We examined the relationship between polarized growth and division site selection, two fundamental processes important for proper development of eukaryotes. Diploid Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells exhibit an ellipsoidal shape and a specific division pattern (a bipolar budding pattern). We found that the polarity genes SPA2, PEA2, BUD6, and BNI1 participate in a crucial step of bud morphogenesis, apical growth. Deleting these genes results in round cells and diminishes bud elongation in mutants that exhibit pronounced apical growth. Examination of distribution of the polarized secretion marker Sec4 demonstrates that spa2Δ, pea2Δ, bud6Δ, and bni1Δ mutants fail to concentrate Sec4 at the bud tip during apical growth and at the division site during repolarization just prior to cytokinesis. Moreover, cell surface expansion is not confined to the distal tip of the bud in these mutants. In addition, we found that the p21-activated kinase homologue Ste20 is also important for both apical growth and bipolar bud site selection. We further examined how the duration of polarized growth affects bipolar bud site selection by using mutations in cell cycle regulators that control the timing of growth phases. The grr1Δ mutation enhances apical growth by stabilizing G1 cyclins and increases the distal-pole budding in diploids. Prolonging polarized growth phases by disrupting the G2/M cyclin gene CLB2 enhances the accuracy of bud site selection in wild-type...
Adenovirus E1A proteins influence cell growth and phenotype through physical interactions with cellular proteins that regulate basic processes such as cell cycle progression, DNA synthesis, and differentiation. p120E4F is a low-abundance cellular transcription factor that represses the adenovirus E4 promoter and is regulated by E1A, through a phosphorylation-induced reduction of its DNA binding activity, to permit activation of the E4 promoter during early infection. To determine the normal biological role of p120E4F, we assessed its ability to influence fibroblast cell growth and transformation. p120E4F suppressed NIH 3T3 fibroblast colony formation but had little effect when coexpressed with E1A and/or activated ras. Cells that overexpressed p120E4F were inhibited in their ability to enter S phase, had elevated levels of the cdk inhibitor p21WAF1, and reduced cyclin D-cdk4/6 kinase activity. The increase of p21WAF1 levels occurred through a p53-independent posttranscriptional mechanism that included a three- to fourfold increase in the half-life of p21WAF1 protein. Coexpression of activated ras with p120E4F stimulated cyclin D1 expression, elevated cyclin D-cdk4/6 kinase activity, and accelerated cell growth. These data suggest an important role for p120E4F in normal cell division and demonstrate that p21WAF1 can be regulated by protein turnover.
RAFT1/FRAP/mTOR is a key regulator of cell growth and division and the mammalian target of rapamycin, an immunosuppressive and anticancer drug. Rapamycin deprivation and nutrient deprivation have similar effects on the activity of S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and 4E-BP1, two downstream effectors of RAFT1, but the relationship between nutrient- and rapamycin-sensitive pathways is unknown. Using transcriptional profiling, we show that, in human BJAB B-lymphoma cells and murine CTLL-2 T lymphocytes, rapamycin treatment affects the expression of many genes involved in nutrient and protein metabolism. The rapamycin-induced transcriptional profile is distinct from those induced by glucose, glutamine, or leucine deprivation but is most similar to that induced by amino acid deprivation. In particular, rapamycin treatment and amino acid deprivation up-regulate genes involved in nutrient catabolism and energy production and down-regulate genes participating in lipid and nucleotide synthesis and in protein synthesis, turnover, and folding. Surprisingly, however, rapamycin had effects opposite from those of amino acid starvation on the expression of a large group of genes involved in the synthesis, transport, and use of amino acids. Supported by measurements of nutrient use...
Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells grow from both ends during most of interphase and divide symmetrically into two daughter cells. The pom1 gene, encoding a member of the Dyrk family of protein kinases, has been identified through a mutant showing abnormal cellular morphogenesis. Here we show that Pom1p kinase activity is cell cycle regulated in correlation with the state of cellular symmetry: the activity is high during symmetrical growth and division, but lower when cells grow at just one end. Point mutations in the catalytic domain lead to asymmetry during both cell growth and division, whilst cells overexpressing Pom1p form additional growing ends. Manipulations of kinase activity indicate a negative role for Pom1p in microtubule growth at cell ends. Pom1p is present in a large protein complex and requires its non-catalytic domain to localize to the cell periphery and its kinase activity to localize to cell ends. These data establish that Pom1p kinase activity plays an important role in generating cellular symmetry and suggest that there may be related roles of homologous protein kinases ubiquitously present in all eukaryotes.
Three new mutants of Escherichia coli showing thermosensitive cell growth and division were isolated, and the mutations were mapped to the mra region at 2 min on the E. coli chromosome map distal to leuA. Two mutations were mapped closely upstream of ftsI (also called pbpB), in a region of 600 bases; the fts-36 mutant showed thermosensitive growth and formed filamentous cells at 42 degrees C, whereas the lts-33 mutant lysed at 42 degrees C without forming filamentous cells. The mutation in the third new thermosensitive, filament-forming mutant, named ftsW, was mapped between murF and murG. By isolation of these three mutants, about 90% of the 17-kilobase region from fts-36-lts-33 to envA could be filled with genes for cell division and growth, and the genes could be aligned.
Escherichia coli Div 124(ts) is a conditional-lethal cell division mutant formed from a cross between a mutant that produces polar anucleated minicells and a temperature-sensitive cell division mutant affected in a stage of cross-wall synthesis. Under permissive growth temperature (30 C), Div 124(ts) grows and produces normal progeny cells and anucleated minicells from its polar ends. When transferred to nonpermissive growth temperature (42 C), growth and macromolecular synthesis continue, but cell division and minicell formation are inhibited. Growth at 42 C results in formation of filamentous cells showing some constrictions along the length of the filaments. Return of the filaments from 42 to 30 C results in cell division and minicell formation in association with the constrictions and other areas along the length of the filaments. This gives rise to a “necklace-type” array of cells and minicells. Recovery of cell division is observed after a lag and is followed by a burst in cell division and finally by a return to the normal growth characteristic of 30 C cultures. Recovery of cell division takes place in the presence of chloramphenicol or nalidixic acid when these are added at the time of shift from 42 to 30 C, and indicates that a division potential for filament fragmentation is accumulated while the cells are at 42 C. This division potential is used for the production of both minicells and cells of normal length. The conditional-lethal temperature sensitive mutation controls a step(s) in cross-wall synthesis common to cell division and minicell formation.
The kinetics of cell growth and protein synthesis during the division cycle of Myxococcus xanthus was determined. The distribution of cell size for both septated and nonseptated bacteria was obtained by direct measurement of the lengths of 8,000 cells. The Collins-Richmond equation was modified to consider bacterial growth in two phases: growth and division. From the derived equation, the growth rate of individual cells was computed as a function of size. Nondividing cells (growth phase) comprised 91% of the population and took up 87% of the time of the division cycle. The absolute and specific growth rates of nondividing cells were observed to increase continually throughout the growth phase; the growth rate of dividing cells could not be determined accurately by this technique because of changes in the geometry of cells between the time of septation and physical separation. The rate of protein synthesis during the division cycle was measured by pulselabeling an exponential-phase culture with radio-active valine or arginine and then preparing the cells for quantitative autoradiography. By measuring the size of individual cells as well as the number of grains, the rate of protein synthesis as a function of cell size was obtained. Nondividing cells showed an increase in both the absolute and specific rates of protein synthesis throughout the growth phase; the specific rate of protein synthesis for dividing cells was low when compared to growthphase cells. Cell growth and protein synthesis are compared to the previously reported kinetics of deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid synthesis during the division cycle.
The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) integrates nutrient and mitogen signals to regulate cell growth (increased cell mass and cell size) and cell division. The immunosuppressive drug rapamycin inhibits cell cycle progression via inhibition of mTOR; however, the signaling pathways by which mTOR regulates cell cycle progression have remained poorly defined. Here we demonstrate that restoration of mTOR signaling (by using a rapamycin-resistant mutant of mTOR) rescues rapamycin-inhibited G1-phase progression, and restoration of signaling along the mTOR-dependent S6K1 or 4E-BP1/eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) pathways provides partial rescue. Furthermore, interfering RNA-mediated reduction of S6K1 expression or overexpression of mTOR-insensitive 4E-BP1 isoforms that block eIF4E activity inhibit G1-phase progression individually and additively. Thus, the activities of both the S6K1 and 4E-BP1/eIF4E pathways are required for and independently mediate mTOR-dependent G1-phase progression. In addition, overexpression of constitutively active mutants of S6K1 or wild-type eIF4E accelerates serum-stimulated G1-phase progression, and stable expression of wild-type S6K1 confers a proliferative advantage in low-serum-containing media...
Hoffman, Heiner (New York University, New York, N.Y.), and Michael E. Frank. Time-lapse photomicrography of cell growth and division in Escherichia coli. J. Bacteriol. 89:212–216. 1965.—Photomicrographs at 15-sec intervals of cells growing at 37 C disclosed that in a cell with a generation time of 21.0 min the processes of furrowing, cross-wall formation, and cell separation are completed within 2.5 min after the division furrow first becomes clearly visible. Among a large number of cultivations examined, only a few cells late in one microculture at 43.5 C failed to separate once the cross wall was completed. Measurements of cell lengths during a 5-min period, extending from just before to just after division, showed that elongation of the cell is a discontinuous process, although the growth rate over the 5-min period is exponential. At the time of cell division, it appears that the synthesis of cell-wall material is diverted entirely into formation of the cross wall.
The growth and division of Staphylococcus aureus was monitored by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and thin-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A good correlation of the structural events of division was found using the two microscopies, and AFM was able to provide new additional information. AFM was performed under water, ensuring that all structures were in the hydrated condition. Sequential images on the same structure revealed progressive changes to surfaces, suggesting the cells were growing while images were being taken. Using AFM small depressions were seen around the septal annulus at the onset of division that could be attributed to so-called murosomes (Giesbrecht et al., Arch. Microbiol. 141:315-324, 1985). The new cell wall formed from the cross wall (i.e., completed septum) after cell separation and possessed concentric surface rings and a central depression; these structures could be correlated to a midline of reactive material in the developing septum that was seen by TEM. The older wall, that which was not derived from a newly formed cross wall, was partitioned into two different surface zones, smooth and gel-like zones, with different adhesive properties that could be attributed to cell wall turnover. The new and old wall topographies are equated to possible peptidoglycan arrangements...
Experimental proof is given that the volume distribution spectrum of mammalian cells in suspension culture can be determined accurately with a Coulter spectrometer. Stable spectra corresponding to the predictions of a mathematical model are observed under favorable conditions of growth. Cell volume spectrometry appears to be a useful method for diagnosing the state of the culture with respect to past uniformity of growth rate and present population age distribution. In addition, it offers a method for quantitative study of the laws governing cell growth and division.
Spatial and temporal regulation of bacterial cell division is imperative for the production of viable offspring. In many rod-shaped bacteria, regulatory systems such as the Min system and nucleoid occlusion ensure the high fidelity of midcell divisome positioning. However, regulation of division site selection in bacteria lacking recognizable Min and nucleoid occlusion remains less well understood. Here, we describe one such rod-shaped organism, Corynebacterium glutamicum, which does not always place the division septum precisely at midcell. Here we now show at single cell level that cell growth and division site selection are spatially and temporally regulated by chromosome segregation. Mutants defective in chromosome segregation have more variable cell growth and aberrant placement of the division site. In these mutants, division septa constrict over and often guillotine the nucleoid, leading to nonviable, DNA-free cells. Our results suggest that chromosome segregation or some nucleoid associated factor influences growth and division site selection in C. glutamicum. Understanding growth and regulation of C. glutamicum cells will also be of importance to develop strains for industrial production of biomolecules, such as amino acids.
Cell growth in size is a complex process coordinated by intrinsic and environmental signals. In a research work performed by a different group, size distributions of an exponentially growing population of mammalian cells were used to infer cell-growth rate in size. The results suggested that cell growth was neither linear nor exponential, but subject to size-dependent regulation. To explain the observed growth pattern, we built a mathematical model in which growth rate was regulated by the relative amount of mRNA and ribosomes in a cell. Under the growth model and a stochastic division rule, we simulated the evolution of a population of cells. Both the sampled growth rate and size distribution from this in silico population agreed well with experimental data. To explore the model space, alternative growth models and division rules were studied. This work may serve as a starting point to understand the mechanisms behind cell growth and size regulation using predictive models.
The septins are a conserved family of proteins that have been proposed to carry out diverse functions. In budding yeast, the septins become localized to the site of bud emergence in G1 but have not been thought to carry out important functions at this stage of the cell cycle. We show here that the septins function in redundant mechanisms that are required for formation of the bud neck and for the normal pattern of cell growth early in the cell cycle. The Shs1 septin shows strong genetic interactions with G1 cyclins and is directly phosphorylated by G1 cyclin-dependent kinases, consistent with a role in early cell cycle events. However, Shs1 phosphorylation site mutants do not show genetic interactions with the G1 cyclins or obvious defects early in the cell cycle. Rather, they cause an increased cell size and aberrant cell morphology that are dependent upon inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk1 at the G2/M transition. Shs1 phosphorylation mutants also show defects in interaction with the Gin4 kinase, which associates with the septins during G2/M and plays a role in regulating inhibitory phosphorylation of Cdk1. Phosphorylation of Shs1 by G1 cyclin-dependent kinases plays a role in events that influence Cdk1 inhibitory phosphorylation.
The purpose of this thesis was to provide a broad survey of bioprocess options for typical drug production vehicles in the biotechnology industry. This goal was accomplished by comparing the growth and monoclonal antibody production by HPCHO Chinese hamster ovary cells and IB4 hybridoma cells in batch, fed-batch, and three perfusion systems: the stirred ceramic membrane reactor (SCMR), the alternating tangential flow (ATF) hollow fiber membrane system, and the external spin filter (ESF) system. The batch experiments for each cell line were used as base case scenarios for the comparisons of cell growth and monoclonal antibody production. The fed-batch experiments for each cell line did not vastly improve the cell growth and monoclonal antibody production over the batch cases. The SCMR perfusion system greatly improved the cell growth and monoclonal antibody production for each cell line. The maximum viable cell concentration of the IB4 hybridoma cells in the SCMR experiment was over seven times that found in the batch experiment and the monoclonal antibody production in the SCMR experiment was over ten times that found in the batch experiment.; (cont.) The ATF perfusion system greatly increased the cell growth for each cell line over the batch cases...
In a previous paper, we proposed a model in which the volume growth rate and probability of division of a cell were assumed to be determined by the cell's age and volume. Some further mathematical implications of the model are here explored. In particular we seek properties of the growth and division functions which are required for the balanced exponential growth of a cell population. Integral equations are derived which relate the distribution of birth volumes in successive generations and in which the existence of balanced exponential growth can be treated as an eigenvalue problem. The special case in which all cells divide at the same age is treated in some detail and conditions are derived for the existence of a balanced exponential solution and for its stability or instability. The special case of growth rate proportional to cell volume is seen to have neutral stability. More generally when the division probability depends on age only and growth rate is proportional to cell volume, there is no possibility of balanced exponential growth. Some comparisons are made with experimental results. It is noted that the model permits the appearance of differentiated cells. A generalization of the model is formulated in which cells may be described by many state variables instead of just age and volume.
A 26-kDa murein hydrolase is the major autolysin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and its expression can be correlated with the growth and division of cells in both batch and synchronously growing cultures. In batch cultures, it is detected primarily during the mid-exponential growth phase, and in synchronous cultures, it is detected primarily during the cell elongation and division phases. Immunogold labeling of thin sections of P. aeruginosa using antibodies raised against the 26-kDa autolysin revealed that it is associated mainly with the cell envelope and in particular within the periplasm. It is also tightly bound to the peptidoglycan layer, since murein sacculi, isolated by boiling 4% sodium dodecyl sulfate treatment, could also be immunogold labeled. Since division is due to cell constriction in this P. aeruginosa strain (septa are rarely seen), we cannot comment on the autolysin's contribution to septation, although constriction sites were always heavily labeled. Some labeling was also found in the cytoplasm, and this was thought to be due to the de novo synthesis of the enzyme before translocation to the periplasm. Interestingly, the autolysin was also found to be associated with natural membrane vesicles which blebbed from the surface during cell growth; the enzyme is therefore part of the complex makeup of these membrane packages of secreted materials (J. L. Kadurugamuwa and T. J. Beveridge...
Uncovering the quantitative laws that govern the growth and division of
single cells remains a major challenge. Using a unique combination of
technologies that yields unprecedented statistical precision, we find that the
sizes of individual Caulobacter crescentus cells increase exponentially in
time. We also establish that they divide upon reaching a critical multiple
($\approx$1.8) of their initial sizes, rather than an absolute size. We show
that when the temperature is varied, the growth and division timescales scale
proportionally with each other over the physiological temperature range.
Strikingly, the cell-size and division-time distributions can both be rescaled
by their mean values such that the condition-specific distributions collapse to
universal curves. We account for these observations with a minimal stochastic
model that is based on an autocatalytic cycle. It predicts the scalings, as
well as specific functional forms for the universal curves. Our experimental
and theoretical analysis reveals a simple physical principle governing these
complex biological processes: a single temperature-dependent scale of cellular
time governs the stochastic dynamics of growth and division in balanced growth
conditions.; Comment: Text+Supplementary
12 pages, 7 figures.-- PMID: 19355788 [PubMed].-- Supporting information (Suppl. figures S1-S3, movies S1-S7) available at: http://biology.plosjournals.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1371/journal.pbio.1000079#toclink6; Regulation of cell proliferation has been extensively studied in cultured cell systems that are characterized by coordinated growth and cell-cycle progression and relatively uniform cell size distribution. During the development of multicellular organisms, however, growth and division can be temporally uncoupled, and the signaling pathways that regulate these growth programs are poorly understood. A good model for analyzing proliferation control in such systems is the morphogenesis of the Drosophila adult abdominal epidermis by histoblasts. These cells undergo a series of temporally regulated transitions during which neither cell size nor division rate is constant. The proliferation of histoblasts during metamorphosis is uniquely amenable to clonal analysis in combination with live imaging. Thereby, we show that abdominal histoblasts, which grow while in G2 arrest during larval stages, enter a proliferative stage in the pupal period that is initiated by ecdysone-dependent string/Cdc25 phosphatase transcription. The proliferating histoblasts have preaccumulated stores of Cyclin E...
Cell division and growth are complex processes fundamental to all living organisms. In the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, these two processes are known to be coordinated with one another as a cell's mass must roughly double before division. Moreover, cell-cycle progression is dependent on cell size with smaller cells at birth generally taking more time in the cell cycle. This dependence is a signature of size control. Systems biology is an emerging field that emphasizes connections or dependencies between biological entities and processes over the characteristics of individual entities. Statistical models provide a quantitative framework for describing and analyzing these dependencies. In this dissertation, I take a statistical systems biology approach to study cell division and growth and the dependencies within and between these two processes, drawing on observations from richly informative microscope images and time-lapse movies. I review the current state of knowledge on these processes, highlighting key results and open questions from the biological literature. I then discuss my development of machine learning and statistical approaches to extract cell-cycle information from microscope images and to better characterize the cell-cycle progression of populations of cells. In addition...