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‣ BioMEMS and Cellular Biology: Perspectives and Applications

Folch, Albert
Fonte: MyJove Corporation Publicador: MyJove Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/10/2007 Português
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The ability to culture cells has revolutionized hypothesis testing in basic cell and molecular biology research. It has become a standard methodology in drug screening, toxicology, and clinical assays, and is increasingly used in regenerative medicine. However, the traditional cell culture methodology essentially consisting of the immersion of a large population of cells in a homogeneous fluid medium and on a homogeneous flat substrate has become increasingly limiting both from a fundamental and practical perspective. Microfabrication technologies have enabled researchers to design, with micrometer control, the biochemical composition and topology of the substrate, and the medium composition, as well as the neighboring cell type in the surrounding cellular microenvironment. Additionally, microtechnology is conceptually well-suited for the development of fast, low-cost in vitro systems that allow for high-throughput culturing and analysis of cells under large numbers of conditions. In this interview, Albert Folch explains these limitations, how they can be overcome with soft lithography and microfluidics, and describes some relevant examples of research in his lab and future directions.

‣ BioMEMS: Forging New Collaborations Between Biologists and Engineers

Jeon, Noo Li
Fonte: MyJove Corporation Publicador: MyJove Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 01/11/2007 Português
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This video describes the fabrication and use of a microfluidic device to culture central nervous system (CNS) neurons. This device is compatible with live-cell optical microscopy (DIC and phase contrast), as well as confocal and two photon microscopy approaches. This method uses precision-molded polymer parts to create miniature multi-compartment cell culture with fluidic isolation. The compartments are made of tiny channels with dimensions that are large enough to culture neurons in well-controlled fluidic microenvironments. Neurons can be cultured for 2-3 weeks within the device, after which they can be fixed and stained for immunocytochemistry. Axonal and somal compartments can be maintained fluidically isolated from each other by using a small hydrostatic pressure difference; this feature can be used to localize soluble insults to one compartment for up to 20 h after each medium change. Fluidic isolation enables collection of pure axonal fraction and biochemical analysis by PCR. The microfluidic device provides a highly adaptable platform for neuroscience research and may find applications in modeling CNS injury and neurodegeneration.

‣ BioMEMS and Electrophoresis in 2006: Review of the 23rd Annual Meeting of the American Electrophoresis Society

Minerick, Adrienne R.; Ugaz, Victor M.
Fonte: American Institute of Physics Publicador: American Institute of Physics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/05/2007 Português
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The 23rd Annual Meeting of the American Electrophoresis Society (AES) was held at the San Francisco Hilton in San Francisco, California on 12–17 November 2006. This year’s meeting featured a look toward the future, with an emphasis on theoretical and experimental advances in miniaturization of BioMEMS, electrokinetics, and proteomics technologies. A total of 13 sessions accommodating 71 presentations and 18 posters were held in conjunction with the Annual Meeting of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE). This review and corresponding special issue of Biomicrofluidics provide a sampling of some of the exciting research presented at the conference.

‣ Preface to Special Topic: Papers from the 2006 Annual Meeting of the American Electrophoresis Society, San Francisco, CA

Minerick, Adrienne R.; Ugaz, Victor M.
Fonte: American Institute of Physics Publicador: American Institute of Physics
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/05/2007 Português
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This Special Topic section of Biomicrofluidics is dedicated to original papers from the 2006 Annual Meeting of the American Electrophoresis Society (AES: http:∕/www.aesociety.org). This five-day meeting held in San Francisco, California, included five sessions on BioMEMS and Microfluidics and four sessions on Advances in Electrokinetics and Electrophoresis. AES and its corresponding symposia provide the most focused and well-organized meeting forum for diverse biological and engineering researchers working on electrokinetics. The work featured in this Special Topic section is no exception; it ranges from nanochannel electrophoresis to bioparticle sorting.

‣ Nanoscale adhesion, friction and wear studies of biomolecules on silane polymer-coated silica and alumina-based surfaces

Bhushan, Bharat; Kwak, Kwang Joo; Gupta, Samit; Lee, Stephen C
Fonte: The Royal Society Publicador: The Royal Society
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Proteins on biomicroelectromechanical systems (BioMEMS) confer specific molecular functionalities. In planar FET sensors (field-effect transistors, a class of devices whose protein-sensing capabilities we demonstrated in physiological buffers), interfacial proteins are analyte receptors, determining sensor molecular recognition specificity. Receptors are bound to the FET through a polymeric interface, and gross disruption of interfaces that removes a large percentage of receptors or inactivates large fractions of them diminishes sensor sensitivity. Sensitivity is also determined by the distance between the bound analyte and the semiconductor. Consequently, differential properties of surface polymers are design parameters for FET sensors. We compare thickness, surface roughness, adhesion, friction and wear properties of silane polymer layers bound to oxides (SiO2 and Al2O3, as on AlGaN HFETs). We compare those properties of the film–substrate pairs after an additional deposition of biotin and streptavidin. Adhesion between protein and device and interfacial friction properties affect FET reliability because these parameters affect wear resistance of interfaces to abrasive insult in vivo. Adhesion/friction determines the extent of stickage between the interface and tissue and interfacial resistance to mechanical damage. We document systematic...

‣ Microdevice to capture colon crypts for in vitro studies

Wang, Yuli; Dhopeshwarkar, Rahul; Najdi, Rani; Waterman, Marian; Sims, Christopher E.; Allbritton, Nancy
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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There is a need in biological research for tools designed to manipulate the environment surrounding microscopic regions of tissue. In the current work, a device for the oriented capture of an important and under-studied tissue, the colon crypt, has been designed and tested. The objective of this work is to create a BioMEMs device for biological assays of living colonic crypts. The end goal will be to subject the polarized tissue to user-controlled fluidic microenvironments in a manner that recapitulates the in vivo state. Crypt surrogates, polymeric structures of similar dimensions and shape to isolated colon crypts, were used in the initial design and testing of the device. Successful capture of crypt surrogates was accomplished on a simple device composed of an array of micron-scale capture sites that enabled individual structures to be captured with high efficiency (92 ± 3%) in an ordered and properly oriented fashion. The device was then evaluated using colon crypts isolated from a murine animal model. The capture efficiency attained using the fixed biologic sample was 37 ± 5% due to the increased variability of the colon crypts compared with the surrogate structures, yet 94% ± 3% of the captured crypts were properly oriented. A simple approach to plug the remaining capture sites in the array was performed using inert glass beads. Blockage of unfilled capture sites is an important feature to establish a chemical gradient across the arrayed crypts. A chemical concentration gradient (Cluminal/Cbasal > 10) was demonstrated across the arrayed crypts for over 8 h. Finally unfixed colon crypts were demonstrated to be effectively captured by the micromesh array and to remain viable on the capture sites at 5 h after mouse sacrifice. The present study demonstrates the feasibility and potential for rationally microengineered technologies to address the specific needs of the biologic researcher.

‣ Engineering Tissue with BioMEMS

Borenstein, Jeffrey T; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /11/2011 Português
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‣ Bridging the Bio-Electronic Interface with Biofabrication

Gordonov, Tanya; Liba, Benjamin; Terrell, Jessica L.; Cheng, Yi; Luo, Xiaolong; Payne, Gregory F.; Bentley, William E.
Fonte: MyJove Corporation Publicador: MyJove Corporation
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 06/06/2012 Português
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Advancements in lab-on-a-chip technology promise to revolutionize both research and medicine through lower costs, better sensitivity, portability, and higher throughput. The incorporation of biological components onto biological microelectromechanical systems (bioMEMS) has shown great potential for achieving these goals. Microfabricated electronic chips allow for micrometer-scale features as well as an electrical connection for sensing and actuation. Functional biological components give the system the capacity for specific detection of analytes, enzymatic functions, and whole-cell capabilities. Standard microfabrication processes and bio-analytical techniques have been successfully utilized for decades in the computer and biological industries, respectively. Their combination and interfacing in a lab-on-a-chip environment, however, brings forth new challenges. There is a call for techniques that can build an interface between the electrode and biological component that is mild and is easy to fabricate and pattern.

‣ Review of “Introduction to BioMEMS” by Albert Folch

Kubby, Joel A
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/03/2013 Português
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This article is a review of the book “Introduction to BioMEMS” by Albert Folch which is published by CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group. It will review the contents of the book and discuss it suitability as textbook, highlights of the book, and comparison to other textbooks on BioMEMS.

‣ BioMEMS –Advancing the Frontiers of Medicine

James, Teena; Mannoor, Manu Sebastian; Ivanov, Dentcho V.
Fonte: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI) Publicador: Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/09/2008 Português
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Biological and medical application of micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) is currently seen as an area of high potential impact. Integration of biology and microtechnology has resulted in the development of a number of platforms for improving biomedical and pharmaceutical technologies. This review provides a general overview of the applications and the opportunities presented by MEMS in medicine by classifying these platforms according to their applications in the medical field.

‣ Mitochondrial Membrane Studies Using Impedance Spectroscopy with Parallel pH Monitoring

Padmaraj, Divya; Pande, Rohit; Miller, John H.; Wosik, Jarek; Zagozdzon-Wosik, Wanda
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 10/07/2014 Português
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A biological microelectromechanical system (BioMEMS) device was designed to study complementary mitochondrial parameters important in mitochondrial dysfunction studies. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to many diseases, including diabetes, obesity, heart failure and aging, as these organelles play a critical role in energy generation, cell signaling and apoptosis. The synthesis of ATP is driven by the electrical potential across the inner mitochondrial membrane and by the pH difference due to proton flux across it. We have developed a tool to study the ionic activity of the mitochondria in parallel with dielectric measurements (impedance spectroscopy) to gain a better understanding of the properties of the mitochondrial membrane. This BioMEMS chip includes: 1) electrodes for impedance studies of mitochondria designed as two- and four-probe structures for optimized operation over a wide frequency range and 2) ion-sensitive field effect transistors for proton studies of the electron transport chain and for possible monitoring other ions such as sodium, potassium and calcium. We have used uncouplers to depolarize the mitochondrial membrane and disrupt the ionic balance. Dielectric spectroscopy responded with a corresponding increase in impedance values pointing at changes in mitochondrial membrane potential. An electrical model was used to describe mitochondrial sample’s complex impedance frequency dependencies and the contribution of the membrane to overall impedance changes. The results prove that dielectric spectroscopy can be used as a tool for membrane potential studies. It can be concluded that studies of the electrochemical parameters associated with mitochondrial bioenergetics may render significant information on various abnormalities attributable to these organelles.

‣ BioMEMS and Lab-on-a-Chip Course Education at West Virginia University

Liu, Yuxin
Fonte: MDPI Publicador: MDPI
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/01/2011 Português
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With the rapid growth of Biological/Biomedical MicroElectroMechanical Systems (BioMEMS) and microfluidic-based lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technology to biological and biomedical research and applications, demands for educated and trained researchers and technicians in these fields are rapidly expanding. Universities are expected to develop educational plans to address these specialized needs in BioMEMS, microfluidic and LOC science and technology. A course entitled BioMEMS and Lab-on-a-Chip was taught recently at the senior undergraduate and graduate levels in the Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering at West Virginia University (WVU). The course focused on the basic principles and applications of BioMEMS and LOC technology to the areas of biomedicine, biology, and biotechnology. The course was well received and the enrolled students had diverse backgrounds in electrical engineering, material science, biology, mechanical engineering, and chemistry. Student feedback and a review of the course evaluations indicated that the course was effective in achieving its objectives. Student presentations at the end of the course were a highlight and a valuable experience for all involved. The course proved successful and will continue to be offered regularly. This paper provides an overview of the course as well as some development and future improvements.

‣ Impedance characterization, degradation, and in vitro biocompatibility for platinum electrodes on BioMEMS

Geninatti, Thomas; Bruno, Giacomo; Barile, Bernardo; Hood, R. Lyle; Farina, Marco; Schmulen, Jeffrey; Canavese, Giancarlo; Grattoni, Alessandro
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /02/2015 Português
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Fine control of molecular transport through microfluidic systems can be obtained by modulation of an applied electrical field across channels with the use of electrodes. In BioMEMS designed for biological fluids and in vivo applications, electrodes must be biocompatible, biorobust and stable. In this work, the analysis and characterization of platinum (Pt) electrodes integrated on silicon substrates for biomedical applications are presented. Electrodes were incorporated on the surface of silicon chips by adhesion of laminated Pt foils or deposited at 30°, 45° or 90° angle by e-beam or physical vapor (sputtering) methods. Electrical and physical properties of the electrodes were quantified and evaluated using electrical impedance spectroscopy and modelling of the electrode-electrolyte interfaces. Electrode degradation in saline solution at pH 7.4 was tested at room temperature and under accelerated conditions (90 °C), both in the presence and absence of an applied electrical potential. Degradation was quantified using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Biocompatibility was assessed by MTT proliferation assay with human dermal fibroblasts. Results demonstrated that the deposited electrodes were biocompatible with negligible material degradation and exhibited electrochemical behavior similar to Pt foils...

‣ Design of reversible "smart" surfaces for biomedical and nanotechnological applications; Design of switchable "smart" surfaces for biomedical and nanotechnological applications

Tran, Thanh-Nga T. (Thanh-Nga Trinh)
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 177 leaves
Português
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Chapter 1. An Introduction to Self-Assembled Monolayers & Surface Characterization A brief summary of the formation, structure, and characterization techniques of self assembled monolayers (SAMs) is described. The characterization techniques include contact angle goniometry, ellipsometry, grazing-angle Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), cyclic voltammetry (CV), sum-frequency generation spectroscopy (SFG), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Chapter 2. A Reversibly Switching Surface The design of surfaces that exhibit dynamic changes in interfacial properties such as wettability in response to an electrical potential is described. The change in wetting behavior was caused by surface-confined, single-layered molecules undergoing conformational transitions between a hydrophilic and a moderately hydrophobic state. Reversible conformational transitions were confirmed both at a molecular level using sum-frequency generation spectroscopy and at a macroscopic level using contact angle measurements. This type of surface design enables amplification of conformational transitions at a molecular level to macroscopic changes in surface properties without altering the chemical identity of the surface. Such reversibly switching surfaces may open new opportunities in interfacial engineering.Chapter 3. A Synthetic Chemical Route for the Formation of Homogeneously- Mixed Self-Assembled Monolayers A novel way to produce self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) uniformly mixed on the molecular length scale is described.; (cont.) Initially...

‣ Ex-vivo detection of neural events using THz BioMEMS

Abbas, Abdennour; Dargent, Thomas; Croix, Dominique; Salzet, Michel; Bocquet, Bertrand
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 28/12/2009 Português
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Electromagnetic frequencies up to a few terahertz (THz) can yield real-time and noninvasive measurements on biological matter. Unfortunately, strong absorption in aqueous solutions and low spatial resolution return difficult free-space investigations. A new approach based on integrated THz circuits was used. The authors designed and fabricated a BioMEMS (Biological MicroElectro-Mechanical System) compatible with microfluidic circulation and electromagnetic propagation. It is dedicated to the ex vivo detection of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, which is involved in neurodegenerative phenomena. MATERIAL/METHODS: The biological model was a leech's central nervous system. After its injury, the production of NO was observed and measured in the far-THz spectral domain. The nerve cord was put inside a BioMEMS realized in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sealed on a glass wafer. Glass is a good material for supporting high-frequency integrated waveguides such as coplanar waveguides (CPWs). Measurements were performed with vectorial network analyser (VNA). RESULTS: The transmission parameter in the frequency range of 0.14-0.22 THz was measured through CPWs located just below the microchannel containing the injured leech nerve cord. The lesion caused a decreased transmission coefficient due to the NOS activity. L-NAME was injected inside the microchannel and it was verified that it inhibits this activity. CONCLUSIONS: It was demonstrated that THz spectroscopy can detect a biochemical event...

‣ Ex-vivo detection of neural events using THz BioMEMS

Abbas, Abdennour; Dargent, Thomas; Croix, Dominique; Salzet, Michel; Bocquet, Bertrand
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 26/11/2009 Português
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Background: Electromagnetic frequencies up to a few terahertz (THz) can yield real-time and noninvasive measurements on biological matter. Unfortunately, strong absorption in aqueous solutions and low spatial resolution return difficult free-space investigations. A new approach based on integrated THz circuits was used. The authors designed and fabricated a BioMEMS (Biological MicroElectro-Mechanical System) compatible with microfluidic circulation and electromagnetic propagation. It is dedicated to the ex vivo detection of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, which is involved in neurodegenerative phenomena. Material/Methods: The biological model was a leech's central nervous system. After its injury, the production of NO was observed and measured in the far-THz spectral domain. The nerve cord was put inside a BioMEMS realized in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) sealed on a glass wafer. Glass is a good material for supporting high-frequency integrated waveguides such as coplanar waveguides (CPWs). Measurements were performed with vectorial network analyser (VNA). Results: The transmission parameter in the frequency range of 0.14-0.22 THz was measured through CPWs located just below the microchannel containing the injured leech nerve cord. The lesion caused a decreased transmission coefficient due to the NOS activity. L-NAME was injected inside the microchannel and it was verified that it inhibits this activity. Conclusions: It was demonstrated that THz spectroscopy can detect a biochemical event...

‣ Terahertz Biomems for Enzymatic Catalysis Monitoring

Abbas, Abdennour; Trezeibre, Anthony; Bourzgui, Nourredine; Guillochon, Didier; Vercaigne-Marko, Dominique; Supiot, Philippe; Bocquet, Bertrand
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 07/07/2009 Português
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This work focuses on the fabrication and use of a Biological Micro-ElectroMechanical System (BioMEMS) for TeraHertz (THz) detection and characterization of enzymatic catalysis reactions. The fluidic microdevice was fabricated using traditional lithographic techniques. It was then functionalized by reactive amine functions using plasma polymerized allylamine (pp-allylamine), followed by enzyme immobilization inside the microchannels. The enzymatic reaction was controlled by fluorescent microscopy before being analysed by sub-THz spectroscopy in the frequency range 0.06--0.11 THz. The preliminary results show the feasibility of terahertz monitoring of the biocatalysis reaction.

‣ MicroHerramientas para el Estudio de Células Vivas

Fernández Rosas, Elisabet
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2011 Português
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La mayoría de las técnicas actuales para el estudio celular se basan en el análisis de poblaciones celulares y proporcionan resultados que corresponden a valores promedio de toda la población. Sin embargo, multitud de estudios indican la existencia de una variabilidad substancial entre células fenotípicamente similares, y evidencian la necesidad de disponer de sistemas adecuados para el estudio de células individuales. Esta necesidad ha motivado la aparición de trabajos interdisciplinarios entre el campo de la biología y otras áreas de conocimiento como la microelectrónica, que permite desarrollar estructuras y dispositivos tridimensionales con formas complejas a micro y nanoescala. Este trabajo se enmarca dentro de un proyecto de investigación más amplio que tiene como objetivo principal diseñar y fabricar BioMEMS (sistemas microelectromecánicos para aplicaciones biológicas) que permitan el estudio individualizado de células vivas desde su interior o su exterior. Estos dispositivos, en el futuro, deberán ser capaces de llevar a cabo diversas funciones, detectar parámetros celulares y actuar en consecuencia. Los estudios realizados en este trabajo corresponden a la fase inicial del proyecto, y pretenden sentar las bases para el desarrollo de BioMEMS de tamaño subcelular que puedan ser interiorizados en células para aplicaciones en célula única viva. Basándonos en este objetivo principal...

‣ Topography and wettability control in biocompatible polymer for bioMEMS applications

Teh, Kwok; Lu, Yen-Wen
Fonte: IEEE Publicador: IEEE
Tipo: Proceedings
Português
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This paper elucidates the extent of changes in surface wettability as influenced by the surface topography on a conducting polymer, polypyrrole. As-deposited, anion-doped polypyrrole is subjected to a series of incremental redox potentials ranging from -0.6V to +1.5V (vs. Ag/AgCl), and its surface properties are examined via SEM, AFM, and contact angle measurements. A causal relationship is found to exist between the oxidation states of polypyrrole and its surface topography. At redox potential lower than +0.6V, the polymer is completely hydrophilic (contact angle <90°) as ascribed partially to its smooth surface. It becomes less hydrophilic in the range of +0.6—+1.0V and turns totally hydrophobic beyond +1.0V. Such a change in surface wettability is attributed in part to the increased surface roughness, as measured by AFM. As redox potentials increase from -0.6V to +1.5V, the corresponding average surface roughness rises from 3.1nm to 31.1nm – a 10-fold increase. Visual inspection by SEM indicates the formation of islets on the polymer during the oxidation process. Based on our experimental results, we hypothesize that as redox potential increases, changes of surface topography decrease the surface wettability of polypyrrole.

‣ BioMEMS and molecular processing: Engineering biomimetics in design of MEMS and processing platforms

Lyshevski, Marina; Lyshevski, Sergey
Fonte: IEEE Publicador: IEEE
Tipo: Proceedings
Português
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The fundamentals, operation and functionality of MEMS and their components can be envisioned to be devised and prototyped through biomimetics. Examining actuation, sensing, processing and other key functions, we focus on the pilot studies of efficient hardware and software which are inherently possessed and exhibited by living biosystems. There are a great number of unsolved fundamental and technological problems. To some extent, a number of problems can be attacked by examining and attempting to utilize different biomolecular-centered actuation, sensing and processing solutions. BioMEMS and processing platforms are examined due to their superior performance and unprecedented capabilities. However, non-comprehended cellular phenomena and mechanisms in biosystems are emphasized. This paper documents novel MEMS devices and systems which can be designed utilizing some phenomena and effects observed in biosystems. The performance estimates are reported.; Copyright 2007 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. However, permission to reprint/republish this material for advertising or promotional purposes or for creating new collective works for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or to reuse any copyrighted component of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE.; MEMSTECH'2007...