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‣ A liberdade religiosa no direito constitucional brasileiro; Religious freedom in the Brazilian constitutional law

Teraoka, Thiago Massao Cortizo
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/04/2010 Português
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A liberdade religiosa é o direito fundamental que tutela a crença, o culto e as demais atividades religiosas, dos indivíduos e das organizações religiosas, e consagra neutralidade estatal. A religião deve ser entendida em termos amplíssimos. Abrange toda atividade ligada ao sobrenatural. A religião não se confunde com ideologia, filosofia, sociologia. O Estado neutro não pode se posicionar a respeito do acerto ou desacerto de uma determinada crença religiosa. No entanto, pode controlar a sinceridade. Há três aspectos: individual (indivíduos), coletivo (organizações religiosas) e institucional (Estado). Em relação aos indivíduos, destacam-se o direito de isonomia (tratamento diferenciado), de crença e de privacidade religiosa. Em relação às organizações religiosas, destacam-se seus aspectos societários, cíveis, trabalhistas e tributários; a liberdade de culto e de proselitismo. Em seu aspecto institucional, a neutralidade impõe que o Estado não tome partido em favor de nenhuma religião; reconhece um valor positivo geral à religião. Temas analisados: direito penal; abuso de direito; transfusão de sangue; tratamento de saúde diferenciado; sacrifícios de animais; curas espirituais; proselitismo, pregação contrária ao homossexualismo e a crenças afro-brasileiras; rádios comunitárias; desconto e pagamento de dízimos e ofertas; direito urbanístico e de vizinhança; uso de símbolos religiosos por particulares e pelo Estado; ensino e casamento religiosos...

‣ Regime constitucional do direito privado das organizações religiosas

Alves, Othon Moreno de Medeiros
Fonte: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito; Constituição e Garantias de Direitos Publicador: Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte; BR; UFRN; Programa de Pós-Graduação em Direito; Constituição e Garantias de Direitos
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
Português
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In Brazil, constitutional clauses regarding religious freedom have concrete applications in Private Law. Church-State Law, or "Ecclesiastical Law of the State," studies the legal principles which may be applicable to religious activity, exercised individually and collectively. The study of Church-State Law in Brazil lacks a thorough introduction to the constitutional and civil aspects of religious organizations: such an introduction is the main end of this work. Following a brief introduction, the main aspects of religious freedom and the principle of private autonomy as it concerns religious organizations are explained. A careful introductory analysis of Church-State Law in Brazil is thus developed: (1) the historical aspects, including a detailed account of the relations between Catholicism, the established religion up to 1889, and the government; (2) the current constitutional principles, as presented in the text of the federal Constitution of 1988, regarding the rights and claims of religious organizations; (3) how the same constitutional principles are to be used in the interpretation of Private Law (especially the Civil Code of 2002), fostering and preserving the uniqueness of religious organizations in the Brazilian legal system. A brief complementary chapter presents some aspects of the legal position of religious institutions in three other nations whose constitutional documents have influenced the current Brazilian federal Constitution (France...

‣ Making Freedom of Religion or Belief a True EU Priority

THAMES, Knox
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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The Council of the European Union recently released its Strategic Framework on Human Rights and Democracy, which included freedom of religion or belief in a list of 36 desired outcomes. The timing is good, as countries around the world are grappling with religion/state questions and the role of religious freedom for minority religious communities and dissenting members of the majority faith. Freedom of religion or belief stands at the crux of these issues, yet the Strategic Framework risks losing the religious freedom among the list of other worthy issues. By learning from the experience of the United States in its decade of religious freedom work, the European Union can jump start its efforts and ensure they have impact during this time of global transition.

‣ Religious freedom and the German circumcision debate

HEIMBACH-STEINS, Marianne
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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In May 2012, a German court in Cologne ruled that circumcising young boys represents grievous bodily harm. This decision, which touched upon the questions of freedom of religious practice, identity and children’s rights, was condemned by Jewish and Muslim representatives in Germany, but it was also widely and controversially debated by civil society and politicians. The German Parliament recently passed legislation protecting circumcision as a religious practice, but the debate is likely to continue. In this paper, Marianne Heimbach-Steins, director of the department of Christian Social Ethics at the University of Münster (Germany), discuss this case and its implications for the definition of religious freedom.

‣ Constructing the secular : law and religion jurisprudence in Europe and the United States

CALO, Zachary R.
Fonte: Instituto Universitário Europeu Publicador: Instituto Universitário Europeu
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento Formato: application/pdf; digital
Português
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This paper compares the law and religious jurisprudence of the U.S. Supreme Court and the European Court of Human Rights across three legal areas: individual religious freedom, institutional religious freedom/freedom of the church, and religious symbols/church-state relations. Particular focus is given to the manner in which this jurisprudence reveals the underlying structure and meaning of the secular. While there remains significant jurisprudential diversity between these two courts and across these different legal areas, there is also emerging a shared accounting of religion, secularity, and moral order in the late modern the West. These legal systems will increasingly be defined by their similarities more than their differences.

‣ Two concepts of religious freedom in the European Court of Human Rights

BHUTA, Nehal
Fonte: Duke Univ Press Publicador: Duke Univ Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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In this article, Bhuta revisits the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights’ interpretation of religious freedom in the headscarf cases. He considers how recent historical work on the history of religious freedom and freedom of conscience opens up a new interpretation of these decisions. The court has been criticized as adopting a militantly secular approach to the presence of Islamic religious symbols in the public sphere, one seemingly inconsistent with its decision in the Lautsi case permitting the display of crucifixes in Italian classrooms. Bhuta’s essay argues that the inconsistency reflects not, or not only, a cultural hostility toward Islamic religious symbols, nor an unforgiving secularism. Rather, the cases turn on an understanding of certain religious symbols as threats to public order and harbingers of sectarian strife. This understanding evokes two different historical understandings of the concept of freedom of conscience: an early modern preoccupation with religious plurality as threatening public order, and a postwar understanding of religious freedom as the protection of secularized Christian values against the totalitarian propensities of modern politics.; This article is based on EUI LAW WP 2012/33

‣ La jurisprudencia del Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos sobre la libertad religiosa: un análisis jurídico-político; European Court of Human Rights case-law on religious freedom: a legal and political analysis

Arlettaz, Fernando
Fonte: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto de Derechos Humanos Bartolomé de las Casas; Dykinson Publicador: Universidad Carlos III de Madrid. Instituto de Derechos Humanos Bartolomé de las Casas; Dykinson
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; info:eu-repo/semantics/article
Publicado em /06/2012 Português
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Este artículo analiza los rasgos generales de la jurisprudencia del Tribunal Europeo de Derechos Humanos en relación con el artículo 9 del Convenio Europeo de Derechos Humanos, sobre la libertad religiosa, agrupándolos en tres niveles. En primer lugar, el Tribunal entiende la libertad religiosa en el sentido clásico liberal, como un derecho individual que garantiza una protección frente a la coacción del Estado o de otros individuos. Por otra parte, el concepto de igualdad asociado a la libertad religiosa es asumido en su sentido formal, es decir, sin incluir prestaciones positivas o de derechos especiales para los grupos religiosos en situación de desventaja. Finalmente, la jurisprudencia europea deja a los Estados un margen de apreciación bastante amplio al momento de establecer restricciones al derecho en cuestión.; This article analyzes the general characteristics of the European Human Rights Court case-law about religious freedom (article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights). First, according to the Court, religious freedom is, in a liberal classical sense, an individual right which guarantees protection against coercion from the State or from other individuals. Second, the idea of equality associated to religious freedom is considered in a formal way...

‣ Violência e epifania: a liberdade interior na filosofia política de John Milton; Violence and epiphany: the inner liberty in John Milton´s political philosophy

Almeida, Martim Vasques da Cunha de Eça e
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/05/2015 Português
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John Milton (1608 1674) é conhecido não só como o poeta do épico Paraíso perdido, mas também como um dos grandes teóricos e polemistas do período das Guerras Civis Inglesas. Seu principal tema é o problema da liberdade em um reino que se transformou segundo ele em uma tirania de reis e potentados religiosos, onde o súdito não era mais adequadamente representado por seu soberano; de acordo com Milton, como o rei não era mais o representante justo do reino, ele não deveria mais exercer as suas funções, sendo necessária a sua deposição e, em alguns casos extremos, o regicídio (como foi defendido pelo próprio poeta); assim, a solução proposta junto com outros panfletários anti-realistas, que nunca atingiram a riqueza retórica e a ousadia teórica de Milton é o surgimento de uma república inglesa, inspirada nos moldes ciceronianos e de clara influência secular-humanista. A partir de agora, o verdadeiro representante do governo deve ser o povo, mais precisamente a commonwealth, formada por indivíduos capazes de dominar as paixões que os podem transformá-los em escravos e viver de acordo com a vontade da razão e da prudência. A liberdade interior dos membros desta república se dá dentro desta commonwealth...

‣ Reflexiones sobre la presencia de la religi??n en la esfera p??blica plural y democr??tica

Lara Nieto, Mar??a del Carmen; Rubio Ferreres, Jos?? Mar??a
Fonte: Pedro G??mez Publicador: Pedro G??mez
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Hace unos cuantos a??os que la religi??n es de nuevo tema de debate. Seg??n los estudiosos de la religi??n, actualmente, en el primer decenio del siglo XXI, nos encontramos ante un "nuevo resurgimiento religioso" por el que se observa su presencia en la esfera p??blica plural y democr??tica. Lo cual no es f??cil de encajar con el proyecto laico. La contribuci??n de Habermas en el debate sobre la presencia y convivencia de creyentes con no creyentes en el Estado laico est?? centrada fundamentalmente en el "uso p??blico de la raz??n humana com??n" y en los "esfuerzos cooperativos de traducci??n" que los ciudadanos religiosos y no religiosos de un Estado plural y democr??tico deben aportar. Las comunidades religiosas podr??n sobrevivir en un entorno de secularizaci??n si se afirman y act??an como "comunidades de interpretaci??n" junto con otras comunidades no religiosas de interpretaci??n. Para esto se requiere como principio el marco constitucional del Estado laico y la libertad religiosa.; In recent years religion has again become a topic of debate. According to religious scholars, today, in the first decade of the 21st century, there is a "new religious resurgence" present in the multi-cultural, democratic, public sphere, which is not easy to reconcile with secular life. Habermas's contribution to the debate about the presence and coexistence of believers and non-believers in the secular State centres mainly on "the public use of common...

‣ Recent developments concerning the promotion of freedom of religion or belief in Italian foreign policy

ANNICCHINO, Pasquale
Fonte: Routledge Journals, Taylor & Francis Ltd Publicador: Routledge Journals, Taylor & Francis Ltd
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Italy recently joined the growing group of countries with dedicated policies for the protection and promotion of freedom of religion or belief in its foreign policy. The records of two recent Ministers of Foreign Affairs, Franco Frattini and Giulio Terzi di Sant'Agata, show increased engagement, both bi-laterally and within the EU, on religious freedom. Italy played an important role in the development of new EU guidelines on religious freedom promotion, has been active at the UN in opposing resolutions on defamation of religion, and has recently established a unique, and possibly problematic, new institution, the Italian Oversight Committee for Religious Freedom.

‣ R v NS 2012 SCC 72 – Assessing the Contours of the Freedom to Wear the Niqab in Canada

Ofrath, Naama
Fonte: Quens University Publicador: Quens University
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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This thesis uses the recently decided R v NS to assess the contours of the freedom to wear the niqab, as part of religious freedom, in Canada. By criticizing the majority and concurring opinions I argue that, properly understood, a witness’s religious freedom should protect her from an order to unveil when she is testifying in court. I show that the concurring opinion holds the witness to an illiberal, unfair standard of personal behaviour that fails to respect the witness’s religious freedom. I show that the majority’s decision, though following a justified liberal process of balancing rights, failed to protect NS’s meaningful choice to practice her religion, a standard set by the court in Hutterian Brethren. I then assess the broader implications of R v NS. I argue that in theoretical terms R v NS reaffirms Canada’s commitment to a liberal system of reciprocal rights and rejects a perfectionist approach according to which societal values can override rights. These theoretical lessons are then applied to other policies regulating the veil. I argue that despite its shortcomings, R v NS should generate optimism that perfectionist policies will be rejected and that the veil will only be limited minimally and only when the limit is necessary to uphold other legitimate aims.; Thesis (Master...

‣ Laicism and Liberalism as Paradigms in the Interpretation of Human Rights. Reflections on the Configuration of the Religious Freedom in the Context of French Debate About the Islamic Veil; Laicismo y liberalismo como paradigmas de interpretación de los derechos humanos. Reflexiones sobre la configuración de la libertad religiosa a la luz del debate francés sobre el velo islámico

Melchiori, Franco Andrés; Universidad Nacional de Córdoba
Fonte: Universidade La Sabana Publicador: Universidade La Sabana
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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The use of Islamic veil for girls in public schools of France has aroused animportant discussion about laicism, multiculturalism and religious freedom.This debate was under the scrutiny of the European Court of HumanRights, which issued several judgments about the problem. The requirementof neutrality, the fundamental principle of laicism, allows that theState, supposing to protect the freedom of conscience of no religious people,confines the exercise of religious freedom to the strict boundaries ofprivate life. At the same time, while requiring neutrality, the State is tryingto impose in the public arena a sort of civil religion, depriving of the rightof expression in religion matters. These two elements could be found notonly in the fathers and current thinkers of laicism, but in authors that,without this enrollment, are finally supporting the same conclusions. Theprincipal mistake that is under that is a conception of freedom derived fromthe Illustrated liberalism, an error that in the end is derived of a limitedconception of the man. The pretensions of these doctrines are impossibleto perform, because the religion cannot be relegated to the interior of manwithout to force the freedom itself. If some States continue following theseideas...

‣ Reconocimiento jurídico de las entidades religiosas en el derecho colombiano: análisis crítico de la Ley Estatutaria de Libertad Religiosa; Reconhecimento jurídico das entidades religiosas no direito colombiano: análise crítica da lei estatutária de liberdade religiosa; Legal Recognition of Religious Institutions under Colombian Law: A Critical Analysis of the Statutory Law on Religious Freedom

Prieto, Vicente; Universidad de La Sabana
Fonte: Universidade La Sabana Publicador: Universidade La Sabana
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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La Constitución colombiana de 1991, junto con la Ley Estatutaria de Libertad Religiosa (1994) constituyen el punto de referencia primero y principal en el tratamiento jurídico civil del factor religioso. El desarrollo de los principios de libertad religiosa, laicidad, igualdad y cooperación ha incidido en el régimen jurídico de las iglesias y de sus entes. Se creó un nuevo tipo de personalidad jurídica para las iglesias y confesiones, y el correspondiente registro, con la posibilidad de celebrar convenios o pactos de Derecho público con el Estado colombiano. Al mismo tiempo, en aplicación del Concordato con la Santa Sede (1973), se mantuvo el reconocimiento específico de la Iglesia católica y de sus entidades. Las distintas posibilidades de configuración jurídica pueden plantear inquietudes desde el punto de vista del principio de igualdad. Llevan a considerar el sentido y alcance de las distintas formas de personificación previstas por el ordenamiento y su carácter instrumental al servicio de la libertad religiosa. De este modo se pretende superar las visiones formalistas y subrayar el equilibrio que debe existir entre realidad social, juridicidad originaria (derechos humanos) y formalización jurídicopositiva. Teniendo en cuenta la experiencia de otros países...

‣ Liberty and Terror

Clain, David
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Formato: 455302 bytes; application/pdf
Publicado em 04/12/2009 Português
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For decades, and in particular since the attacks of September 11, 2001, political scientists and policymakers have sought to understand the causes of terrorism. The policy rationale is clear: if we can identify the correlates of terror, we can eliminate the underlying factors that lead to terrorist behavior instead of relying on myopic intelligence and policing efforts. An extensive body of past research has done little to identify these underlying factors, which are generally referred to as “root causes.” The most commonly proposed correlates of terror are poverty, a lack of education, and inequality. Other suggested factors are modernization and urbanization, fractionalization by ethnicity, language, and religion, and political repression. These proposed factors have been cited as gospel by some policymakers. The most prominent example is President George W. Bush’s March 2002 justification for his Administration’s foreign aid package: “We fight poverty because hope is an answer to terror.” But carefully compiled empirical data have cast serious doubt on the hypothesis that poverty leads to terrorism, and policymakers seem to have taken notice. More recently, the absence of religious freedom has been promoted as a causal factor in the rise of terrorism. This quite clearly influenced President Bush’s international religious policy...

‣ Paradoxes of religious freedom and repression in (post-)Soviet contexts

Pelkmans, Mathijs
Fonte: Cambridge University Press Publicador: Cambridge University Press
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2014 Português
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The religious revival that followed the collapse of the USSR provides an excellent opportunity to compare the dynamics of projects of religious freedom with those of religious repression. Based on extensive ethnographic fieldwork in Georgia and Kyrgyzstan, this article documents the contradictory effects that both repressive and liberal policies and laws have on religious expression. Thus, while Soviet anti-religious policies undeniably caused much suffering and hardship, religious repression also contributed to an intensification of religious experience among certain Muslim and evangelical groups. And while religious freedom laws expanded the scope for public religious organization and expression, they also produced new inequalities between religious groups, as the cases of Georgia and Kyrgyzstan demonstrate. Ultimately, the article shows that the effects of liberal and repressive laws are far from straightforward and need to be analyzed in relation to the social context in which they are applied.

‣ So-called Religious Freedom Restoration Acts (RFRAs) protect gender and sexual orientation discrimination, not religious freedom

Griffin, Leslie C.
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Website; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/04/2015 Português
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More than two decades after the Clinton administration passed the federal Religious Freedom Restoration Act (RFRA), religious freedom bills are once again in the news. Leslie C. Griffin writes that the new RFRA legislation coming from Arkansas and Indiana has originated from fears over same-sex marriage rather than any real desire to protect religious freedoms. She argues that through RFRAs, those against LGBT rights are seeking a legal method of discrimination and that these laws can have unintended consequences which can cause harm to other groups as well.

‣ Religious freedom and equality as celebration of difference: a significant development in recent South African Constitutional case-law

du Plessis,L
Fonte: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad Publicador: PER: Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 Português
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This contribution focuses on the way in which the South African Constitutional Court has, since 1997, been dealing with the (seemingly) eccentric claims of (assumedly) idiosyncratic 'religious Others'. Developments in this regard have, for the time being at least, culminated in the Constitutional Court's landmark judgment in MEC for Education: KwaZulu Natal v Pillay 2008 (2) BCLR 99 (CC), 2008 (1) SA 474 (CC)(hereafter Pillay). Constitutional Court judgments since 1997 manifesting the adjudication of such unconventional claims are assessed, eventually getting to Pillay as benchmark. This remarkable judgment, dealing with a deceptively mundane issue, has played a considerable role in fleshing out a jurisprudence of difference, putting an adherent of a vulnerable, minority religion in the right. This is not just a high point in the adjudication of constitutional entitlements of the religious (and cultural) Other in South Africa, but also a significant contribution to the growth of a jurisprudence sensitive to the predicaments and constitutional entitlements of unconventional, 'non-mainstream' claimants of religious (and cultural) rights. Finally Pillay illustrates that the constitutional guarantee of the right to freedom of religion...

‣ Spiritual abuse under the banner of the right to freedom of religion in religious cults can be addressed

Pretorius,SP
Fonte: Acta Theologica Publicador: Acta Theologica
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
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The international endeavour to afford the right to freedom of religion to all world citizens is essential. This right ensures that people can choose their own religion and freely participate in the practice thereof. Although the conventions on religious freedom prohibit the use of unethical coercion in order to proselytise and retain members, the enforcement of this prohibition is problematic. Underlying psychological processes that induce members in cults to engage in radical behaviour changes cannot be proved without reasonable doubt in any legal action. The conclusion reached in this article is that although - on paper - the right to religious freedom ensures freedom in the sense that people can choose their religion, it cannot ensure that worship in any religion is a voluntary act on the part of the participants. On the one hand, religious freedom has opened the world of religion to people; but at the same time, it has also created a vague, or "grey" area where abuse can flourish under the banner of so-called "freedom". Freedom that is not clearly defined can lead to anarchism. Abuse in religious cults can be addressed by cultivating public awareness through the gathering and distribution of information on the abusive practices of these groups.

‣ The quest for religious freedom in Kenya (1887 - 1963)

Gathogo,Julius
Fonte: Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae Publicador: Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
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The freedom to choose one's religion is one of the basic freedoms that every person needs to enjoy. It is also one of the fundamental rights that the United Nations General Assembly proclaimed on10 December 1948. In Africa, since religion and culture are hard to separate, a denial of religious freedom is tantamount to denying all other rights that the UN declared. This includes: the right to life; the right to liberty and security; the right to education; equality before the law; freedom of movement and religion; freedom of association; and freedom to marry and have a family, among others (Gitari 1996:18). The article attempts to survey the nature of missionary and colonial suppression of African religious discourses of the Kikuyu of Kenya during the colonial period (1887-1963). In other words, how were the Kikuyu religious discourses undermined by the missionary activity that ran concurrently with the expansion of European hegemony in Kikuyuland, and how did it supplement the colonial policy? How did the Africans attempt to reclaim their religious freedom? To achieve its stated goal, the article not only cites some cases where suppressions of Kikuyu traditionalism and religion by both the missionaries and the British administrators are evident...

‣ Religious freedom and the Age of Enlightenment: The case of the French Revolution

Matikiti,Robert
Fonte: Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae Publicador: Studia Historiae Ecclesiasticae
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2008 Português
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This article explores whether the Age of Enlightenment, in general, and the French Revolution of 1789, in particular, promoted or restricted religious freedom. The International Religious Freedom Act of 1998 defines religious freedom as the "inalienable right of individuals and groups to choose or change beliefs as their consciences dictate and be free from intimidation, restrictions and biases based on those beliefs". In other words, people must have an opportunity to exercise their religious beliefs in an atmosphere that is free of intimidation and interference. During eighteenth century, the Age of the Enlightenment ushered in a profound scientific and cultural transformation. This transformation altered the conditions under which religion was practised. In theology, pietism served to promote new scientific discoveries and theories. In addition, a secular culture developed; nothing was regarded as sacrosanct and secularists sought to prevent believers from worshipping God according to the dictates of their own consciences. A consequence of the French Revolution was that some of the spirit of the Enlightenment became reality-interference in religious affairs. This article will argue that by joining the Third Estate to form the National Constituent Assembly...