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‣ Structure of macroinvertebrate communities in riffles of a Neotropical karst stream in the wet and dry seasons; Estrutura das comunidades de macroinvertebrados em corredeiras de um riacho cárstico Neotropical nas estações seca e chuvosa

RIGHI-CAVALLARO, Karina Ocampo; ROCHE, Kennedy Francis; FROEHLICH, Otávio; CAVALLARO, Marcel Rodrigo
Fonte: Associação Brasileira de Limnologia Publicador: Associação Brasileira de Limnologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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AIM: Our study evaluated the effects of physical and chemical variables and seasonality on diversity and structure of the macroinvertebrate fauna in riffles of a Neotropical chalk stream; METHODS: Sampling was performed during the dry (September 2003) and rainy (March 2004) seasons, in five sites. Five samples were taken at each point with a Surber sampler. Physical and chemical variables were also evaluated; RESULTS: Temperature, pH, orthophosphate and total nitrogen were very similar for both seasons, while riffle length, conductivity, alkalinity, ammonia, phosphorus and leaf litter had different values. The total number of organisms collected was 25114 belonging to at least 50 families. Insects dominated in the samples. The highest abundance was found for the dry period. Temporary stretches were sampled in rainy season in order to complement the faunal inventory; CONCLUSIONS: The environmental seasonality was an important factor for structuring the macroinvertebrate fauna, with a significant difference between the invertebrate compositions in the sampling periods. The results of this study demonstrate the influences of seasonality on the temporal variation of communities.; OBJETIVOS: Este estudo avaliou os efeitos das variáveis químicas e físicas e da sazonalidade na diversidade e estrutura da fauna de macroinvertebrados em corredeiras de um riacho cárstico Neotropical; MÉTODOS: As coletas foram realizadas durante as estações seca (Setembro 2003) e chuvosa (Março 2004)...

‣ Description of the immature stages of Notalina morsei Holzenthal, 1986 (Trichoptera : Leptoceridae) and an updated key to larvae of Neotropical Leptoceridae genera

CALOR, Adolfo R.; FROEHLICH, Claudio G.
Fonte: MAGNOLIA PRESS Publicador: MAGNOLIA PRESS
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The endemic Neotropical long-horned caddisfly subgenus Notalina (Neonotalina) Holzenthal contains nine described species, but its immature stages are unknown. In this paper the larvae and pupae of Notalina morsei Holzenthal 1986 from southeastern Brazil are described and illustrated. Larvae of the subgenus are easily recognized from other Neotropical leptocerids by the following characters: ventral apotome which is broad anteriorly and narrow posteriorly; the metanotum with three sclerites; the metasternum bearing 10-12 setae; the gill arrangement, usually including ventral and dorsal filaments from abdominal segments II to VI; and abdominal tergite IX with 6 long and 4 short setae. An updated key to known larvae of Neotropical Leptoceridae genera is provided.

‣ Detection of Bartonella spp. in neotropical felids and evaluation of risk factors and hematological abnormalities associated with infection

GUIMARAES, A. M. S.; BRANDAO, P. E.; MORAES, W.; KIIHL, S.; SANTOS, L. C.; FILONI, C.; CUBAS, Z. S.; ROBES, R. R.; MARQUES, L. M.; NETO, R. L.; YAMAGUTI, M.; OLIVEIRA, R. C.; CATAO-DIAS, J. L.; RICHTZENHAIN, L. J.; MESSICK, J. B.; BIONDO, A. W.; TIMENETSK
Fonte: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV Publicador: ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Although antibodies to Bartonella henselae have been described in all neotropical felid species, DNA has been detected in only one species, Leopard us wiedii. The aim of this study was to determine whether DNA of Bartonella spp. could be detected in blood of other captive neotropical felids and evaluate risk factors and hematological findings associated with infection. Blood samples were collected from 57 small felids, including 1 Leopard us geoffroyi, 17 L wiedii, 22 Leopardus tigrinus, 14 Leopardus pardalis, and 3 Puma yagouaroundi; 10 blood samples from Panthera onca were retrieved from blood banks. Complete blood counts were performed on blood samples from small felids, while all samples were evaluated by PCR. DNA extraction was confirmed by amplification of the cat GAPDH gene. Bartonella spp. were assessed by amplifying a fragment of their 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region; PCR products were purified and sequenced. For the small neotropical felids, risk factors [origin (wild-caught or zoo-born), gender, felid species, and flea exposure) were evaluated using exact multiple logistic regression. Hematological findings (anemia, polycythemia/hyperproteinemia, leukocytosis and leukopenia) were tested for association with infection using Fisher`s exact test. The 635 bp product amplified from 10 samples (10/67 = 14.92%) was identified as B. henselae by sequencing. Small neotropical felid males were more likely to be positive than females (95% CI = 0.00-0.451...

‣ Filogenia molecular e filogeografia de espécies de passeriformes (Aves): história biogeográfica da região neotropical com ênfase na Floresta Atlântica; Molecular Phylogeny and Phylogeography of Species of Passeriformes (Aves): historical Biogeography of the neotropical region with emphasis on Atlantic Forest

D'Horta, Fernando Mendonça
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 12/02/2009 Português
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Neste trabalho buscou-se contribuir para a compreensão da história biogeográfica das florestas da Região Neotropical e, em particular, da Floresta Atlântica a partir de estudos de diversificação inter e intra-específica de grupos de aves. Para investigar a história biogeográfica das florestas da região neotropical foram sequenciados genes mitocondriais (citb, ND2 e ND3) e nucleares (Fib7) de 102 amostras das seis espécies que compõem o gênero Sclerurus, S. mexicanus, S. rufigularis, S. guatemalensis, S. caudacutus, S. albigularis e S. scansor. Por outro lado, para o estudo de diversificação intra Floresta Atlântica, foram utilizadas seqüências dos mesmos marcadores de 86 indiíduos de S. scansor e de 57 de A. leucophthalmus. As análises que envolveram o gênero Sclerurus indicam que as seis espécies que o compõem são reciprocamente monofiléticas e que a diversificação do grupo se deu nos últimos 10 Ma. A origem dos padrões associados às áreas de endemismo do neotrópico, por outro lado, tiveram suas origens durante o Plioceno Superior e Pleistoceno. A congruência verificada na distribuição das linhagens associada à incongruência das relações entre linhagens indicam que histórias evolutivas distintas podem ter dado origem a padrões de distribuição de linhagens similares. Verifica-se...

‣ Sistemática de Phthiriini e revisão das espécies neotropicais do gênero Phthiria Meigen, 1820 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Phthiriinae); Systematic of Phthiriini and revision of neotropical species of Phthiria Meigen, 1820 (Diptera, Bombyliidae, Phthiriinae).

Yamaguchi, Carolina
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 26/11/2013 Português
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Atualmente a Família Bombyliidae encontra-se dividida em 16 subfamílias e 18 tribos. A subfamília Phthirinae inclui duas tribos: Phthiriini e Poecilognathini que, em total, incluem 10 gêneros. A tribo Phthiriini possui seis gêneros distribuidos da seguinte maneira: espécies neárticas estão divididas em dois gêneros, Acreophthiria Evenhuis, 1986 e Neacreotrichus Cockerell, 1917, as espécies australianas em três gêneros, Acreotrichus Macquart, 1850, Australiphthiria Evenhuis, 1986 e Pygocona Hull, 1973 e o gênero Phthiria Meigen, 1820 objeto deste estudo, que conta com 63 espécies distribuídas nas regiões Afrotropical, Neotropical, Paleártica e Oriental. Uma revisão taxonômica das espécies neotropicais do gênero Phthiria é apresentada no presente estudo, incluindo redescrições e ilustrações das mesmas. São reconhecidas seis espécies válidas: P. austrandina Edwards, 1937, P. cana Philippi, 1865, P. chilena Rondani, 1863, P. exilis Philippi, 1865,P. homochroma Hall, 1976 e P. tristis Bigot, 1892. Uma chave para identificação destas espécies, baseada em caracteres morfológicos diagnósticos, de fácil observação, também é apresentada. Este trabalho pretende testar se as seis espécies neotropicais, atualmente incluídas em Phthiria...

‣ A relação entre algumas características do periódico Neotropical Ichthyology e o seu Fator de Impacto : análise comparativa em níveis temático e nacional

Menezes, Sabrina Diehl
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul
Tipo: Trabalho de Conclusão de Curso Formato: application/pdf
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Esta pesquisa analisa as características do periódico Neotropical Ichthyology e de seu Fator de impacto. A introdução aborda temas imprescindíveis para o entendimento deste estudo, tais como: comunicação científica, periódicos científicos, avaliação da ciência, indicadores bibliométricos, FI e a revista Neotropical Ichthyology. Justifica-se este estudo pelo fato do Neotropical Ichthyology ser um título recente e ter sido indexado nas bases de dados da Thomson Reuters três anos após a publicação de seu primeiro número. A revisão de literatura trata de todas as variáveis que foram analisadas no estudo, a saber: análise de citações, FI, autocitação, autorreferenciação e documentos não citados. A metodologia utilizada é quantitativa do tipo bibliométrica com análise descritiva dos dados tratados. Foram utilizadas duas amostras para a realização das análises, compostas da seguinte forma: Amostra 1 - periódicos indexados na mesma categoria que o Neotropical Ichthyology no JCR; Amostra 2 - formada por títulos brasileiros indexados no JCR. O instrumento de coleta de dados foi um banco de dados criado no programa Excel versão 2007 e no SPSS versão 18. Os resultados encontrados nas análises mostram que o Neotropical Ichthyology é um periódico com características internacionais...

‣ Genetics of neotropical fish: from chromosomes to populations

Oliveira, C.; Foresti, Fausto; Hilsdorf, A. W. S.
Fonte: Springer Publicador: Springer
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: 81-100
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The Neotropical freshwater fish fauna is very rich-according to the most recent catalogue 71 families and 4,475 species have been described. However, only a small amount of general information is available on the composition of Neotropical marine fishes. In Brazil, 1,298 marine species have been recorded. General analysis of available cytogenetic and population genetic data clearly indicates research has been mainly concentrated on freshwater fishes. Thus, today, cytogenetic information is available for 475 species of Characiformes, 318 species of Siluriformes, 48 species of Gymnotiformes, 199 freshwater species that do not belong to the superorder Ostariophysi, and only 109 species of marine fishes. For the species studied, only about 6% have sex chromosomes and about 5% have supernumerary or B chromosomes. A review of the cytogenetic studies shows that these data have provided valuable information about the relationships between fish groups, the occurrence of cryptic species and species complexes, the mechanism of sex determination and sex chromosome evolution, the distribution of nucleolus organizer regions, the existence supernumerary chromosomes, and the relationship between polyploidy and evolution. In relation to populations in Neotropical marine waters...

‣ Corrections and additions to Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera (Tabanidae) of Coscarón & Papavero (2009)

Henriques,Augusto Loureiro; Krolow,Tiago Kütter; Rafael,José Albertino
Fonte: Sociedade Brasileira De Entomologia Publicador: Sociedade Brasileira De Entomologia
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/09/2012 Português
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Some corrections and omitted taxonomic information for the "Catalogue of Neotropical Diptera. Tabanidae" are presented. Fifteen recently described species are listed for the Neotropical region. Presently, the Neotropical region has 1,205 Tabanidae species, besides 35 unrecognized species and 29 nomina nuda.

‣ An introduction to Neotropical Carnivores; Molecular Population Genetics, Evolutionary Biology, and Biological Conservation of Neotropical Carnivores

Shostell, Joseph; Ruiz-García, Manuel
Fonte: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Publicador: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Formato: 1-45
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The Neotropics is rich in biodiversity and arguably contains some of the least understood and most understudied predators of the world. Jaguars and other carnivores represent the highest trophic levels within Neotropical areas that can markedly alter vertebrate communities and indirectly plant communities—leading to greater overall biodiversity. Their elusive nature and diffuse distributions within difficult to access areas make their data extremely difficult, time consuming and expensive to obtain. Thus, we considered it essential to bring together the world’s leading Neotropical carnivore specialists to compile their most recent data altogether in a single publication that would be available to conservation managers of Neotropical areas. This chapter describes the book’s main themes (molecular population genetics, evolutionary biology, and biological conservation) and how itpresents Neotropical carnivore data in different categories such as by guild (all Neotropical carnivores), by family, and when appropriate, by species. The remaining part of this chapter describes specific species of interest (jaguar, jaguarundi, guigna, pampas cat, Andean mountain cat...

‣ Phylogenetics Relationships among four Putative Taxa of Foxes of the Pseudoalopex Genus (Canidae, Carnivora) and Molecular Population Genetics of Ps. culpaeus and Ps. sechurae; Molecular Population Genetics, Evolutionary Biology, and Biological Conservation of Neotropical Carnivores

Ruiz García, Manuel; Rivas Sánchez, David; Lichilín Ortíz, Nicolás
Fonte: Nova Science Publishers, Inc. Publicador: Nova Science Publishers, Inc.
Formato: 97-127
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Herein we analyzed samples of four species of the Neotropical fox genus Pseudoalopex, representing Ps. culpaeus (Ps. culpaeus andina, from Peru and Bolivia, and Ps. culpaeus culpaeus, from Chile), Ps. sechurae (Peru and Ecuador), Ps. griseus (Argentina) and Ps. gymnocercus (Bolivia) for 419 base pairs of the mtCyt-b gene. The main results obtained were as follows: 1- The ancestor of Ps. sechurae was the first to diverge for the taxa of Pseudoalopex studied around 1.1-1.2 MYA. Ps. sechurae was the species which presented the highest levels of gene diversity of the Pseudoalopex species, probably because it is the oldest one of those studied; 2- The temporal separation of Ps. griseus and Ps. culpaeus is very recent (0.15-0.21 MYA) and no monophyly reciprocity was found in any of the analyses undertaken; 3- The divergence split between Ps. culpaeus culpaeus and Ps. culpaeus andina was around 0.17-0.22 MYA and these two culpaeus forms could be seen as two different ESUs in terms of biological conservation; 4- The individual of Ps. gymnocercus analyzed did not differentiate from the haplotypes of culpaeus. Two hypotheses were speculated: the taxa gymnocercus is not molecularly differentiated from culpaeus because a very extreme and recent speciation or it is an example of hybridization among two Neotropical fox species...

‣ Influencia de factores ambientales sobre el otolito de Australoheros facetus (Pisces, Cichlidae) y algunas comparaciones con otras especies Neotropicales; Influence of environmental factors of the otolith of Australoheros facetus (Pisces, Cichlidae) and some comparisons with other neotropical species

González Naya, María Jimena Aída
Fonte: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires Publicador: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales. Universidad de Buenos Aires
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; tesis doctoral; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 Português
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La familia Cichlidae es una de las más numerosas del Orden Perciformes, está constituida por alrededor de 1300 especies. En Sudamérica existen unas 400 especies que representan cerca del diez por ciento de la ictiofauna de agua dulce. En la Argentina existen unas 45 especies de cíclidos formalmente descriptas. La distribución de los peces está determinada por factores históricos y por los mecanismos adaptativos en las tres dimensiones elementales del nicho ecológico (la espacial, la trófica y la reproductiva), y está fuertemente influenciada por factores ambientales. Estos factores influyen de diferente manera y con diferente intensidad sobre los organismos, los cuales presentan distintos rangos de eficiencia biológica, en respuesta a factores como temperatura, salinidad, pH, velocidad de la corriente y sustrato, entre otros. Dicha eficiencia depende de las condiciones ecofisiológicas del pez. Algunos valores de los parámetros ambientales son letales o limitantes y determinan el desarrollo de estrategias adaptativas, las cuales pueden reflejarse tanto en estructuras anatómicas, como en la fisiología y el comportamiento de los peces. En esta tesis se planteó como objetivo determinar la influencia de distintos factores ambientales (salinidad...

‣ Tracing the impact of the Andean uplift on Neotropical plant evolution

Antonelli, Alexandre; Nylander, Johan A. A.; Perssona, Claes; Sanmartín, Isabel
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences (U.S.) Publicador: National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)
Tipo: Artículo Formato: 1003034 bytes; application/pdf
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Recent phylogenetic studies have revealed the major role played by the uplift of the Andes in the extraordinary diversification of the Neotropical flora. These studies, however, have typically considered the Andean uplift as a single, time-limited event fostering the evolution of highland elements. This contrasts with geological reconstructions indicating that the uplift occurred in discrete periods from west to east and that it affected different regions at different times. We introduce an approach for integrating Andean tectonics with biogeographic reconstructions of Neotropical plants, using the coffee family (Rubiaceae) as a model group. The distribution of this family spans highland and montane habitats as well as tropical lowlands of Central and South America, thus offering a unique opportunity to study the influence of the Andean uplift on the entire Neotropical flora. Our results suggest that the Rubiaceae originated in the Paleotropics and used the boreotropical connection to reach South America. The biogeographic patterns found corroborate the existence of a long-lasting dispersal barrier between the Northern and Central Andes, the “Western Andean Portal.” The uplift of the Eastern Cordillera ended this barrier, allowing dispersal of boreotropical lineages to the South...

‣ The jaw apparatus of the Neotropical and of the Afrotropical woodpeckers (aves: piciformes)

Donatelli, Reginaldo José
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Museu de Zoologia. Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Museu de Zoologia.
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 29/04/1996 Português
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The jaw apparatus of the Neotropical and of the Afrotropical species of the three subfamilies of woodpeckers are described and illustrated. Eighty five percent of the Afrotropical and about 60% of the Neotropical genera are represented. Campephilus rubricollis was used as the pattern on which these anatomical descriptions were based. The present study showed that there are more differences among the species of the three subfamilies than divergences between the Afrotropical and Neotropical groups. The Jynginae are the most divergent among the Picidae, while the Picumninae and the Picinae share many characteristics. The differences of foraging methods and habits adopted by these woodpeckers are not reflected in the structures of the cranial osteology and ligaments, or in the jaw musculature and tongue.

‣ Coleopterous galls from the Neotropical region

Maia, Valéria Cid
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Museu de Zoologia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Museu de Zoologia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2012 Português
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Data on Neotropical coleopterous galls were compiled from the literature, which showed that 82 galls have so far been recorded among 77 plant species. The Fabaceae and Asteraceae plant families display the greatest richness in galls. Most galls are induced on stems or buds, while leaves constitute the second most attacked plant organ. Only 16 coleopteran gallers have been identified at the species level; most records are presented at the order level. The identified species belong to four families: Apionidae, Buprestidae, Curculionidae and Erirhinidae. The galls are found in Argentina, Brazil, Belize, Chile, Colombia (probably), Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama and Venezuela. Eighteen species of Coleoptera are inquilines of galls and are associated with 18 plant species, most frequently with Asteraceae, Melastomataceae and Fabaceae. The inquilines were recorded mainly in leaf galls induced by Cecidomyiidae (Diptera). The identity of these weevils is poorly known. General data indicate a lack of taxonomic studies in the Neotropical region.; Informações sobre galhas induzidas por Coleoptera na região neotropical foram compiladas a partir da literatura. Oitenta e duas galhas foram assinaladas em 77 espécies de plantas. Fabaceae e Asteraceae foram as famílias botânicas que apresentaram maior riqueza de galhas. A maioria das galhas desenvolveu-se em caule ou gema; as folhas foram o segundo órgão vegetal mais atacado. Apenas 16 indutores estão identificados em nível de espécie...

‣ Distributional patterns of the neotropical fly genus Polietina Schnabl & Dziedzicki (Diptera, Muscidae): a phylogeny-supported analysis using panbiogeographic tools

Nihei, Silvio Shigueo; Carvalho, Claudio José Barros de
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Museu de Zoologia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Museu de Zoologia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2005 Português
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Durante as últimas décadas, a Região Neotropical tem sido classificada em unidades históricas menores (áreas de endemismo), entretanto, muitos desses estudos não têm se preocupado em propor uma classificação sob uma perspectiva evolutiva. Conseqüentemente, uma determinada classificação pode considerar unidades biogeográficas que não representem realmente unidades naturais. No presente estudo, o padrão de distribuição do gênero Polietina Schnabl & Dziedzicki, 1911 (Diptera, Muscidae), com 15 espécies, é analisado pela aplicação de ferramentas da Pan-biogeografia para reconhecer e propor áreas de homologia primária na região Neotropical. A análise e discussão dos resultados aqui obtidos serão conciliados às informações fornecidas pela hipótese filogenética disponível para o gênero.; Over the last decades, Neotropical region has been subdivided into smaller units (areas of endemism), yet these subdivisions were not necessarily based on an evolutionary perspective. Consequently, these areas of endemism may be biogeographic units that do not actually represent natural historical units. Here, the distributional patterns of the genus Polietina Schnabl & Dziedzicki, 1911 (Diptera, Muscidae; including 15 species) are analysed by applying panbiogeographic tools to recognise and propose primary homologous areas within the Neotropical region. The analysis and discussion of the results obtained here will be reconciled to the information provided by the phylogenetic hypothesis available for the genus.

‣ Addendum and corrections to a synonymic catalog of Neotropical Crabronidae and Sphecidae

Amarante, Sérvio Túlio Pires
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Museu de Zoologia Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Museu de Zoologia
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/01/2005 Português
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Erros e omissões encontrados em "A synonymic catalog of the Neotropical Crabronidae and Sphecidae" (Amarante, 2002) são corrigidos. Nomes novos patra homônimos juniores são propostos, Cerceris cisplatina nom. nov. para Cerceris dichroa Brethes, 1909 non Dalla Torre, 1890, e Mimesa modesta mallochi nom. nov. para Mimesa modesta reticulata (Malloch, 1933) non Cameron, 1902. Números de espécies para os taxons são atualizados.; Errors and omissions found in "A synonymic catalog of the Neotropical Crabronidae and Sphecidae" (Amarante, 2002) are corrected. Substitute names for junior homonyms are proposed, Cerceris cisplatina new name for Cerceris dichroa Brethes, 1909 non Dalla Torre, 1890, and Mimesa modesta mallochi new name for Mimesa modesta reticulata (Malloch, 1933) non Cameron, 1902. Statitics for the taxa are updated.

‣ Neotropical cats in southeast Arizona and surrounding areas: Past and present status of jaguars, ocelots and jaguarundis

Grigione,Melissa; Scoville,Alison; Scoville,Gerald; Crooks,Kevin
Fonte: Mastozoología neotropical Publicador: Mastozoología neotropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/12/2007 Português
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There are three species of neotropical cats for which the northern limit of their distribution reaches the border region of the U.S. and Mexico: the jaguar (Panthera onca), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), and jaguarundi (Herpailurus yaguarondi). Due to their low population densities, small total numbers, and secretive habits, all three species are difficult to observe. To ensure long-term survival for neotropical cats in the region, it is imperative to identify current distribution and status in the northern limits of their range. We assessed the status of three rare neotropical felids, the jaguar (Panthera onca), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), and jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaruni), in the Chiricahua and Peloncillo Mountains of southeastern Arizona where recent sightings of all three species have taken place. Study techniques included interviews and collection of unpublished and published species-sighting records, which yielded data on all three carnivores. Although jaguars and ocelots historically have occupied southeastern Arizona, we found no recent evidence of a resident, reproducing population. Recommendations are made regarding what measures are necessary to promote neotropical cat conservation in this region.

‣ Social parasitism in mammals with particular reference to neotropical primates

Jones,Clara B.
Fonte: Mastozoología neotropical Publicador: Mastozoología neotropical
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2005 Português
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Organisms often respond in ways that appear to benefit others rather than themselves. This phenomenon is consistent with the views of Darwin (1859) and Dawkins (1999) that individuals may exploit the responses of others. This phenomenon, "social parasitism", has been extensively investigated in social insects, particularly, ants. Other empirical studies have demonstrated social parasitism in fish, birds, and mammals. This paper reviews several possible examples of mammalian social parasitism, with an emphasis upon intraspecific social parasitism (ISP) in Neotropical primates. Social parasitism is discussed as a life history feature of long-lived, social organisms such as many primates, including humans. A simple mathematical model, applied to social parasitism, is presented linking parasite transmission to a parasite’s influence on its host. Phenotypic manipulation is assessed as a mechanism of social parasitism, and possible examples from the literature on Neotropical primates are provided. Social parasitism is discussed in relation to the evolution of higher grades of sociality (eusociality, cooperative breeding), manipulation success (infectivity), and the evolution of virulence (e.g., aggression, punishment). It is proposed that an understanding of variations in virulence and infectivity by social parasites is likely to reveal important evolutionary dynamics for an integrated view of social evolution.

‣ Biogeography and divergence time estimates of woody bamboos: insights in the evolution of Neotropical bamboos

Ruiz-Sanchez,Eduardo
Fonte: Sociedad Botánica de México A.C. Publicador: Sociedad Botánica de México A.C.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2011 Português
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The Neotropical woody bamboos are a monophyletic lineage with three subtribes in the Bambusoideae: Arthrostylidiinae, Chusqueinae and Guaduainae. The geographical distribution of these subtribes extends from Mexico, Central America, Caribbean Islands, to South America. In order to understand the biogeographical patterns and origin of these bamboos, a phy-logeny of Neotropical woody bamboos was first inferred. Then divergence time estimation of particular nodes using a Bayesian approach and ancestral area reconstruction using S-DIVA were performed. The results suggest a Miocene origin of Neotropical bamboos where the subtribe Chusqueinae was the oldest, followed by the Arthrostylidiinae and the Guaduinae. The ancestral area reconstruction indicated a complex scenario in which the ancestral area for Chusqueinae was Andean South America followed by multiple dispersal events to Atlantic Brazil and Mesoamerica. Overall, the results support the hypothesis of a South American origin of the Neotropical woody bamboos, corroborated by the molecular dating, ancestral area reconstruction and the fossil record.

‣ Depredación de aves acuáticas por la nutria neotropical (Lontra longicaudis annectens), en el río Yaqui, Sonora, México

Gallo-Reynoso,Juan Pablo; Ramos-Rosas,Nadia Nayeli; Rangel-Aguilar,Óscar
Fonte: Instituto de Biología Publicador: Instituto de Biología
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/06/2008 Português
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Se registra la depredación de aves acuáticas por la nutria neotropical (L. longicaudis annectens) en el río Yaqui, Sonora. Se colectaron e identificaron 25 cráneos, porciones de esqueleto postcraneal y plumas de aves encontrados en los comederos de las nutrias; las especies identificadas fueron el cormorán neotropical (Phalacrocorax brasilianus) con 16 individuos, el pato de collar (Anas platyrhynchos diazi), 4 individuos; la garza blanca (Ardea alba), 3 individuos; el huaco de corona amarilla (Nyctanassa violacea) y el pelícano café (Pelecanus occidentalis), ambos con 1 individuo. En los peces se encontró la tilapia del género Oreochromis. Probablemente los hábitos alimenticios de esta especie responden a la estacionalidad y al consumo de presas más disponibles en el hábitat. Estos registros confirman que las nutrias de río son depredadores oportunistas cuya dieta tiene una amplio rango de uso de especies de los ambientes riparios, además dichos registros son una razón más para considerar la nutria neotropical como especie sombrilla para la conservación de ecosistemas completos, ya que su presencia es un indicador de alta disponibilidad energética y de alta biodiversidad.