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‣ Energy Access, Efficiency, and Poverty : How Many Households Are Energy Poor in Bangladesh?

Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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Access to energy, especially modern sources, is a key to any development initiative. Based on cross-section data from a 2004 survey of some 2,300 households in rural Bangladesh, this paper studies the welfare impacts of household energy use, including that of modern energy, and estimates the household minimum energy requirement that could be used as a basis for an energy poverty line. The paper finds that although the use of both traditional (biomass energy burned in conventional stoves) and modern (electricity and kerosene) sources improves household consumption and income, the return on modern sources is 20 to 25 times higher than that on traditional sources. In addition, after comparing alternate measures of the energy poverty line, the paper finds that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, compared with 45 percent that are income poor. The findings suggest that growth in electrification and adoption of efficient cooking stoves for biomass use can lower energy poverty in a climate-friendly way by reducing carbon dioxide emissions. Reducing energy poverty helps reduce income poverty as well.

‣ Energy Poverty in Rural and Urban India : Are the Energy Poor Also Income Poor?

Khandker, Shahidur R.; Barnes, Douglas F.; Samad, Hussain A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Português
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Energy poverty is a frequently used term among energy specialists, but unfortunately the concept is rather loosely defined. Several existing approaches measure energy poverty by defining an energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper proposes an alternative measure that is based on energy demand. The energy poverty line is defined as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. This approach was applied to cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2005 household survey representative of both urban and rural India. The findings suggest that in rural areas some 57 percent of households are energy poor, versus 22 percent that are income poor. For urban areas the energy poverty rate is 28 percent compared with 20 percent that are income poor. Policies to reduce energy poverty would include support for rural electrification, the promotion of more modern cooking fuels...

‣ Energy Poverty in Rural Bangladesh

Barnes, Douglas F.; Khandker, Shahidur R.; Samad, Hussain A.
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Energy poverty is a well-established concept among energy and development specialists. International development organizations frequently cite energy-poverty alleviation as a necessary condition to reduce income poverty. Several approaches used to measure energy poverty over the past 20 years have defined the energy poverty line as the minimum quantity of physical energy needed to perform such basic tasks as cooking and lighting. This paper uses a demand-based approach to define the energy poverty line as the threshold point at which energy consumption begins to rise with increases in household income. At or below this threshold point, households consume a bare minimum level of energy and should be considered energy poor. This approach was applied using cross-sectional data from a comprehensive 2004 household survey representative of rural Bangladesh. The findings suggest that some 58 percent of rural households in Bangladesh are energy poor, versus 45 percent that are income poor. The findings also suggest that policies to support rural electrification and greater use of improved biomass stoves might play a significant role in reducing energy poverty.

‣ Energy and Poverty Reduction : Proceedings from a Multi-Sector and Multi-Stakeholder Workshop - How Can Modern Energy Services Contribute to Poverty Reduction?

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
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This report summarizes the proceedings from a workshop, the first in the region designed to foster a multi-sectoral approach to development energy services for poverty reduction, held at the Hilton Hotel in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, October 23-25, 2002. It was co-organized by the World Bank-UNDP sponsored Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) and the World Bank Africa Energy Unit, and others. The report focuses on the key issues raised in the presentations and discussions which were structured around the following three themes: (a) Understanding the Energy-Poverty situation in the different countries as reflected in the Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPs) of each country and clarified by the Ministers and country delegates; (b) Understanding the role of Energy in meeting priority objectives in the social and economic sectors of health, education, water, agriculture and development of small to medium enterprises (SMEs); and (c) Designing appropriate response initiatives in the form of draft country action plans outlining the priority energy interventions required to enhance the effectiveness of poverty reduction strategies.

‣ Are We Confusing Poverty with Preferences?

van den Boom, Bart; Halsema, Alex; Molini, Vasco
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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Modifying the national poverty line to the context of observed consumption patterns of the poor is becoming popular. A context-specific poverty line would be more consistent with preferences. This paper provides theoretical and empirical evidence that the contrary holds and that the national poverty line is more appropriate for comparing living standards among the poor, at least under prevailing conditions in Mozambique and Ghana. The problem lies in the risk of downscaling the burden associated with cheap-calorie diets and the low nonfood component of the rural poor. The paper illustrates how observed behavior may neither reveal preferences nor detect heterogeneous preferences among the poor. Rather, the consumption pattern is the upshot of the poverty condition itself. Poverty is confused with preferences if observed cheap-calorie diets are seen as a matter of taste, whereas in fact they reflect a lack of means to consume a preferred diet of higher quality, as food Engel curve estimates indicate. Likewise, a smaller nonfood component is not a matter of a particular distaste...

‣ Household Energy for Cooking

Ekouevi, Koffi
Fonte: World Bank Group, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank Group, Washington, DC
Tipo: Trabalho em Andamento
Português
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Reliance on solid fuels for cooking is an indicator of energy poverty. Access to modern energy services - including electricity and clean fuels - is important for achieving the Millennium Development Goals. It can also reduce womens domestic burden of collecting fuelwood and allow them to pursue educational, economic, and other employment opportunities that can empower them and lead to increased gender equality. Similarly, the use of clean cooking and heating fuels in efficient appliances can reduce child mortality rates. Without access to modern energy services, the likelihood of escaping poverty is very low. Interventions to improve energy access to the poor have focused mainly on electricity access and have often neglected nonelectricity household energy access. Household energy for cooking in particular has received little policy attention in the overall energy sector dialogue, and consequently its lending volume remains low, in spite of the magnitude of the development challenges it represents. The objective of this note is to assist task teams with broad project design principles related to household energy for cooking. It follows five main reports produced by the World Bank Group over the last three years: (1) Household Cookstoves...

‣ Energy and poverty: A proposal to harness international law to advance universal access to modern energy services

Bradbrook, A.; Gardam, J.
Fonte: T.M.C. Asser Press Publicador: T.M.C. Asser Press
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2010 Português
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Although the Millennium Development Goals, declared by the General Assembly in the Millennium Declaration in 2000, do not refer specifically to energy, in reality none of the goals can be attained without universal access to modern energy services. Recent reports from the United Nations have drawn attention to the link between energy and poverty, and have shown that the access to modern energy services is essential for lifting peoples out of poverty and fundamentally improving their quality of life on an everyday basis.This article examines the nature and magnitude of the situation in less developed states lacking universal access to modern energy services and considers the current, limited national and international law in this area. The article then argues that it is international law that must play the major role in ensuring that universal access to energy services is realized. It considers what type of international instrument might best serve the purpose of achieving progress in improving modern energy services for those in poverty. Finally, the article provides a draft of such an instrument, together with an explanatory commentary, as a prototype of the steps that could be taken by the international community to achieve progress in this area if there is sufficient political will.; Adrian J. Bradbrook and Judith G. Gardam

‣ From right to light: a human rights-based approach to universal access to modern energy services.

Solis, Manuel Peter Samonte
Fonte: Universidade de Adelaide Publicador: Universidade de Adelaide
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Publicado em //2015 Português
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The thesis re-introduces the human rights-based approach to achieve universal access to modern energy services to offer an integrated and coherent legal strategy and implementation framework that brings renewable energy technology and rural electrification under the common logic and language of human rights. Although access to modern energy services is indispensable to providing basic needs, eradicating poverty and meeting sustainable development goals, 1.3 billion people remain without access to electricity and 2.6 billion people are still without access to clean cooking facilities. Essentially, the challenge lies in how to enhance access to modern energy services, particularly for those who are in impoverished rural areas of the developing world, while achieving universal coverage and sustainable development at the same time. In response, the United Nations called the world’s attention to this challenge and launched the ‘Sustainable Energy for All’ initiative that focuses on three interlinked objectives: 1) enhancing universal access to modern energy services; 2) improving the rate of energy efficiency; and 3) increasing renewable energy use. Beyond catalysing global awareness, however, the critical stage of turning the vision into reality with concrete commitments to action beckons. The imperative of developing a coherent and appropriate legal response is vital to advancing international and national development agenda and goals. For this reason...

‣ Brazil : How Do the Peri-urban Poor Meet their Energy Needs - A Case Study of Caju Shantytown, Rio de Janeiro

World Bank
Fonte: Washington, DC Publicador: Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The phenomenon of poverty has traditionally been measured based on the individual's income. However, more recently, the debate over poverty has evolved beyond income or lack of it. The condition in which people have access to basic civil rights, such as an adequate energy supply, is nowadays considered an important marker of poverty. This study proposes to analyze energy poverty in the shantytowns of Rio de Janeiro. The authors aim is to suggest public policies that can, with support from electric utilities, contribute to improving the living conditions of the shantytown inhabitants. The study was carried out using both quantitative and qualitative data.

‣ Energy Access and Productive Uses for the Urban Poor : Final Report on Ghana Scoping Study

The Energy and Resources Institute
Fonte: World Bank, Washington, DC Publicador: World Bank, Washington, DC
Tipo: Publications & Research :: ESMAP Paper; Publications & Research
Português
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The aim of the scoping study was to gain an understanding of the productive activities slum dwellers engage in that rely on energy services and the potentials and challenges of slums in Ghana regarding access to modern energy services and income generation from productive activities. The objective of the ESMED-EAfUP (Energy Sector Management Assistance Program - ESMAP/SME Development - Energy Access for the Urban Poor) programme is 'to create and sustain a network of energy practitioners to support development of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) as users and providers of modern energy services for slum upgrading programs.'. Using ability to adopt safer and modern energy forms as a criterion in assessing the effective deployment of safer and modern energy forms, the study concluded that the high propensity to save is an opportunity for their deployment if they can be sensitized about the benefits of using modern energy forms, which many of the slum dwellers are not aware of. Most enterprise owners could also capitalize on the credit policies of the financial institutions they saved with to adopt the modern energy forms. Lack of education and limited awareness about the benefits of using clean...

‣ One Goal, Two Paths : Achieving Universal Access to Modern Energy in East Asia and the Pacific

World Bank
Fonte: World Bank Publicador: World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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The purpose of the current flagship report is to address energy access and related developmental issues in East Asia Pacific (EAP) that so far have received less attention compared to the macro energy issues of climate change and reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. EAP countries have two steep paths to climb to achieve universal access to modern energy: electricity and modern cooking solutions. Approximately 170 million people, or 34 million households, in EAP countries do not have electricity connections in their homes. This number is equivalent to approximately 9 percent of the Region's total population, and 30 percent of the Region's population excluding China. Moreover, approximately 6 times that number, or over 1 billion people, still lack access to modern cooking solutions. In addition, EAP is exceeded by only Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia in the number of people who lack access to electricity. However, access to both electricity and modern cooking solutions is essential to address the enduring impacts of poverty and to move the poor onto a rising development trajectory. The link between access to modern energy and development is most clearly defined by the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). The MDGs were formulated to reduce global poverty while increasing education...

‣ Energy Policies and Multitopic Household Surveys : Guidelines for Questionnaire Design in Living Standards Measurement Studies

O'Sullivan, Kyran; Barnes, Douglas F.
Fonte: Washington, DC : World Bank Publicador: Washington, DC : World Bank
Tipo: Publications & Research :: Publication; Publications & Research :: Publication
Português
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Analysis using data on household energy use from Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) surveys can help policymakers to identify which households are affected by energy poverty and then design policies that will accelerate the household energy transition. This paper shows that LSMS can provide accurate data on household energy use, combined with other data on household wellbeing (including consumption, income, health, and education), to monitor the progress in the household energy transition from traditional biomass fuels to modern fuels and electricity and to evaluate the effect of government energy policies on living conditions.

‣ Republic of Mali; Priorities for Ending Poverty and Boosting Shared Prosperity

World Bank Group
Fonte: Banco Mundial Publicador: Banco Mundial
Tipo: Report; Country Focus :: Country Assistance Strategy Document
Português
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This document presents the Systematic Country Diagnosis (SCD) for Mali. The SCD was prepared following a consultative process within and outside the World Bank. It identifies constraints and opportunities for achieving the twin goals of ending poverty and improving shared prosperity by 2030 while acknowledging (i) the need for selectivity in pro-poor interventions, and (ii) the many competing ‘binding’ reasons for poverty in Mali. The objectives of the twin goals are similar for Mali as the incidence of dollar-a-day poverty exceeds 40 percent of the population. Selectivity means the identification of principal opportunities for poverty reduction in the next 15 years, as well as the identification of binding constraints to reaping such opportunities. In the search for selectivity, there is the risk of not identifying the correct set of opportunities and constraints. However, the risk of not being selective would probably have more serious implications as it could lead the government and its development partners to disperse their resources and attention too thinly over too many competing priorities. Selectivity also implies making trade-offs between immediate and longer term objectives. In this document priority is given to the identification of poverty reduction opportunities which could deliver results before 2030...

‣ Energy for Sustainable Development – An Assessment of the Energy-Poverty-Development Nexus

Nussbaumer, Patrick; Patt, Anthony
Fonte: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Publicador: [Barcelona] : Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,
Tipo: Tesis i dissertacions electròniques; info:eu-repo/semantics/doctoralThesis; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //2012 Português
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La energía es un elemento fundamental para muchos aspectos del desarrollo socioeconómico. Los servicios que la mayoría de las personas en los países industrializados dan garantizados - iluminación adecuada, energía limpia para calefacción y cocina, telecomunicaciones, fuerza motriz y ocio - están fuera del alcance en gran parte de la población mundial. La falta de acceso a servicios energéticos confiables y asequibles representa un claro obstáculo para el desarrollo humano, social, económico y para el logro de los Objetivos de Desarrollo del Milenio. Constituyendo actualmente un hecho inaceptable e insostenible, la pobreza energética representa una cruda realidad que junto a otros problemas globales debe ser tratada de manera urgente. A pesar de los importantes esfuerzos realizados por las instituciones y los gobiernos locales, las entidades públicas y las organizaciones internacionales, la tendencia indica que el número total de pobres en términos de acceso a la energía aumente en las próximas décadas, a menos de que se inicien de forma inmediata acciones adicionales orientadas a evitar ese incremento. En este sentido, la historia ha demostrado que es posible lograr un significativo avance en acceso energetico en un corto espacio de tiempo. Este hecho se ha producido recientemente en varios países asiáticos (por ejemplo...

‣ Implications of “Energy Poverty “of the poor in India

Kumar, Rajeev
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Masters' project
Publicado em 28/04/2011 Português
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580.1776%
This master’s project examines the concept of energy poverty on micro level sample survey data collected from Indian households between November 2004 and October 2005. Energy poverty refers to the lack of access of poorer households’ to sufficient volumes of efficient means of energy for their daily use. Using statistical analysis, the study identifies variables that can explain energy poverty of households – i.e. are statistically significant in a model of energy poverty. It uses data collected by a Living Standards Measurement Study (LSMS) called Indian Human Development Survey (IHDS) 2005 contains information on levels of living, poverty and inequality in Indian households from direct interview questionnaires. This survey was designed and implemented by the University of Maryland in collaboration with the National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER), New Delhi. I model fuel type choice as a function of household consumption (as proxy for income), education level of adult female and male members, poverty, household size and place of residence. Consumption data is significant in defining choice of fuel type. Factors like education, place of living and household size are statistically significant in modifying the choices. The models conclude that use of polluting fuels is more prevalent in poorer households...

‣ Negotiating the labyrinth of modernity's promise: a paradigm analysis of energy poverty in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana

Odarno, Lily Ameley
Fonte: University of Delaware Publicador: University of Delaware
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado
Português
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Byrne, John; Energy poverty in developing countries has been conventionally attributed to a lack of access to sufficient, sustainable and modern forms of energy (ESMAP 2001; Modi et al. 2006). Per this definition, Sub-Saharan Africa is the most energy poor region in the world today. In line with this, efforts at addressing energy poverty in the region have concentrated on the expansion of access to modern energy sources, particularly electricity. In spite of the implementation of diverse energy development interventions, access to modern energy services remains limited. That energy poverty remains one of the most pressing challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa today in spite of the many decades of energy development necessitates a candid and thorough re-evaluation of the questions that have been traditionally asked about this issue and the solutions that have been offered in response to it. Based on theoretical analyses and empirical studies in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana, this study attempts to offer some of the much needed re-evaluations. Using Kuhn's paradigm approach as a conceptual tool, this dissertation identifies peri-urban energy poverty as a paradigm-scale conflict in the modern arrangement of energy-development relations. By emphasizing the importance of context and political economy in understanding energy poverty...

‣ What contribution does the installation of solar water heaters make towards the alleviation of energy poverty in South Africa?

Wlokas,Holle Linnea
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
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The South African government has publicized plans to install one million solar water heaters in households throughout South Africa by the year 2014, with the goals of reducing strain on existing electricity resources, mitigating greenhouse gas emissions, creating employment and alleviating poverty. This paper examines two existing solar water heater installation projects with the aim of investigating the social contribution of the installation of solar water heaters in low-income households in South Africa. The Sustainable Urban Livelihoods approach (SULA) was adjusted to provide an analytical framework for the development of suitable indicators of social change in the context of renewable energies and energy poverty. Increases in household capital and the reduction of household vulnerability to shocks, stressors and seasonal variability as the result of solar water heater installation were investigated in projects in low-income housing developments in the cities of Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Data collected from paired household surveys (before and after installation) in over 600 households and qualitative information (Most Significant Change stories) show that the provision of a constant, cheap source of heated water contributed positively to the alleviation of energy poverty. Household capitals (categorised as Human...

‣ Renewable energy, poverty alleviation and developing nations: Evidence from Senegal

Thiam,Djiby Racine
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2011 Português
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The desire to increase energy access remains a strong driving force for poverty alleviation in rural areas of developing countries. The supply of modern energy facilitates the improvement of human living conditions and the productivity of sectors. It also contributes by reducing the time spent, mainly for women and children, in collecting biomass and therefore can provide an opportunity for an increase in the education level of children and for women empowerment. This paper shows how renewable energy facilitates the improvement of the standard of living in a Sahelian developing country of Senegal. Using a life-cycle-cost approach while integrating an assessment of the environmental externalities, I argue that in remote rural areas where grid-connection is non-existent, photovoltaic (PV) renewable technologies provide suitable solutions for delivering energy services although wind technology has been considered as well. In this framework, policies promoting the adoption of clean technologies in developing nations like Senegal could be considered as being the main components on the agenda of poverty reduction.

‣ Determinants of energy poverty in South Africa

Ismail,Zaakirah; Khembo,Patrick
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/08/2015 Português
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This paper provides empirical evidence on the determinants of energy poverty in South African households using the National Income Dynamics Survey (NIDS, 2012), while controlling for individual, household and demographic characteristics. This is formulated within a logistic regression framework, while defining energy poverty using the expenditure approach consistent with the definition by the Department of Energy (DoE) of South Africa. The model reveals that household expenditure patterns, race, education level, household and dwelling size, location of the household and access to electricity are important factors in explaining the state of energy in South African households. This paper also discusses limitations in defining energy poverty using the expenditure approach. Finally, some recommendations are made for regulators and policy makers.

‣ Good for people can be good for business: The convergence of opportunities for delivering basic energy to low-income households in developing countries

Balmer,Marlett; Hancock,David
Fonte: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa Publicador: Journal of Energy in Southern Africa
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica Formato: text/html
Publicado em 01/01/2009 Português
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Energy poverty affects more than 40% of the world's population. Fuels and appliances used by low-income groups have been of low-quality, expensive, non-durable and have posed serious health and safety risks to users. Energy transition theories, most noteably the energy ladder model, have postulated a gradual but complete move away from traditional, mostly biomass energy sources towards modern energy sources. Evidence however, increasingly indicates that the process did not happen as anticipated. This paper argues that energy transition from biomass fuels to full electricity use will not take place in SADC countries due to economic circumstances, increases in commercial fuel prices and the deficit in power generation capacity in the region. It further argues that wood fuel, traditionally regarded as a lower order fuel, is actually a renewable energy source that can meet the energy needs of rural people sustainably, if managed correctly. The paper suggests a re-evaluation of the value of wood fuel - from a low value fuel associated with poverty and degradation to a high value, renewable energy fuel, supplying much needed energy in a potentially sustainable manner. The paper outlines a convergence of a number of external conditions and opportunities which may alter household energy supply...