell cultures
and is known as "contact inhibition". The study presented here provides a
quantitative characterization of contact inhibition dynamics on tissue-wide and
single cell levels. Using long-term tracking of cultured MDCK cells we
demonstrate that inhibition of cell division in a confluent monolayer follows
inhibition of cell motility and sets in when mechanical constraint on local
expansion causes divisions to reduce cell area. We quantify cell motility and
cell cycle statistics in the low density confluent regime and their change
across the transition to epithelial morphology which occurs with increasing
cell density. We then study the dynamics of cell area distribution arising
through reductive division, determine the average mitotic rate as a function of
cell size and demonstrate that complete arrest of mitosis occurs when cell area
falls below a critical value. We also present a simple computational model of
growth mechanics which captures all aspects of the observed behavior. Our
measurements and analysis show that contact inhibition is a consequence of
mechanical interaction and constraint rather than interfacial contact alone...