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‣ Avaliação, por graduandos de enfermagem, de ambiente virtual de aprendizagem para ensino de fisiologia endócrina; Evaluation by nursing students in virtual learning environments for teaching endocrine physiology; Evaluación, por graduandos de enfermería, del ambiente virtual de aprendizaje para la enseñanza de la fisiología endocrina

RANGEL, Elaine Maria Leite; MENDES, Isabel Amélia Costa; CÁRNIO, Evelin Capellari; ALVES, Leila Maria Marchi; CRISPIM, Juliane de Almeida; MAZZO, Alessandra; ANDRADE, Jesusmar Ximenes; TREVIZAN, Maria Auxiliadora; RANGEL, Alexandre Leite
Fonte: Escola Paulista de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de São Paulo Publicador: Escola Paulista de Enfermagem, Universidade Federal de São Paulo
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
586.30766%
OBJETIVO: Descrever a avaliação do Ambiente Virtual de Aprendizagem do TelEduc no ensino de Fisiologia Endócrina por graduandos de enfermagem de um Curso de Licenciatura em Enfermagem de uma universidade pública do interior do Estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Estudo descritivo, transversal com análise quantitativa de dados e com amostra de 44 alunos. Para a coleta de dados, utilizou-se um instrumento que contemplava aspectos pedagógicos do ambiente virtual de aprendizagem: conteúdo, interação e atividades e aspectos técnicos: tempo de resposta e qualidade da interface. RESULTADOS: Na avaliação dos alunos, os dados apontaram que, na maioria das respostas obtidas, foi explicitado o atendimento dos itens compreendidos nas seguintes características: conteúdo (84,0%), interação (83,2%), atividades (89,3%), tempo de resposta (94,0%) e qualidade da interface (95,8%). CONCLUSÃO: O ambiente virtual de aprendizagem do TelEduc mostrou-se uma ferramenta eficaz para apoiar o ensino de Fisiologia Endócrina.; OBJECTIVE: To describe the evaluation of the Virtual Learning Environment of TelEduc in teaching endocrine physiology for graduates of a nursing degree course at a public university in the state of Sao Paulo. METHODS: Cross-sectional...

‣ Influência do alumínio e do pH ácido sobre a fisiologia reprodutiva de peixes teleósteos continentais; Influence of aluminium and acidic pH over the reproductive physiology of freshwater teleost fish

Correia, Tiago Gabriel
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/05/2008 Português
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A reprodução em peixes é controlada pelo eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-gônadas e os fatores que alteram o funcionamento adequado deste eixo são chamados de disruptores endócrinos. Muitos metais têm o papel de disruptores endócrinos e dentre eles destaca-se o alumínio que, além de afetar o sistema endócrino de algumas espécies de peixes, pode alterar a deposição e/ou mobilização de substratos energéticos nestes animais. Sabe-se que o pH pode modular em muitos casos as respostas fisiológicas decorrentes da exposição de peixes a alguns metais, como é o caso do alumínio. Desta forma, o presente trabalho objetiva avaliar as possíveis alterações na fisiologia reprodutiva de duas espécies de peixes teleósteos continentais quando os mesmos são expostos às altas concentrações de alumínio e em pH ácido. Para avaliar estes efeitos foram conduzidos 2 tipos de experimentos: um crônico, realizado com fêmeas de uma espécie de desova total (sincrônica em grupo), Astyanax fasciatus (lambari), durante a sua fase reprodutiva, pelo período de 14 dias; e outro agudo, pelo período de 96 horas, com fêmeas de Oreochromis niloticus (tilápia), espécie de desova parcelada (assincrônica) também em fase reprodutiva. Foram determinadas as concentrações plasmáticas de hormônios esteróides como o cortisol...

‣ Avaliação do ambiente virtual de aprendizagem no ensino de fisiologia em um curso de licenciatura em enfermagem; Evaluation of the virtual learning environment in physiology teaching in a nursing teaching diploma program.

Rangel, Elaine Maria Leite
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/02/2009 Português
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489.80832%
Estudo descritivo cujos objetivos foram: desenvolver um módulo educativo sobre Fisiologia Endócrina em um Ambiente Virtual de Aprendizagem, implementar o módulo com os alunos do curso em questão e realizar a avaliação dos alunos e do módulo. Coleta de dados realizada no segundo semestre de 2007, após a aprovação do projeto de pesquisa pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Escola de Enfermagem de Ribeirão Preto. Amostra de 44 alunos. Estudo desenvolvido em três etapas. A primeira etapa constituiu-se no desenvolvimento do módulo educativo sobre Fisiologia Endócrina. A etapa 2, no planejamento da implementação do módulo e a etapa 3, no planejamento da avaliação do aluno e do módulo. O módulo educativo sobre Fisiologia foi desenvolvido a partir do ciclo para criação de um curso a distância através da web e disponibilizado no TelEduc. A implementação ocorreu no período de 21/11/07 a 10/12/07. Os encontros presenciais destinaram-se a orientação dos alunos sobre o TelEduc e a discussão de dúvidas. As atividades a distância compreenderam: resolução de exercícios, fóruns de discussão e chat. Os resultados evidenciaram predomínio do sexo feminino 41 (93,2%) e que a maioria (75%) dos alunos possuía idade entre 19 e 23 anos. A Internet foi o meio mais utilizado para se manter atualizado por 23 (59...

‣ Influência do pH ácido, alumínio e manganês na fisiologia reprodutiva em machos de Astyanax bimaculatus (Characiformes: Characidae); Influence of acidic pH, aluminum and manganese on reproductive physiology of Astyanax bimaculatus males (Characiformes: Characidae)

Kida, Bianca Mayumi Silva
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 08/05/2014 Português
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369.12246%
Os metais podem causar efeitos adversos de grande amplitude na função reprodutiva de animais, principalmente em organismos aquáticos. Eles podem alterar o sistema endócrino, atuando na esteroidogênese, afetando o processo reprodutivo dos peixes. Nosso objetivo foi investigar os efeitos dos metais alumínio (Al) e manganês (Mn) em pH ácido sobre a esteroidogênese de machos de Astyanax bimaculatus, sexualmente maduros, após uma exposição aguda de 96 horas e avaliar se os animais foram capazes de recuperar dos possíveis efeitos destes metais em água livre de metais. Esses animais foram expostos a uma concentração nominal de 0,5 mg.L-1 de Al e Mn (isolados ou combinados), e os grupos experimentais foram mantidos em pH ácido (5,5) para manter os metais biodisponíveis. Foi realizada uma exposição aguda de 96 horas, com amostragens em 24h e 96h, e depois também um período de 96h em água livre de metais, com amostragens em 120h e 192h, a partir do o início do experimento. Foram determinadas as concentrações plasmáticas de testosterona (T), 11-cetotestosterona (11-KT), 17β-estradiol (E2) e cortisol (C) por ELISA. Além disso, foram realizadas análises histológicas dos testículos e avaliação da concentração espermática. Os metais estudados...

‣ New concepts in white adipose tissue physiology

Proenca,A.R.G.; Sertie,R.A.L.; Oliveira,A.C.; Campaaa,A.B.; Caminhotto,R.O.; Chimin,P.; Lima,F.B.
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/02/2014 Português
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Numerous studies address the physiology of adipose tissue (AT). The interest surrounding the physiology of AT is primarily the result of the epidemic outburst of obesity in various contemporary societies. Briefly, the two primary metabolic activities of white AT include lipogenesis and lipolysis. Throughout the last two decades, a new model of AT physiology has emerged. Although AT was considered to be primarily an abundant energy source, it is currently considered to be a prolific producer of biologically active substances, and, consequently, is now recognized as an endocrine organ. In addition to leptin, other biologically active substances secreted by AT, generally classified as cytokines, include adiponectin, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, resistin, vaspin, visfatin, and many others now collectively referred to as adipokines. The secretion of such biologically active substances by AT indicates its importance as a metabolic regulator. Cell turnover of AT has also recently been investigated in terms of its biological role in adipogenesis. Consequently, the objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive critical review of the current literature concerning the metabolic (lipolysis, lipogenesis) and endocrine actions of AT.

‣ Ecological risk assessment of endocrine disruptors.

Hutchinson, T H; Brown, R; Brugger, K E; Campbell, P M; Holt, M; Länge, R; McCahon, P; Tattersfield, L J; van Egmond, R
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2000 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
378.75273%
The European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals proposes a tiered approach for the ecological risk assessment of endocrine disruptors, integrating exposure and hazard (effects) characterization. Exposure assessment for endocrine disruptors should direct specific tests for wildlife species, placing hazard data into a risk assessment context. Supplementing the suite of mammalian screens now under Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) validation, high priority should be given to developing a fish screening assay for detecting endocrine activity in oviparous species. Taking into account both exposure characterization and alerts from endocrine screening, higher tier tests are also a priority for defining adverse effects. We propose that in vivo mammalian and fish assays provide a comprehensive screening battery for diverse hormonal functions (including androgen, estrogen, and thyroid hormone), whereas Amphibia should be considered at higher tiers if there are exposure concerns. Higher tier endocrine-disruptor testing should include fish development and fish reproduction tests, whereas a full life-cycle test could be subsequently used to refine aquatic risk assessments when necessary. For avian risk assessment...

‣ Evolutionary biology of plant defenses against herbivory and their predictive implications for endocrine disruptor susceptibility in vertebrates.

Wynne-Edwards, K E
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /05/2001 Português
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372.53008%
Hormone disruption is a major, underappreciated component of the plant chemical arsenal, and the historical coevolution between hormone-disrupting plants and herbivores will have both increased the susceptibility of carnivores and diversified the sensitivities of herbivores to man-made endocrine disruptors. Here I review diverse evidence of the influence of plant secondary compounds on vertebrate reproduction, including human reproduction. Three of the testable hypotheses about the evolutionary responses of vertebrate herbivores to hormone-disrupting challenges from their diet are developed. Specifically, the hypotheses are that a) vertebrate herbivores will express steroid hormone receptors in the buccal cavity and/or the vomeronasal organ; b) absolute sex steroid concentrations will be lower in carnivores than in herbivores; and c) herbivore steroid receptors should be more diverse in their binding affinities than carnivore lineages. The argument developed in this review, if empirically validated by support for the specific hypotheses, suggests that a) carnivores will be more susceptible than herbivores to endocrine-disrupting compounds of anthropogenic origin entering their bodies, and b) diverse herbivore lineages will be variably susceptible to any given natural or synthetic contaminant. As screening methods for hormone-disrupting potential are compared and adopted...

‣ Endocrine and Physiological Changes in Response to Chronic Corticosterone: A Potential Model of the Metabolic Syndrome in Mouse

Karatsoreos, Ilia N.; Bhagat, Sarah M.; Bowles, Nicole P.; Weil, Zachary M.; Pfaff, Donald W.; McEwen, Bruce S.
Fonte: The Endocrine Society Publicador: The Endocrine Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Numerous clinical and experimental studies have linked stress to changes in risk factors associated with the development of physiological syndromes, including metabolic disorders. How different mediators of the stress response, such as corticosterone (CORT), influence these changes in risk remains unclear. Although CORT has beneficial short-term effects, long-term CORT exposure can result in damage to the physiological systems it protects acutely. Disruption of this important physiologic signal is observed in numerous disparate disorders, ranging from depression to Cushing’s syndrome. Thus, understanding the effects of chronic high CORT on metabolism and physiology is of key importance. We explored the effects of 4-wk exposure to CORT dissolved in the drinking water on the physiology and behavior of male mice. We used this approach as a noninvasive way of altering plasma CORT levels while retaining some integrity in the diurnal rhythm present in normal animals. This approach has advantages over methods involving constant CORT pellets, CORT injections, or adrenalectomy. We found that high doses of CORT (100 μg/ml) result in rapid and dramatic increases in weight gain, increased adiposity, elevated plasma leptin, insulin and triglyceride levels...

‣ Dark-Phase Light Contamination Disrupts Circadian Rhythms in Plasma Measures of Endocrine Physiology and Metabolism in Rats

Dauchy, Robert T; Dauchy, Erin M; Tirrell, Robert P; Hill, Cody R; Davidson, Leslie K; Greene, Michael W; Tirrell, Paul C; Wu, Jinghai; Sauer, Leonard A; Blask, David E
Fonte: American Association for Laboratory Animal Science Publicador: American Association for Laboratory Animal Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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483.30707%
Dark-phase light contamination can significantly disrupt chronobiologic rhythms, thereby potentially altering the endocrine physiology and metabolism of experimental animals and influencing the outcome of scientific investigations. We sought to determine whether exposure to low-level light contamination during the dark phase influenced the normally entrained circadian rhythms of various substances in plasma. Male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 6 per group) were housed in photobiologic light-exposure chambers configured to create 1) a 12:12-h light:dark cycle without dark-phase light contamination (control condition; 123 µW/cm2, lights on at 0600), 2) experimental exposure to a low level of light during the 12-h dark phase (with 0.02, 0.05, 0.06, or 0.08 µW/cm2 light at night), or 3) constant bright light (123 µW/cm2). Dietary and water intakes were recorded daily. After 2 wk, rats underwent 6 low-volume blood draws at 4-h intervals (beginning at 0400) during both the light and dark phases. Circadian rhythms in dietary and water intake and levels of plasma total fatty acids and lipid fractions remained entrained during exposure to either control conditions or low-intensity light during the dark phase. However, these patterns were disrupted in rats exposed to constant bright light. Circadian patterns of plasma melatonin...

‣ Research Resource: Haploinsufficiency of Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein-2 (Ramp2) Causes Reduced Fertility, Hyperprolactinemia, Skeletal Abnormalities, and Endocrine Dysfunction in Mice

Kadmiel, Mahita; Fritz-Six, Kimberly; Pacharne, Suruchi; Richards, Gareth O.; Li, Manyu; Skerry, Tim M.; Caron, Kathleen M.
Fonte: Endocrine Society Publicador: Endocrine Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
469.12246%
Receptor activity-modifying protein-2 (RAMP2) is a single-pass transmembrane protein that can regulate the trafficking, ligand binding, and signaling of several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). The most well-characterized role of RAMP2 is in the regulation of adrenomedullin (AM) binding to calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), and our previous studies using knockout mouse models support this canonical signaling paradigm. For example, Ramp2−/− mice die at midgestation with a precise phenocopy of the AM−/− and Calcrl−/− mice. In contrast, Ramp2+/− mice are viable and exhibit an expanded variety of phenotypes that are distinct from those of Calcrl+/− mice. Using Ramp2+/− female mice, we demonstrate that a modest decrease in Ramp2 expression causes severe reproductive defects characterized by fetal growth restriction, fetal demise, and postnatal lethality that is independent of the genotype and gender of the offspring. Ramp2+/− female mice also exhibit hyperprolactinemia during pregnancy and in basal conditions. Consistent with hyperprolactinemia, Ramp2+/− female mice have enlarged pituitary glands, accelerated mammary gland development, and skeletal abnormalities including delayed bone development and decreased bone mineral density. Because RAMP2 has been shown to associate with numerous GPCR...

‣ Clocks on top: The role of the circadian clock in the hypothalamic and pituitary regulation of endocrine physiology

Tonsfeldt, Karen J.; Chappell, Patrick E.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
381.83875%
Recent strides in circadian biology over the last several decades have allowed researchers new insight into how molecular circadian clocks influence the broader physiology of mammals. Elucidation of transcriptional feedback loops at the heart of endogenous circadian clocks has allowed for a deeper analysis of how timed cellular programs exert effects on multiple endocrine axes. While the full understanding of endogenous clocks is currently incomplete, recent work has re-evaluated prior findings with a new understanding of the involvement of these cellular oscillators, and how they may play a role in constructing rhythmic hormone synthesis, secretion, reception, and metabolism. This review addresses current research into how multiple circadian clocks in the hypothalamus and pituitary receive photic information from oscillators within the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and how resultant hypophysiotropic and pituitary hormone release is then temporally gated to produce an optimal result at the cognate target tissue. Special emphasis is placed not only on neural communication among the SCN and other hypothalamic nuclei, but also how endogenous clocks within the endocrine hypothalamus and pituitary may modulate local hormone synthesis and secretion in response to SCN cues. Through evaluation of a larger body of research into the impact of circadian biology on endocrinology...

‣ Disruption of Reproductive Aging in Female and Male Rats by Gestational Exposure to Estrogenic Endocrine Disruptors

Walker, Deena M.; Kermath, Bailey A.; Woller, Michael J.; Gore, Andrea C.
Fonte: Endocrine Society Publicador: Endocrine Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
372.53008%
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are industrial contaminants and known endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Previous work has shown that gestational exposure to PCBs cause changes in reproductive neuroendocrine processes. Here we extended work farther down the life spectrum and tested the hypothesis that early life exposure to Aroclor 1221 (A1221), a mixture of primarily estrogenic PCBs, results in sexually dimorphic aging-associated alterations to reproductive parameters in rats, and gene expression changes in hypothalamic nuclei that regulate reproductive function. Pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were injected on gestational days 16 and 18 with vehicle (dimethylsulfoxide), A1221 (1 mg/kg), or estradiol benzoate (50 μg/kg). Developmental parameters, estrous cyclicity (females), and timing of reproductive senescence were monitored in the offspring through 9 months of age. Expression of 48 genes was measured in 3 hypothalamic nuclei: the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), arcuate nucleus (ARC), and median eminence (females only) by real-time RT-PCR. Serum LH, testosterone, and estradiol were assayed in the same animals. In males, A1221 had no effects; however, prenatal estradiol benzoate increased serum estradiol, gene expression in the AVPV (1 gene)...

‣ Microchimerism in Endocrine Pathology

Rust, Daniel W.; Bianchi, Diana W.
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2009 Português
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Chimerism in an individual refers to the coexistence of cells arising from two distinct organisms. It can arise iatrogenically via transplant or blood transfusion, and physiologically via twin to twin transfer, or from trafficking between mother and fetus during pregnancy. Many of the diseases associated with microchimerism affect the endocrine system (e.g., autoimmune thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus type 1). Microchimerism is relevant to endocrine pathology because (a) it is associated with pregnancy, a condition of complex endocrine physiology; (b) maternofetal and feto-maternal cellular migration must involve the placenta, itself an endocrine organ; and (c) in some species, chimerism results in states of intersexuality, a condition intimately involved with endocrine physiology. Studies of feto-maternal microchimerism in the thyroid have documented the presence of fetal cells in association with Hashimoto thyroiditis, Graves’ disease, thyroid adenoma, and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Studies of materno-fetal microchimerism have documented the presence of maternal cells in juvenile diabetes and other pediatric conditions. Microchimerism plays a potential role in the repair of diseased thyroid and pancreatic tissues.

‣ Endocrine regulation of human fetal growth: The role of the mother placenta and fetus

Murphy, V.; Smith, R.; Giles, W.; Clifton, V.
Fonte: Endocrine Soc Publicador: Endocrine Soc
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2006 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
384.14715%
The environment in which the fetus develops is critical for its survival and long-term health. The regulation of normal human fetal growth involves many multidirectional interactions between the mother, placenta, and fetus. The mother supplies nutrients and oxygen to the fetus via the placenta. The fetus influences the provision of maternal nutrients via the placental production of hormones that regulate maternal metabolism. The placenta is the site of exchange between mother and fetus and regulates fetal growth via the production and metabolism of growth-regulating hormones such as IGFs and glucocorticoids. Adequate trophoblast invasion in early pregnancy and increased uteroplacental blood flow ensure sufficient growth of the uterus, placenta, and fetus. The placenta may respond to fetal endocrine signals to increase transport of maternal nutrients by growth of the placenta, by activation of transport systems, and by production of placental hormones to influence maternal physiology and even behavior. There are consequences of poor fetal growth both in the short term and long term, in the form of increased mortality and morbidity. Endocrine regulation of fetal growth involves interactions between the mother, placenta, and fetus, and these effects may program long-term physiology.; Vanessa E. Murphy...

‣ The case of thyroid hormones: how to learn physiology by solving a detective case

LELLIS-SANTOS, Camilo; GIANNOCCO, Gisele; NUNES, Maria Tereza
Fonte: AMER PHYSIOLOGICAL SOC Publicador: AMER PHYSIOLOGICAL SOC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
370.1988%
Lellis-Santos C, Giannocco G, Nunes MT. The case of thyroid hormones: how to learn physiology by solving a detective case. Adv Physiol Educ 35: 219-226, 2011; doi:10.1152/advan.00135.2010.Thyroid diseases are prevalent among endocrine disorders, and careful evaluation of patients' symptoms is a very important part in their diagnosis. Developing new pedagogical strategies, such as problem-based learning (PBL), is extremely important to stimulate and encourage medical and biomedical students to learn thyroid physiology and identify the signs and symptoms of thyroid dysfunction. The present study aimed to create a new pedagogical approach to build deep knowledge about hypo-/hyperthyroidism by proposing a hands-on activity based on a detective case, using alternative materials in place of laboratory animals. After receiving a description of a criminal story involving changes in thyroid hormone economy, students collected data from clues, such as body weight, mesenteric vascularization, visceral fat, heart and thyroid size, heart rate, and thyroid-stimulating hormone serum concentration to solve the case. Nevertheless, there was one missing clue for each panel of data. Four different materials were proposed to perform the same practical lesson. Animals...

‣ Development, implementation, and assessment of a distance module in endocrine physiology

RANGEL, Elaine Maria Leite; MENDES, Isabel Amelia Costa; CARNIO, Evelin Capellari; ALVES, Leila Maria Marchi; GODOY, Simone de; CRISPIM, Juliane de Almeida
Fonte: AMER PHYSIOLOGICAL SOC Publicador: AMER PHYSIOLOGICAL SOC
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
591.74797%
Rangel EM, Mendes IA, Carnio EC, Marchi Alves LM, Godoy S, Crispim JA. Development, implementation, and assessment of a distance module in endocrine physiology. Adv Physiol Educ 34: 70-74, 2010; doi: 10.1152/advan.00070.2009.-This study aimed to develop, implement, and assess a distance module in endocrine physiology in TelEduc for undergraduate nursing students from a public university in Brazil, with a sample size of 44 students. Stage 1 consisted of the development of the module, through the process of creating a distance course by means of the Web. Stage 2 was the planning of the module's practical functioning, and stage 3 was the planning of student evaluations. In the experts' assessment, the module complied with pedagogical and technical requirements most of the time. In the practical functioning stage, 10 h were dedicated for on-site activities and 10 h for distance activities. Most students (93.2%) were women between 19 and 23 yr of age (75%). The internet was the most used means to remain updated for 23 students (59.0%), and 30 students (68.2%) accessed it from the teaching institution. A personal computer was used by 23 students (56.1%), and most of them (58.1%) learned to use it alone. Access to a forum was more dispersed (variation coefficient: 86.80%) than access to chat (variation coefficient: 65.14%). Average participation was 30 students in forums and 22 students in the chat. Students' final grades in the module averaged 8.5 (SD: 1.2). TelEduc was shown to be efficient in supporting the teaching- learning process of endocrine physiology.

‣ An Insulin-to-Insulin Regulatory Network Orchestrates Phenotypic Specificity in Development and Physiology

Fernandes de Abreu, Diana Andrea; Caballero, Antonio; Fardel, Pascal; Stroustrup, Nicholas; Chen, Zhunan; Lee, KyungHwa; Keyes, William D.; Nash, Zachary M.; López-Moyado, Isaac F.; Vaggi, Federico; Cornils, Astrid; Regenass, Martin; Neagu, Anca; Ostojic
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
482.8029%
Insulin-like peptides (ILPs) play highly conserved roles in development and physiology. Most animal genomes encode multiple ILPs. Here we identify mechanisms for how the forty Caenorhabditis elegans ILPs coordinate diverse processes, including development, reproduction, longevity and several specific stress responses. Our systematic studies identify an ILP-based combinatorial code for these phenotypes characterized by substantial functional specificity and diversity rather than global redundancy. Notably, we show that ILPs regulate each other transcriptionally, uncovering an ILP-to-ILP regulatory network that underlies the combinatorial phenotypic coding by the ILP family. Extensive analyses of genetic interactions among ILPs reveal how their signals are integrated. A combined analysis of these functional and regulatory ILP interactions identifies local genetic circuits that act in parallel and interact by crosstalk, feedback and compensation. This organization provides emergent mechanisms for phenotypic specificity and graded regulation for the combinatorial phenotypic coding we observe. Our findings also provide insights into how large hormonal networks regulate diverse traits.

‣ The Central Endocrine Glands: Intertwining Physiology and Pharmacy

Emerson, Mitchell R.
Fonte: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education Publicador: American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/10/2007 Português
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The initial courses in didactic pharmacy curriculum are designed to provide core scientific knowledge and develop learning skills that are the basis for highly competent application and practice of pharmacy. Commonly, students interpret this scientific base as ancillary to the practice of pharmacy. Physiology courses present a natural opportunity for the instructor to introduce basic pharmaceutical principles that form the foundation of pharmacological application early in the professional curriculum. Human Physiology I is the first of a 2-course physiology sequence that pharmacy students take upon matriculating into Midwestern University College of Pharmacy-Glendale. The endocrine physiology section of this course is designed to emphasize the regulatory and compensatory nature of this system in maintaining homeostasis, but also includes aspects of basic pharmaceutical principles. In this way the dependency of physiology and pharmacy upon one another is accentuated. The lecture format and content described in this manuscript focus on the central endocrine glands and illustrates their vital role in normal body function, compensatory responses to disease states, and their components as pharmacotherapy targets. The integration of these pharmaceutical principles at the introductory level supports an environment that can alleviate any perceived disparity between science foundation and practical application in the profession of pharmacy.

‣ HumMod: A Modeling Environment for the Simulation of Integrative Human Physiology

Hester, Robert L.; Brown, Alison J.; Husband, Leland; Iliescu, Radu; Pruett, Drew; Summers, Richard; Coleman, Thomas G.
Fonte: Frontiers Research Foundation Publicador: Frontiers Research Foundation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 13/04/2011 Português
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Mathematical models and simulations are important tools in discovering key causal relationships governing physiological processes. Simulations guide and improve outcomes of medical interventions involving complex physiology. We developed HumMod, a Windows-based model of integrative human physiology. HumMod consists of 5000 variables describing cardiovascular, respiratory, renal, neural, endocrine, skeletal muscle, and metabolic physiology. The model is constructed from empirical data obtained from peer-reviewed physiological literature. All model details, including variables, parameters, and quantitative relationships, are described in Extensible Markup Language (XML) files. The executable (HumMod.exe) parses the XML and displays the results of the physiological simulations. The XML description of physiology in HumMod's modeling environment allows investigators to add detailed descriptions of human physiology to test new concepts. Additional or revised XML content is parsed and incorporated into the model. The model accurately predicts both qualitative and quantitative changes in clinical and experimental responses. The model is useful in understanding proposed physiological mechanisms and physiological interactions that are not evident...

‣ RITMOS HORMONAIS DO PÂNCREAS ENDÓCRINO: DOS FUNDAMENTOS CRONOBIOLÓGICOS ÀS IMPLICAÇÕES CLÍNICAS; HORMONE RHYTHMS OF THE ENDOCRINE PANCREAS: FROM THE CHRONOBIOLOGICAL FUNDAMENTALS TO THE CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS

Delattre, Edson
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/06/2004 Português
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Inicialmente, são apresentadas as bases teóricas para o conhecimento dos ritmos endócrinos, considerando-se que, virtualmente, todas as secreções hormonais apresentam acentuadas oscilações, o que demonstra um alto grau de organização temporal do sistema endócrino. A seguir, o trabalho revisa a ritmicidade do pâncreas endócrino, ressaltando os ritmos circadianos e ultradianos da insulina, em razão de sua importância para a fisiologia e fisiopatologia desse órgão. São apresentados tanto os resultados obtidos in vitro, quanto aqueles verificados clinicamente. Discutem-se as razões biológicas para a secreção pulsátil dos hormônios em geral, bem como as alterações desse ritmo em patologias do pâncreas endócrino.; Initially the theoretical basis for the knowledge of the endocrine rhythms are presented, by taking into consideration that all hormonal secretions display stressed oscillations that denotes a high degree of temporal organization in the endocrine system. Next, the work reviews the rhythm of the endocrine pancreas, by pointing out the circadian and ultradian rhythms of insulin, due to its importance for the physiology and physiopathology of that organ. Both the results secured in vitro and those noticed clinically are presented. The biological reasons for the pulsatile hormones secretion in general are discussed as well as changes of that rhythm...