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‣ The use of parthenotegenetic and IVF bovine blastocysts as a model for the creation of human embryonic stem cells under defined conditions

Ruggeri, R. R.; Watanabe, Y.; Meirelles, F.; Bressan, F. F.; Frantz, N.; Bos-Mikich, A.
Fonte: SPRINGER/PLENUM PUBLISHERS; NEW YORK Publicador: SPRINGER/PLENUM PUBLISHERS; NEW YORK
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Clinical application of human embryonic stem cells will be possible, when cell lines are created under xeno-free and defined conditions. We aimed to establish methodologies for parthenogenetic activation, culture to blastocyst and mechanical isolation of the inner cell mass (ICM) using bovine oocytes, as a model for derivation and proliferation of human embryonic stem cells under defined xeno-free culture conditions. Cumulus-oocyte-complexes were in vitro matured and activated using Ca(2+)Ionophore and 6-DMAP or in vitro fertilized (IVF). Parthenotes and biparental embryos were cultured to blastocysts, when their ICM was mechanically isolated and placed onto a substrate of fibronectin in StemProA (R) medium. After attachment, primary colonies were left to proliferate and stained for pluripotency markers, alkaline phosphatase and Oct-4. Parthenogenesis and fertilization presented significantly different success rates (91 and 79 %, respectively) and blastocyst formation (40 and 43 %, respectively). ICMs from parthenogenetic and IVF embryos formed primary and expanded colonies at similar rates (39 % and 33 %, respectively). Six out of eight parthenogenetic colonies tested positive for alkaline phosphatase. Three colonies were analyzed for Oct-4 and they all tested positive for this pluripotency marker. Our data show that Ca2+ Ionophore...

‣ Identificação de marcadores de pluripotência em células-tronco embrionárias e embriões suínos; Identification of pluripotency markers in swine embryonic stem cells and embryos

Barros, Flavia Regina Oliveira de
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 22/01/2009 Português
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Células-tronco embrionárias (CTE) são importantes para estudos de desenvolvimento embrionário, diferenciação e manipulação genética. Além disso, essas células podem ser utilizadas na terapia celular e organogênese in vitro. Na pesquisa sobre terapia celular a partir de CTE oriundas de embriões humanos, considerações éticas, morais e religiosas têm sido feitas por pesquisadores e leigos. Portanto, um modelo animal como o suíno (Sus scrofa) será bastante válido por transpor tais barreiras, visto que o suíno possui parâmetros fisiológicos semelhantes aos humanos. Apesar do alto potencial biomédico das CTE, existem dificuldades na manutenção da pluripotência in vitro dessas células em suínos. Portanto, estudos que visam elucidar os mecanismos de manutenção da pluripotência de CTE in vitro são necessários para viabilizar o cultivo dessas células. Os objetivos do presente estudo foram (1) isolar células-tronco embrionárias suínas a partir de blastocistos produzidos in vitro e in vivo; (2) comparar dois sistemas de cultivo in vitro das massas celulares internas (MCI) isoladas, MEF ou Matrigel e (3) identificar e comparar a expressão dos fatores de transcrição Nanog, Sox2 e FoxD3 em CTE e blastocistos suínos produzidos in vitro e in vivo. Assim...

‣ Diferenciação de células-tronco embrionárias murinas (mESCs) em células produtoras de insulina (IPCs) e caracterização funcional do gene Purkinje cell protein 4 (Pcp4) neste processo; Differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) into insulin-producing cells (IPCs) and functional characterization of the Purkinje Cell Protein 4 (Pcp4) gene in this process

Kossugue, Patricia Mayumi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/05/2013 Português
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Fontes alternativas de células β têm sido estudadas para o tratamento de Diabetes mellitus tipo 1, dentre as quais a mais promissora consiste das células-tronco diferenciadas em células produtoras de insulina (IPCs). Alguns trabalhos demonstram a capacidade de células-tronco embrionárias murinas (mESCs) de formarem estruturas semelhantes a ilhotas pancreáticas, porém, os níveis de produção de insulina são insuficientes para a reversão do diabetes em camundongos diabetizados. Este trabalho visa desenvolver um protocolo adequado para geração de IPCs e contribuir para a identificação e caracterização funcional de novos genes associados à organogênese pancreática. Logo no início da diferenciação das mESCs em IPCs, foi possível verificar o surgimento de células progenitoras, evidenciado pela expressão de marcadores importantes da diferenciação beta-pancreática. Ao final do processo de diferenciação in vitro, ocorreu a formação de agrupamentos (clusters) semelhantes a ilhotas, corando positivamente por ditizona, que é específica para células β-pancreáticas. Para avaliar seu potencial in vivo, estes clusters foram microencapsulados em Biodritina® e transplantados em camundongos diabetizados. Apesar dos níveis de insulina produzidos não serem suficientes para estabelecer a normoglicemia...

‣ In vitro differentation of embryonic stem cells into cardiac-like and neuronal-like cells

Paz, Ana Helena da Rosa; Lugo, Ana Ilda Ayala; Terraciano, Paula Barros; Meurer, Luíse; Passos, Eduardo Pandolfi; Cirne Lima, Elizabeth Obino
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Células-tronco embrionárias são linhagens celulares pluripotentes capazes de se multiplicar indefinidamente e com grande capacidade de diferenciação celular. São isoladas de embriões em estágio pré-implantacional e podem ser cultivadas por longo tempo em laboratório sem perder sua pluripotencialidade. Células-tronco embrionárias podem, ainda, se diferenciar in vitro através da adição de fatores de crescimento e diferenciação ao meio de cultivo. As células se diferenciarão em estágios mais avançados de embriogênese, gerando tipos diferentes de células adultas. No presente estudo, induzimos a diferenciação in vitro de células-tronco embrionárias de camundongos (linhagem R1) em células de tecido cardíaco e nervoso. A diferenciação foi avaliada pela reação em cadeia da polimerase precedida de transcrição reversa para verificar a presença de marcadores tecido-específicos.; Embryonic stem cells are pluripotent cell lines with the capacity of self-renewal and a broad differentiation plasticity. They are isolated from preimplantation embryos and can be cultured in vitro for long time without losing their pluripotency. Embryonic stem cells can also differentiate in vitro with the proper combination of growth and differentiation factors...

‣ Caracterização da expressão de Coup-TFII durante o início da diferenciação de células-tronco embrionárias; Characterization of Coup-TFII expression during the early differentiation of embryonic stem cells

Viviane de Souza Rosa
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 31/03/2015 Português
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Células-tronco embrionárias (CTE) são células indiferenciadas que possuem a capacidade de (1) se proliferarem indefinidamente (auto-renovação) e, quando induzidas, (2) darem origem a qualquer tipo celular presente no embrião (pluripotência). Uma das abordagens mais comumente utilizadas para o estudo de diferenciação de CTE é através da formação de agregados multicelulares esféricos denominados corpos embrióides (CE). CE passam por um processo de morfogênese semelhante ao observado em embriões, originando derivados dos três folhetos germinativos. Durante o desenvolvimento embrionário, a formação e o posicionamento dos três folhetos ocorre por um processo altamente coordenado que culmina na formação de um embrião polarizado no eixo anteroposterior. Entretanto, um dos grandes desafios de pesquisas que envolvem o uso da diferenciação de CTE em CE é encontrar indícios de que esses processos são recapitulados in vitro e se entender como que células derivadas dos folhetos germinativos, que no embrião ocorrem de forma altamente organizada, são originadas em estruturas celulares sem nenhuma organização global evidente, como visto em CE. Coup-TFII (Chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor II) é um fator de transcrição o qual possui um papel fundamental na regulação do desenvolvimento embrionário e na aquisição de destinos celulares específicos durante a diferenciação de CTE. Utilizando CE como um modelo de estudo...

‣ The gene expression profiles of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated by a non-integrating method are more similar to embryonic stem cells than those of iPSCs generated by an integrating method

Liu,Yajun; Cheng,De; Li,Zhenzhen; Gao,Xing; Wang,Huayan
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2012 Português
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Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) obtained by the ectopic expression of defined transcription factors have tremendous promise and therapeutic potential for regenerative medicine. Many studies have highlighted important differences between iPSCs and embryonic stem cells (ESCs). In this work, we used meta-analysis to compare the global transcriptional profiles of human iPSCs from various cellular origins and induced by different methods. The induction strategy affected the quality of iPSCs in terms of transcriptional signatures. The iPSCs generated by non-integrating methods were closer to ESCs in terms of transcriptional distance than iPSCs generated by integrating methods. Several pathways that could be potentially useful for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying transcription factor-mediated reprogramming leading to pluripotency were also identified. These pathways were mostly associated with the maintenance of ESC pluripotency and cancer regulation. Numerous genes that are up-regulated during the induction of reprogramming also have an important role in the success of human preimplantation embryonic development. Our results indicate that hiPSCs maintain their pluripotency through mechanisms similar to those of hESCs.

‣ bFGF promotes adipocyte differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells derived from embryonic stem cells

Song,Xinghui; Li,Yanwei; Chen,Xiao; Yin,Guoli; Huang,Qiong; Chen,Yingying; Xu,Guowei; Wang,Linlin
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2014 Português
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In this work we describe the establishment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and the role of bFGF in adipocyte differentiation. The totipotency of ESCs and MSCs was assessed by immunofluorescence staining and RT-PCR of totipotency factors. MSCs were successfully used to induce osteoblasts, chondrocytes and adipocytes. MSCs that differentiated into adipocytes were stimulated with and without bFGF. The OD/DNA (optical density/content of total DNA) and expression levels of the specific adipocyte genes PPARγ2 (peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ2) and C/EBPs were higher in bFGF cells. Embryonic bodies had a higher adipocyte level compared with cells cultured in plates. These findings indicate that bFGF promotes adipocyte differentiation. MSCs may be useful cells for seeding in tissue engineering and have enormous therapeutic potential for adipose tissue engineering.

‣ The ability of mouse nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells to differentiate into primordial germ cells

Mansouri,Vahid; Salehi,Mohammad; Nourozian,Mohsen; Fadaei,Fatemeh; Farahani,Reza Mastery; Piryaei,Abbas; Delbari,Ali
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2015 Português
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Nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells (ntESCs) show stem cell characteristics such as pluripotency but cause no immunological disorders. Although ntESCs are able to differentiate into somatic cells, the ability of ntESCs to differentiate into primordial germ cells (PGCs) has not been examined. In this work, we examined the capacity of mouse ntESCs to differentiate into PGCs in vitro. ntESCs aggregated to form embryoid bodies (EB) in EB culture medium supplemented with bone morphogenetic protein 4(BMP4) as the differentiation factor. The expression level of specific PGC genes was compared at days 4 and 8 using real time PCR. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemical staining were used to detect Mvh as a specific PGC marker. ntESCs expressed particular genes related to different stages of PGC development. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemical staining confirmed the presence of Mvh protein in a small number of cells. There were significant differences between cells that differentiated into PGCs in the group treated with Bmp4 compared to non-treated cells. These findings indicate that ntESCs can differentiate into putative PGCs. Improvement of ntESC differentiation into PGCs may be a reliable means of producing mature germ cells.

‣ Specific Knockdown of OCT4 in Human Embryonic Stem Cells by Inducible Short Hairpin RNA Interference

Zafarana, Gaetano; Avery, Stuart R; Avery, Katie; Moore, Harry D; Andrews, Peter W
Fonte: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company Publicador: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /04/2009 Português
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Manipulation of gene function in embryonic stem cells by either over expression or downregulation is critical for understanding their subsequent cell fate. We have developed a tetracycline-inducible short hairpin RNA interference (shRNAi) for human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and demonstrated doxycycline dose-dependent knockdown of the transcription factor OCT4 and the cell surface antigen β2-microglobulin. The induced knockdown of OCT4 resulted in rapid differentiation of hESCs with a significant increase in transcription of genes associated with trophoblast and endoderm lineages, the extent of which was controlled by the degree of induction. Transgene toxicity, which may occur in conditional over-expression strategies with hESCs, was not observed with wild-type Tet repressor protein. The system allows efficient, reversible, and long-term downregulation of target genes in hESCs and enables the generation of stable transfectants for the knockdown of genes essential for cell survival and self-renewal, not necessarily possible by nonconditional shRNAi methods.

‣ Transplanted Oligodendrocytes and Motoneuron Progenitors Generated from Human Embryonic Stem Cells Promote Locomotor Recovery After Spinal Cord Transection

Erceg, Slaven; Ronaghi, Mohammad; Oria, Marc; García Roselló, Mireia; Aragó, Maria Amparo Pérez; Lopez, Maria Gomez; Radojevic, Ivana; Moreno-Manzano, Victoria; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Francisco-Javier; Shanker Bhattacharya, Shom; Cordoba, Juan; Stojkovi
Fonte: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company Publicador: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) hold great promise for the treatment of patients with many neurodegenerative diseases particularly those arising from cell loss or neural dysfunction including spinal cord injury. This study evaluates the therapeutic effects of transplanted hESC-derived oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPC) and/or motoneuron progenitors (MP) on axonal remyelination and functional recovery of adult rats after complete spinal cord transection. OPC and/or MP were grafted into the site of injury in the acute phase. Based on Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan scores recovery of locomotor function was significantly enhanced in rats treated with OPC and/or MP when compared with control animals. When transplanted into the spinal cord immediately after complete transection, OPC and MP survived, migrated, and differentiated into mature oligodendrocytes and neurons showing in vivo electrophysiological activity. Taken together, these results indicate that OPC and MP derived from hESC could be a useful therapeutic strategy to repair injured spinal cord. Stem Cells 2010; 28:1541–1549.

‣ Gli1 Is an Inducing Factor in Generating Floor Plate Progenitor Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells

Denham, Mark; Thompson, Lachlan H; Leung, Jessie; Pébay, Alice; Björklund, Anders; Dottori, Mirella
Fonte: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company Publicador: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Generation of mesencephalic dopamine (mesDA) neurons from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) requires several stages of signaling from various extrinsic and intrinsic factors. To date, most methods incorporate exogenous treatment of Sonic hedgehog (SHH) to derive mesDA neurons. However, we and others have shown that this approach is inefficient for generating FOXA2+ cells, the precursors of mesDA neurons. As mesDA neurons are derived from the ventral floor plate (FP) regions of the embryonic neural tube, we sought to develop a system to derive FP cells from hESC. We show that forced expression of the transcription factor GLI1 in hESC at the earliest stage of neural induction, resulted in their commitment to FP lineage. The GLI1+ cells coexpressed FP markers, FOXA2 and Corin, and displayed exocrine SHH activity by ventrally patterning the surrounding neural progenitors. This system results in 63% FOXA2+ cells at the neural progenitor stage of hESC differentiation. The GLI1-transduced cells were also able to differentiate to neurons expressing tyrosine hydroxylase. This study demonstrates that GLI1 is a determinant of FP specification in hESC and describes a highly robust and efficient in vitro model system that mimics the ventral neural tube organizer. Stem Cells 2010;28:1805–1815

‣ Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β and Activin/Nodal Inhibition in Human Embryonic Stem Cells Induces a Pre-Neuroepithelial State That Is Required for Specification to a Floor Plate Cell Lineage

Denham, Mark; Bye, Chris; Leung, Jessie; Conley, Brock J; Thompson, Lachlan H; Dottori, Mirella
Fonte: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company Publicador: Wiley Subscription Services, Inc., A Wiley Company
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The floor plate is one of the major organizers of the developing nervous system through its secretion of sonic hedgehog (Shh). Although the floor plate is located within the neural tube, the derivation of the floor plate during development is still debatable and some studies suggest that floor plate cells are specified by Shh in a temporarily restricted window different to neuroepithelial cells. Using human embryonic stem cells (hESC) as a model of neurogenesis, we sought to determine how floor plate cells may be temporarily specified by SHH signaling during human embryogenesis. We found that inhibition of both GSK3β and activin/nodal pathways in hESC induces a cellular state of SOX2+/PAX6− expression, we describe as “pre-neuroepithelial.” Exposure of SHH during this pre-neuroepithelial period causes the expression of GLI transcription factors to function as activators and consequently upregulate expression of the floor plate marker, FOXA2, while also supressing PAX6 expression to inhibit neuroepithelial fate. FOXA2+ cells were able to efficiently generate mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons, a floor plate derivative. Overall, this study demonstrates a highly efficient system for generating floor plate cells from hESC and, most importantly...

‣ Hhex and Cer1 Mediate the Sox17 Pathway for Cardiac Mesoderm Formation in Embryonic Stem Cells

Liu, Yu; Kaneda, Ruri; Leja, Thomas W; Subkhankulova, Tatiana; Tolmachov, Oleg; Minchiotti, Gabriella; Schwartz, Robert J; Barahona, Mauricio; Schneider, Michael D
Fonte: BlackWell Publishing Ltd Publicador: BlackWell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Cardiac muscle differentiation in vivo is guided by sequential growth factor signals, including endoderm-derived diffusible factors, impinging on cardiogenic genes in the developing mesoderm. Previously, by RNA interference in AB2.2 mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), we identified the endodermal transcription factor Sox17 as essential for Mesp1 induction in primitive mesoderm and subsequent cardiac muscle differentiation. However, downstream effectors of Sox17 remained to be proven functionally. In this study, we used genome-wide profiling of Sox17-dependent genes in AB2.2 cells, RNA interference, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and luciferase reporter genes to dissect this pathway. Sox17 was required not only for Hhex (a second endodermal transcription factor) but also for Cer1, a growth factor inhibitor from endoderm that, like Hhex, controls mesoderm patterning in Xenopus toward a cardiac fate. Suppressing Hhex or Cer1 blocked cardiac myogenesis, although at a later stage than induction of Mesp1/2. Hhex was required but not sufficient for Cer1 expression. Over-expression of Sox17 induced endogenous Cer1 and sequence-specific transcription of a Cer1 reporter gene. Forced expression of Cer1 was sufficient to rescue cardiac differentiation in Hhex-deficient cells. Thus...

‣ Reversible Lineage-Specific Priming of Human Embryonic Stem Cells Can Be Exploited to Optimize the Yield of Differentiated Cells

Lee, Jung Bok; Graham, Monica; Collins, Tony J; Lee, Jong-Hee; Hong, Seok-Ho; Mcnicol, Amie Jamie; Shapovalova, Zoya; Bhatia, Mickie
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Ltd Publicador: Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The clinical use of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) requires efficient cellular expansion that must be paired with an ability to generate specialized progeny through differentiation. Self-renewal and differentiation are deemed inherent hallmarks of hESCs and a growing body of evidence suggests that initial culture conditions dictate these two aspects of hESC behavior. Here, we reveal that defined culture conditions using commercial mTeSR1 media augment the expansion of hESCs and enhance their capacity for neural differentiation at the expense of hematopoietic lineage competency without affecting pluripotency. This culture-induced modification was shown to be reversible, as culture in mouse embryonic fibroblast-conditioned media (MEF-CM) in subsequent passages allowed mTeSR1-expanded hESCs to re-establish hematopoietic differentiation potential. Optimal yield of hematopoietic cells can be achieved by expansion in mTeSR1 followed by a recovery period in MEF-CM. Furthermore, the lineage propensity to hematopoietic and neural cell types could be predicted via analysis of surrogate markers expressed by hESCs cultured in mTeSR1 versus MEF-CM, thereby circumventing laborious in vitro differentiation assays. Our study reveals that hESCs exist in a range of functional states and balance expansion with differentiation potential...

‣ Caracterização do estado indiferenciado de células tronco embrionárias murinas expandidas na presença de nanopartículas magnéticas e isolamento de células tronco embrionárias a partir de blastócitos bovinos; Characterization of undifferentiated state of murine embryonic stem cells expanded in the presence of magnetic nanoparticles and isolation of embryonic stem cells from bovine blastocysts

FREITAS, Erika Regina Leal de
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Biologia; Ciencias Biologicas Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Doutorado em Biologia; Ciencias Biologicas
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Português
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Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have been used in a great variety of biomedical applications, especially in cancer treatment, drug delivery, and diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs), due to its capacity of auto-renewal and differentiation in some types of cells, offer a great potential for its use in tissue regeneration and in alternative treatments for many degenerative diseases. The study had as aims: i) to evaluate in vitro citotoxicity of maghemite nanoparticles functionalized with lauric acid, DMSA, and citrate in human melanoma cells (SK-MEL-37) by the MTT assay, electronic microscopy, and DNA electroforesis by agarose gel; ii) to develop a culture system using the previously selected MNPs and a magnet to expand in vitro murine embryonic stem cells (mESCs) in the absence of a co-culture of murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) (the indifferentiated state of the mES was analyzed by alkaline phosphatase cytochemistry, electronic microscopy, and analysis of Oct-4 and Nanog gene expression by RT-PCR); iii) to isolate and expand ESCs from bovine blastocysts, and to characterize its pluripotency by analysis of Oct-4 and STAT-3 gene expression by RT-PCR. The MNPs coated with lauric acid, citrate, and DMSA showed no citotoxicity...

‣ Directed differentiation and characterization of genetyically modified embryonic stem cells for therapy

Lau, A.; Hemsley, K.; Meedeniya, A.; Robinson, A.; Hopwood, J.
Fonte: Humana Press, Inc. Publicador: Humana Press, Inc.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 Português
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1002.1136%
Lysosomal storage disorders are rare, inherited diseases caused by a deficiency of a specific, lysosomal enzyme. In the case of mucopolysaccharidosis type IIIA, a lack of active sulfamidase enzyme results in heparan sulfate accumulation, severe and progressive neurological deficits, and usually premature death. Embryonic stem cells can be genetically modified to overexpress lysosomal enzymes, providing a renewable reservoir of cells that can be readily expanded in culture. Screening clonal lines of embryonic stem cells for desirable properties such as high levels and maintenance of enzyme activity throughout terminal differentiation to neural phenotypes theoretically provides a reproducible population of cells that can be fully characterized in vitro before implantation within the central nervous system in animal models of lysosomal storage disorders.; Adeline A. Lau, Kim M. Hemsley, Adrian Meedeniya, Aaron J. Robinson and John J. Hopwood

‣ Cancer genes hypermethylated in human embryonic stem cells

Calvanese, Vicenzo; Horrillo, Angelica; Hmadcha, Abdelkrim; Su??rez-??lvarez, Beatriz; Fern??ndez, Agust??n F.; Lara, Ester; Casado, Sara; Men??ndez, Pablo; Bueno, Clara; Garc??a-Castro, Javier; Rubio, Ruth; Lapunzina, Pablo; Alaminos Mingorance, Miguel;
Fonte: Public Library of Science (PLOS) Publicador: Public Library of Science (PLOS)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Developmental genes are silenced in embryonic stem cells by a bivalent histone-based chromatin mark. It has been proposed that this mark also confers a predisposition to aberrant DNA promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) in cancer. We report here that silencing of a significant proportion of these TSGs in human embryonic and adult stem cells is associated with promoter DNA hypermethylation. Our results indicate a role for DNA methylation in the control of gene expression in human stem cells and suggest that, for genes repressed by promoter hypermethylation in stem cells in vivo, the aberrant process in cancer could be understood as a defect in establishing an unmethylated promoter during differentiation, rather than as an anomalous process of de novo hypermethylation.

‣ The ability of mouse nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells to differentiate into primordial germ cells

Mansouri,Vahid; Salehi,Mohammad; Nourozian,Mohsen; Fadaei,Fatemeh; Farahani,Reza Mastery; Piryaei,Abbas; Delbari,Ali
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira de Genética
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2015 Português
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Nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells (ntESCs) show stem cell characteristics such as pluripotency but cause no immunological disorders. Although ntESCs are able to differentiate into somatic cells, the ability of ntESCs to differentiate into primordial germ cells (PGCs) has not been examined. In this work, we examined the capacity of mouse ntESCs to differentiate into PGCs in vitro. ntESCs aggregated to form embryoid bodies (EB) in EB culture medium supplemented with bone morphogenetic protein 4(BMP4) as the differentiation factor. The expression level of specific PGC genes was compared at days 4 and 8 using real time PCR. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemical staining were used to detect Mvh as a specific PGC marker. ntESCs expressed particular genes related to different stages of PGC development. Flow cytometry and immunocytochemical staining confirmed the presence of Mvh protein in a small number of cells. There were significant differences between cells that differentiated into PGCs in the group treated with Bmp4 compared to non-treated cells. These findings indicate that ntESCs can differentiate into putative PGCs. Improvement of ntESC differentiation into PGCs may be a reliable means of producing mature germ cells.

‣ A reduction in Npas4 expression results in delayed neural differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells

Klaric, T.S.; Thomas, P.Q.; Dottori, M.; Leong, W.K.; Koblar, S.A.; Lewis, M.D.
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2014 Português
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INTRODUCTION Npas4 is a calcium-dependent transcription factor expressed within neurons of the brain where it regulates the expression of several genes that are important for neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity. It is known that in the adult brain Npas4 plays an important role in several key aspects of neurobiology including inhibitory synapse formation, neuroprotection and memory, yet very little is known about the role of Npas4 during neurodevelopment. The aim of this study was to examine the expression and function of Npas4 during nervous system development by using a combination of in vivo experiments in the developing mouse embryo and neural differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) as an in vitro model of the early stages of embryogenesis. METHODS Two different neural differentiation paradigms were used to investigate Npas4 expression during neurodevelopment in vitro; adherent monolayer differentiation of mouse ESCs in N2B27 medium and Noggin-induced differentiation of human ESCs. This work was complemented by direct analysis of Npas4 expression in the mouse embryo. The function of Npas4 in the context of neurodevelopment was investigated using loss-of-function experiments in vitro. We created several mouse ESC lines in which Npas4 expression was reduced during neural differentiation through RNA interference and we then analyzed the ability of these Npas4 knockdown mouse ESCs lines to undergo neural differentiation. RESULTS We found that while Npas4 is not expressed in undifferentiated ESCs...

‣ A controvérsia em torno da liberação das pesquisas com células tronco embrionárias no Brasil: posições e argumentos dos representantes da Igreja Católica; The controversy around the research with embryonic stem cells in Brazil: position and arguments of the representatives of the Catholic Church

Sales, Lilian
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Filosofia, Letras e Ciências Humanas
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/11/2014 Português
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Neste artigo buscaremos compreender uma parte da controvérsia em torno da liberação do uso de células tronco embrionárias em pesquisas. Deveremos nos centrar nos posicionamentos contrários a esta liberação, empreendidos especialmente por agentes ligados à Igreja Católica. Analisaremos os argumentos e estratégias utilizados por estes agentes para se posicionar contra a liberação, adotando uma posição “em defesa da vida”, e as diferentes formas como esta posição é defendida nas diferentes instâncias envolvidas nesta controvérsia. A centralidade da presença de elementos de base teológica/doutrinal e de elementos de base científica será observada em cada uma das instâncias da Instituição Católica, constituindo parte impor- tante da construção da legitimidade de seu argumento contra liberação do uso das células tronco embrionárias em pesquisas. ; his article examines a part of the controversy surrounding the embryonic stem cells use liberation on scientific research. It focuses on the positioning contrary to the liberation taken by agents linked to the Catholic Church. We will analyze arguments and strategies that are employed by those agents in order to position against the liberation...