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‣ Eletrificação dos sistemas precipitantes na região Amazônica: processos físicos e dinâmicos do desenvolvimento de tempestades; Electrification of precipitating systems over the Amazon: Physical and dynamical processes of thunderstorm development

Albrecht, Rachel Ifanger
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 13/06/2008 Português
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Os sistemas convectivos da região Amazônica possuem características microfísicas peculiares, que variam de um caráter convectivo marítimo (estação chuvosa) a continental (estação de transição seca-chuvosa). Essas características modulam a eletrificação desses sistemas, porém ainda não se sabe quais são os processos dominantes que intensificam o número de descargas elétricas de uma estação para outra: efeito dos aerossóis, termodinâmico, grande-escala ou topografia? Para responder à essa pergunta, o objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar e quantificar a importância de cada um desses efeitos na eletrificação dos sistemas convectivos da Amazônia. A metodologia foi baseada em análises de dados observacionais do experimento de campo DRYTOWET e em um modelo numérico com parametrizações de transferências de cargas e descargas elétricas. A análise do ciclo anual das descargas elétricas do tipo nuvem-solo (CGs) mostrou que a atividade elétrica dos sistemas precipitantes da região sudoeste da Amazônia aumenta durante a transição da estação seca para a estação chuvosa (Agosto a Setembro), associada aos sistemas convectivos com maior desenvolvimento vertical que acontecem nesse período. Com o estabelecimento da estação chuvosa (Novembro a Março)...

‣ Welfare Impacts of Rural Electrification : Evidence from Vietnam

Khandker, Shahidur R.; Barnes, Douglas F.; Samad, Hussain; Minh, Nguyen Huu
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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Access to electricity is crucial for economic development and there is a growing body of literature on the impact of rural electrification on development. However, most studies have so far relied on cross-sectional surveys comparing households with and without electricity, which have well known causal attribution problems. This paper is one of the first studies to examine the welfare impacts of households rural electrification based on panel surveys conducted in 2002 and 2005 for some 1,100 households in rural Vietnam,. The findings indicate that grid electrification has been both extensive (connecting all surveyed communes by 2005) and intensive (connecting almost 80 percent of the surveyed households by 2005). Vietnam is unusual in that once electricity is locally available, both rich and poor households are equally likely to get the connection. The econometric estimations suggest that grid electrification has significant positive impacts on households cash income, expenditure, and educational outcomes. The benefits...

‣ Who Benefits Most from Rural Electrification? Evidence in India

Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.; Ali, Rubaba; Barnes, Douglas F.
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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This paper applies an econometric analysis to estimate the average and distribution benefits of rural electrification using rich household survey data from India. The results support that rural electrification helps to reduce time allocated to fuelwood collection by household members and increases time allocated to studying by boys and girls. Rural electrification also increases the labor supply of men and women, schooling of boys and girls, and household per capita income and expenditure. Electrification also helps reduce poverty. But the larger share of benefits accrues to wealthier rural households, with poorer ones having more limited use of electricity. The analysis also shows that restricted supply of electricity, due to frequent power outages, negatively affects both household electricity connection and its consumption, thereby reducing the expected benefits of rural electrification.

‣ Rural Electrification : Lessons Learned

Sanghvi, Arun; Barnes, Douglas
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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The note focuses on the external benefits of rural electrification (RE), i.e., improved access to communication, education, and economic opportunities, in addition to extended health services. It outlines key lessons to scaling up RE, namely macroeconomic stability, continued government commitments, and institutional capacity. However, it also suggests that grid extension is not always cost-effective, rather, decentralized delivery options, and alternative energy sources, such as solar photovoltaic, mini-hydro, and other renewable energy sources should be considered. Moreover, good practices indicate the need for power sector reform, regulatory framework with legal guarantees that utilities can operate autonomously, and, financial viability, that is, to ensure commercialization, and identify a cost-recovery system that takes into account capital investment costs, and contributions levels. Strongly emphasized is the involvement of local communities in the design, and implementation of RE, by setting rural electrification committees...

‣ Promoting Private Investment in Rural Electrification : The Case of Chile

Jadresic, Alejandro
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Português
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Reform of the energy sector and reform of subsidies ideally go hand in hand. Structural, ownership, and regulatory reforms aimed at making services more efficient should lead to a rethinking of both the delivery mechanism and the level of subsidy. Chile, one of the earliest and most thorough energy reformers, has also been one of the more innovative in restructuring its subsidy schemes. It has seen electrification as a key measure in alleviating poverty in rural areas-in 1992 about 47 percent of its rural population had no access to electricity. Its rural electrification program includes subsidies designed to be consistent with the broad principles of energy reform-decentralization of decisions to the regional and community level, competition (between technologies as well as suppliers), and a requirement that all partners in the process-users and private companies as well as the state-contribute to the financing of expansion projects. The short-term result: an increase in rural electrification of about 50 percent in the first five years of the program.

‣ From the Bottom Up : How Small Power Producers and Mini-Grids Can Deliver Electrification and Renewable Energy in Africa

Tenenbaum, Bernard; Greacen, Chris; Siyambalapitiya, Tilak; Knuckles, James
Fonte: Washington, DC: World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC: World Bank
Português
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Most Sub-Saharan African countries try to promote rural electrification through both centralized and decentralized approaches. This guide focuses on the decentralized approach, providing practical guidance on how small power producers and mini-grid operators can deliver both electrification and renewable energy in rural areas. It describes four basic types of on- and off-grid small power producers, as well as several hybrid combinations that are emerging in Africa and elsewhere. The guide highlights the ground-level regulatory and policy questions that must be answered by electricity regulators, rural energy agencies, and ministries to promote commercially sustainable investments by private operators and community organizations. Among the practical questions addressed is how to design and implement retail tariffs, quality of service standards, feed-in tariffs, and backup tariffs. The guide also analyzes the regulatory implementation issues triggered by donor grants and so-called top-up payments. It provides a primer for nonengineers on interconnection and operating standards for small power producers connected to main grids and isolated mini-grids. It analyzes whether the option of small power distributors, used widely in Asia...

‣ Zimbabwe : Rural Electrification Study

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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This report aims to document the picture of rural electrification in Zimbabwe emerging from detailed information gathering surveys. In addition, elements are highlighted that could feed into the process of developing a coherent rural energy and electrification strategy. The report, based on surveys, interviews, and other data-gathering exercises, is divided into seven chapters as follows: Chapter 1 presents a general background of the Zimbabwean energy sector, along with the methodologies that were used to collect data. Chapter 2 considers rural energy demand, presenting information on energy end-use, the energy services delivered, and their costs. Also, it outlines the seasonal activities giving rise to energy demand. Chapter 3 describes the dynamics of energy supply and the trends and opportunities arising from the current situation. Chapter 4 discusses issues that any successful rural electrification policy will need to address, including affordability and geographic disparity. In order to identify the suggested policy elements within the current energy sector structure...

‣ Peru : Rural Electrification

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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The report analyzes rural electrification in Peru, in the context of social development, reviews the legal framework, and national rural electrification strategies, and examines opportunities for gaining access to electricity services. Regardless of the evident efforts recently made - the rural electrification coefficient increased from five percent in 1993, to twenty percent by 1997 - to improve rural access to electricity, much remains to be done, since six million households still have no access, aggravated by the fact that the majority of these people live in areas so isolated, that the likelihood to access the national grid, is not expected anytime soon. Furthermore, the majority of the rural population will most likely access electricity by using small isolated power supply systems, a questionable approach, since such systems are highly costly, and because they are seemingly unsustainable. Based on selection criteria, and survey results, the report identifies a case study on the management system in Chalan...

‣ Swaziland Solar Electrification Program 2001-2010 : Phase 1. 2001-2002 Solar Energy in the Pilot Area

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Português
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The report presents the solar electrification program in Swaziland, aimed at meeting the basic electrical needs of rural communities, of which currently, less than five percent is connected to power grids. Although implementation efforts have been made towards the development of sustainable solar markets in the country, a number of constraints, and barriers hinder implementation, e.g., rigid product assortment, focused on photovoltaic technology, rather than service delivery, and, aggravated by poor access to credit. The initial step, creation of awareness will play a pivotal role, since acceptance of solar electrification by the rural community, the government, and the electricity utility Swaziland Electricity Board (SEC), is critical to the sustainability of the program. The deliverables of this solar electrification program include: basic needs assessment, focused on energy needs for both productive, and community activities; development, and implementation of a wide range of solar products, delivery modes...

‣ Four Regulatory Principles to Promote Diverse Electrification

Reiche, Kilian; Tenenbaum, Bernard; Torres, Clemencia
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
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This note is a summary of a study to be published by ESMAP and the Energy and Mining Sector Board in 2006. The study proposes four principles for regulatory systems that will help, rather than hinder, electrification. The principles and the accompanying real world examples show how successful electrification often requires that the traditional functions of regulation be performed in non-traditional ways.

‣ Migration driven by Electrification - The Impact of Electrification on Growth Dynamics of Rural Areas in Developing Countries

Diederich, Hauke
Fonte: Universität Tübingen Publicador: Universität Tübingen
Tipo: Masterarbeit
Português
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Despite the fact that there have been many electrification projects in developing countries, little research has been done on their impacts on migration patterns. Most countries experience considerable rural-urban migration with controversial effects on rural communities. This study investigates whether electrification contributes to sustainable rural development and, thus, slows down the rural exodus. The study reports on research findings from three case studies in rural Nicaragua, two with access to electricity and one without. It aims to provide insight into the scope and depth of impacts of electrification on rural livelihoods and the links between electricity provision and rural migration. Structured and semi-structured interviews as well as participatory rural appraisal techniques allowed for the gathering of qualitative and quantitative data. The Sustainable Livelihood Framework provided a conceptual framework to evaluate the impacts. It was found, that lighting provided positive impacts on the rural poor’s livelihood, but a higher one on the productive sector. All three case studies did not suffer from rural-urban migration, but have shown significant in-migration in the last years. However, the village without electricity supply attracted mostly farmers and day labourers from the nearby uplands...

‣ Asmara Power Distribution and Rural Electrification Project : Pre-electrification Survey Analysis

O'Sullivan, Kyran; Fitzgerald, Kevin
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
Português
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This report presents the findings and recommendations of a Pre-electrification Survey done in preparation for the Asmara Power Distribution and Rural Electrification Project. The survey was designed to characterize energy use in existing institutions, commercial enterprises and households before electrification and, thereby, set a baseline for monitoring and evaluation of the impacts of the project going forward. The report begins with a summary of the survey s main findings. It continues with an introduction describing the background of the project. Section 1 presents an estimation of electrification s benefits using the household survey data. Section 2 discusses recommendations for ongoing monitoring and evaluation of the project. An appendix follows.

‣ Welfare Impacts of Rural Electrification : A Case Study from Bangladesh

Khandker, Shahidur R.; Barnes, Douglas F.; Samad, Hussain A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper
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Lack of access to electricity is one of the major impediments to growth and development of the rural economies in developing countries. That is why access to modern energy, in particular to electricity, has been one of the priority themes of the World Bank and other development organizations. Using a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 of some 20,000 households in rural Bangladesh, this paper studies the welfare impacts of households' grid connectivity. Based on rigorous econometric estimation techniques, this study finds that grid electrification has significant positive impacts on households' income, expenditure, and educational outcomes. For example, the gain in total income due to electrification can be as much as 30 percent and as low as 9 percent. Benefits go up steadily as household exposure to grid electrification (measured by duration) increases and eventually reach a plateau. This paper also finds that rich households benefit more from electrification than poor households. Finally, estimates also show that income benefits of electrification on an average exceed cost by a wide margin.

‣ Best Practice Manual : Promoting Decentralized Electrification Investment

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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This paper provides background information on decentralized electrification, and, attempts to fulfill two objectives: review methods of decentralized electrification intervention, and provide a step-by-step approach for project implementation. Chapter 1 provides a brief overview, and summary of rural electrification options, while Chapter 2 identifies implementation options for decentralized electrification, focusing on either individual initiatives, or collective/cooperative approaches. Discussions of key factors necessary to create a conducive environment for the promotion of decentralized electrification are featured in Chapter 3, which includes legal, regulatory, and fiscal incentives, in addition to sustainable financing mechanisms, and necessary technical assistance to promote projects. Chapter 4 then defines the role of government, and briefly discusses the functions of government agencies for the promotion of decentralized electrification. Chapter 5 provides a step-by-step guide through five stages for project implementation...

‣ Policy and Governance Framework for Off-grid Rural Electrification with Renewable Energy Sources

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
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The objective of the study was to develop an adequate policy and governance framework for off- grid rural electrification by: assessing the effectiveness and key socio-economic factors and governance structures in present off-grid electricity supply schemes; and exploring and testing sustainable decentralized service-delivery models for future large-scale off-grid rural electrification in Pakistan. This study has attempted to develop a policy and governance framework for implementing sustainable large-scale off-grid rural electrification in Pakistan. This was done by assessing the effectiveness of existing policy, governance, and institutional frameworks in actual implementation of off-grid supply (OS) projects in the country; examining regional and global models for off-grid supply which have worked; and exploring which combination of these experiences might work to scale-up access in Pakistan to reach the roughly 7,000 villages which are not likely to be supplied by grid electricity in the near future. Pakistan has in place...

‣ Long-term Impacts of Household Electrification in Rural India

van de Walle, Dominique; Ravallion, Martin; Mendiratta, Vibhuti; Koolwal, Gayatri
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Policy Research Working Paper; Publications & Research
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India's huge expansion in rural electrification in the 1980s and 1990s offers lessons for other countries today. The paper examines the long-term effects of household electrification on consumption, labor supply, and schooling in rural India over 1982-99. It finds that household electrification brought significant gains to consumption and earnings, the latter through changes in market labor supply. It finds positive effects on schooling for girls but not for boys. External effects are also evident, whereby households without electricity benefit from village electrification. Wage rates were unaffected. Methodologically, the results suggest sizeable upward biases in past estimates of the gains from electrification associated with how past analyses dealt with geographic effects.

‣ The Welfare Impact of Rural Electrification : A Reassessment of the Costs and Benefits

Independent Evaluation Group
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
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It has long been claimed that rural electrification greatly improves the quality of life. Lighting alone brings benefits such as increased study time and improved study environment for school children, extended hours for small businesses, and greater security. But electrification brings more than light. It's second most common use is for television, which brings both entertainment and information. The people who live in rural areas greatly appreciate these benefits and are willing to pay for them at levels more than sufficient to cover the costs. However, the evaluation of these and other benefits, as well as of their distribution, has been sparse. This report reviews recent methodological advances made in measuring the benefits of rural electrification (RE) and commends them. It also notes that the understanding of the techniques shown in project documents is sometimes weak, and quality control for the economic analysis in project documents lacking. This study shows that willingness to pay for electricity is high...

‣ Bank Experience in Non-Energy Projects with Rural Electrification Components : A Review of Integration Issues in LCR

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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The objective of this study is to gain an overview of current nonenergy projects with rural electrification components in LCR. The research included compiling a list of projects, contact information, and issues regarding the integration of rural electrification and other services and interviewing the relevant task managers. This report provides an overview of what effects are expected theoretically to happen, and what the initial actual findings in the identified projects were. This review is provided to help decide whether to conduct a more detailed investigation and which issues to focus on. The ultimate objective is to design more effective rural electrification projects integrated with other sector operations. To design more effective rural electrification projects integrated with other sector operations effectiveness needs to be defined. Assuming that the ultimate goal is poverty reduction, the link between electricity and income-generating activities needs to be analyzed. Effectiveness will then be measured according to the project's impact on poverty and improvement in living standards. Linked to the effectiveness objective is the issue of sustainability.

‣ Rural Electrification in Tunisia : National Commitment, Efficient Implementation and Sound Finances

Cecelski, Elizabeth; Ounalli, Ahmed; Aisaa, Moncef; Dunkerley, Joy
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
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Tunisia's achievement of 100 percent urban and 88 percent rural electrification is remarkable, all the more so because the country's definition of rural electrification is restricted to connections made outside incorporated areas. Compared to rural populations in other developing countries with high rates of electrification, Tunisia's rural population-although only 35 percent of the total population-is highly dispersed and isolated, with long distances between small groups of often scattered houses. This characteristic, combined with the Government's social commitment to connecting all households, has highly influenced program costs and choice of institutional set-up, distribution system, and technology. This paper reports on the major factors contributing to Tunisia's successful rural electrification program, primarily: 1) the national commitment to rural electrification as part of a broader, integrated rural development program emphasizing social equity; 2) an effective institutional structure and coordination of project planning and selection; 3) the utility's sound management and continuing process of technical innovation; 4) the robust financial arrangements; and 5) the complementary strategy of using photovoltaic cells to serve isolated users.

‣ Lao PDR - Power to the People : Twenty Years of National Electrification

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Economic & Sector Work :: Energy Study; Economic & Sector Work
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This report documents the Lao People's Democratic Republic's success story in rapid national electrification integrated within a broader strategy of national and rural development. In fifteen years (1995-2009), electricity access more than quadrupled, from about 15 percent in 1995 to 69 percent in 2009 -- and the program is on track to achieve the government's target of 70 percent national coverage by 2010 year-end. This expanded electricity access resulted in over 700,000 household connections by 2009 year-end, from about 120,000 households connected in 1995. The government of Lao PDR (GoL) has pursued a pragmatic and purposeful approach. Further, a series of government policy initiatives helped steer the rapid liberalization and modernization of the national economy, as a consequence of which the economy has grown at an average annual rate of 6.5 percent since 2001. The key to the successful implementation of the national electrification program in Lao PDR has been its institutional model of grid extension and rollout driven by the national electricity utility...