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‣ Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone (SIADH) Secretion Caused by Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx: Case Report

Yoo, Minwook; Bediako, Evelyn Oteng; Akca, Ozan
Fonte: Korean Society of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Publicador: Korean Society of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The Paraneoplastic syndromes include the disorders that accompany benign or malignant tumors but are not directly related to mass effects or invasion by the primary tumor or its metastases. Neoplastic cells can produce a variety of peptides that exert biologic actions at local and distant sites and can elicit responses that cause a variety of hormonal, hematologic, dermatologic and neurologic symptoms. Almost every type of malignancy has the potential to produce hormones or cytokines or to induce immunologic responses. Lung cancers, both non-small cell and small cell, are capable of producing a variety of paraneoplastic syndromes. The majority of such syndromes are caused by small cell carcinomas, including many endocrinopathies. Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (SIADH) has been commonly associated with small cell carcinoma and is often seen in these patients. However, SIADH associated with squamous cell carcinoma has rarely been reported on, and the mechanism for this rare association is still unknown. We present here a case of a 77-yr-old man who developed SIADH caused by squamous cell carcinoma of the nasopharynx.

‣ Survey of Activated FLT3 Signaling in Leukemia

Gu, Ting-lei; Nardone, Julie; Loriaux, Marc; Tucker, Meghan; Kornhauser, Jon; Ren, Jianmin; MacNeill, Joan; Druker, Brian J.; Heinrich, Michael C.; Rush, John; Polakiewicz, Roberto D.; Villén, Judit; Gygi, Steven P.; Beausoleil, Sean A; Wang, Yi
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Activating mutations of FMS-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) are found in approximately 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). FLT3 is therefore an attractive drug target. However, the molecular mechanisms by which FLT3 mutations lead to cell transformation in AML remain unclear. To develop a better understanding of FLT3 signaling as well as its downstream effectors, we performed detailed phosphoproteomic analysis of FLT3 signaling in human leukemia cells. We identified over 1000 tyrosine phosphorylation sites from about 750 proteins in both AML (wild type and mutant FLT3) and B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (normal and amplification of FLT3) cell lines. Furthermore, using stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture (SILAC), we were able to quantified over 400 phosphorylation sites (pTyr, pSer, and pThr) that were responsive to FLT3 inhibition in FLT3 driven human leukemia cell lines. We also extended this phosphoproteomic analysis on bone marrow from primary AML patient samples, and identify over 200 tyrosine and 800 serine/threonine phosphorylation sites in vivo. This study showed that oncogenic FLT3 regulates proteins involving diverse cellular processes and affects multiple signaling pathways in human leukemia that we previously appreciated...

‣ SALL4, a Stem Cell Factor, Affects the Side Population by Regulation of the ATP-Binding Cassette Drug Transport Genes

Cui, Wei; Lu, Jiayun; He, Jie; Guo, Ye; Liu, Bee H.; Jeong, Ha-Won; Yang, Yang; Li, Lingling; Song, David; Chai, Li
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Our previous work shows that the stem cell factor SALL4 plays a central role in embryonic and leukemic stem cells. In this study, we report that SALL4 expression was higher in drug resistant primary acute myeloid leukemic patients than those from drug-responsive cases. In addition, while overexpression of SALL4 led to drug resistance in cell lines, cells with decreased SALL4 expression were more sensitive to drug treatments than the parental cells. This led to our investigation of the implication of SALL4 in drug resistance and its role in side population (SP) cancer stem cells. SALL4 expression was higher in SP cells compared to non-SP cells by 2–4 fold in various malignant hematopoietic cell lines. Knocking down of SALL4 in isolated SP cells resulted in a reduction of SP cells, indicating that SALL4 is required for their self-renewal. The SP phenotype is known to be mediated by members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transport protein family, such as ABCG2 and ABCA3. Using chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP), quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay(EMSA), we demonstrated that SALL4 was able to bind to the promoter region of ABCA3 and activate its expression while regulating the expression of ABCG2 indirectly. Furthermore...

‣ Icariside II Induces Apoptosis in U937 Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells: Role of Inactivation of STAT3-Related Signaling

Kang, Sang-Hun; Jeong, Soo-Jin; Kim, Sun-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Koh, Wonil; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Jung, Ji Hoon; Kim, Jung Hyo; Kim, Dae Keun; Chen, Chang-Yan
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: The aim of this study is to determine anti-cancer effect of Icariside II purified from the root of Epimedium koreanum Nakai on human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell line U937. Methodology/Principal Findings Icariside II blocked the growth U937 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In this anti-proliferation process, this herb compound rendered the cells susceptible to apoptosis, manifested by enhanced accumulation of sub-G1 cell population and increased the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells. Icariside II was able to activate caspase-3 and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) in a time-dependent manner. Concurrently, the anti-apoptotic proteins, such as bcl-xL and survivin in U937 cells, were downregulated by Icariside II. In addition, Icariside II could inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation and function and subsequently suppress the activation of Janus activated kinase 2 (JAK2), the upstream activators of STAT3, in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Icariside II also enhanced the expression of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) SH2 domain-containing phosphatase (SHP)-1, and the addition of sodium pervanadate (a PTP inhibitor) prevented Icariside II-induced apoptosis as well as STAT3 inactivation in STAT3 positive U937 cells. Furthermore...

‣ Rapamycin Inhibits Proliferation of Hemangioma Endothelial Cells by Reducing HIF-1-Dependent Expression of VEGF

Medici, Damian; Olsen, Bjorn Reino
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Hemangiomas are tumors formed by hyper-proliferation of vascular endothelial cells. This is caused by elevated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling through VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2). Here we show that elevated VEGF levels produced by hemangioma endothelial cells are reduced by the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin. mTOR activates p70S6K, which controls translation of mRNA to generate proteins such as hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1). VEGF is a known HIF-1 target gene, and our data show that VEGF levels in hemangioma endothelial cells are reduced by HIF-1α siRNA. Over-expression of HIF-1α increases VEGF levels and endothelial cell proliferation. Furthermore, both rapamycin and HIF-1α siRNA reduce proliferation of hemangioma endothelial cells. These data suggest that mTOR and HIF-1 contribute to hemangioma endothelial cell proliferation by stimulating an autocrine loop of VEGF signaling. Furthermore, mTOR and HIF-1 may be therapeutic targets for the treatment of hemangiomas.

‣ Induction of Histiocytic Sarcoma in Mouse Skeletal Muscle

Liu, Jianing; Hettmer, Simone; Milsom, Michael D.; Hofmann, Inga; Hua, Frederic; Miller, Christine; Bronson, Roderick Terry; Wagers, Amy Jo
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Myeloid sarcomas are extramedullary accumulations of immature myeloid cells that may present with or without evidence of pathologic involvement of the bone marrow or peripheral blood, and often coincide with or precede a diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). A dearth of experimental models has hampered the study of myeloid sarcomas and led us to establish a new system in which tumor induction can be evaluated in an easily accessible non-hematopoietic tissue compartment. Using ex-vivo transduction of oncogenic Kras(G12V) into p16/p19−/− bone marrow cells, we generated transplantable leukemia-initiating cells that rapidly induced tumor formation in the skeletal muscle of immunocompromised NOD.SCID mice. In this model, murine histiocytic sarcomas, equivalent to human myeloid sarcomas, emerged at the injection site 30–50 days after cell implantation and consisted of tightly packed monotypic cells that were CD48+, CD47+ and Mac1+, with low or absent expression of other hematopoietic lineage markers. Tumor cells also infiltrated the bone marrow, spleen and other non-hematopoietic organs of tumor-bearing animals, leading to systemic illness (leukemia) within two weeks of tumor detection. P16/p19−/−; Kras(G12V) myeloid sarcomas were multi-clonal...

‣ Human Anti-CCR4 Minibody Gene Transfer for the Treatment of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

Han, Thomas K; Abdel-Motal, Ussama M.; Chang, De-Kuan; Sui, Jianhua; Muvaffak, Asli; Campbell, James J.; Zhu, Quan Karen; Kupper, Thomas Seth; Marasco, Wayne A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: Although several therapeutic options have become available for patients with Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma (CTCL), no therapy has been curative. Recent studies have demonstrated that CTCL cells overexpress the CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4). Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, a xenograft model of CTCL was established and a recombinant adeno-associated viral serotype 8 (AAV8) vector expressing a humanized single-chain variable fragment (scFv)-Fc fusion (scFvFc or “minibody”) of anti-CCR4 monoclonal antibody (mAb) h1567 was evaluated for curative treatment. Human CCR4+ tumor-bearing mice treated once with intravenous infusion of AAV8 virions encoding the h1567 (AAV8-h1567) minibody showed anti-tumor activity in vivo and increased survival. The AAV8-h1567 minibody notably increased the number of tumor-infiltrating Ly-6G+ FcγRIIIa(CD16A)+ murine neutrophils in the tumor xenografts over that of AAV8-control minibody treated mice. Furthermore, in CCR4+ tumor-bearing mice co-treated with AAV8-h1567 minibody and infused with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), marked tumor infiltration of human CD16A+ CD56+ NK cells was observed. The h1567 minibody also induced in vitro ADCC activity through both mouse neutrophils and human NK cells. Conclusions/Significance: Overall...

‣ Selective Akt Inhibitors Synergize with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors and Effectively Override Stroma-Associated Cytoprotection of Mutant FLT3-Positive AML Cells

Weisberg, Ellen; Liu, Qingsong; Zhang, Xin; Nelson, Erik; Sattler, Martin; Liu, Feiyang; Nicolais, Maria; Zhang, Jianming; Mitsiades, Constantine S; Smith, Robert Walsh; Stone, Richard; Galinsky, Ilene; Nonami, Atsushi; Griffin, James D.; Gray, Nathanael
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Objectives: Tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI)-treated acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients commonly show rapid and significant peripheral blood blast cell reduction, however a marginal decrease in bone marrow blasts. This suggests a protective environment and highlights the demand for a better understanding of stromal:leukemia cell communication. As a strategy to improve clinical efficacy, we searched for novel agents capable of potentiating the stroma-diminished effects of TKI treatment of mutant FLT3-expressing cells. Methods: We designed a combinatorial high throughput drug screen using well-characterized kinase inhibitor-focused libraries to identify novel kinase inhibitors capable of overriding stromal-mediated resistance to TKIs, such as PKC412 and AC220. Standard liquid culture proliferation assays, cell cycle and apoptosis analysis, and immunoblotting were carried out with cell lines or primary AML to validate putative candidates from the screen and characterize the mechanism(s) underlying observed synergy. Results and Conclusions Our study led to the observation of synergy between selective Akt inhibitors and FLT3 inhibitors against mutant FLT3-positive AML in either the absence or presence of stroma. Our findings are consistent with evidence that Akt activation is characteristic of mutant FLT3-transformed cells...

‣ A Pan-Cancer Analysis of Transcriptome Changes Associated with Somatic Mutations in U2AF1 Reveals Commonly Altered Splicing Events

Brooks, Angela N.; Choi, Peter S.; de Waal, Luc; Sharifnia, Tanaz; Imielinski, Marcin; Saksena, Gordon; Pedamallu, Chandra Sekhar; Sivachenko, Andrey; Rosenberg, Mara; Chmielecki, Juliann; Lawrence, Michael S.; DeLuca, David S.; Getz, Gad; Meyerson, Matth
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Although recurrent somatic mutations in the splicing factor U2AF1 (also known as U2AF35) have been identified in multiple cancer types, the effects of these mutations on the cancer transcriptome have yet to be fully elucidated. Here, we identified splicing alterations associated with U2AF1 mutations across distinct cancers using DNA and RNA sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Using RNA-Seq data from 182 lung adenocarcinomas and 167 acute myeloid leukemias (AML), in which U2AF1 is somatically mutated in 3–4% of cases, we identified 131 and 369 splicing alterations, respectively, that were significantly associated with U2AF1 mutation. Of these, 30 splicing alterations were statistically significant in both lung adenocarcinoma and AML, including three genes in the Cancer Gene Census, CTNNB1, CHCHD7, and PICALM. Cell line experiments expressing U2AF1 S34F in HeLa cells and in 293T cells provide further support that these altered splicing events are caused by U2AF1 mutation. Consistent with the function of U2AF1 in 3′ splice site recognition, we found that S34F/Y mutations cause preferences for CAG over UAG 3′ splice site sequences. This report demonstrates consistent effects of U2AF1 mutation on splicing in distinct cancer cell types.

‣ Impact of Chemotherapy for HIV-1 Related Lymphoma on Residual Viremia and Cellular HIV-1 DNA in Patients on Suppressive Antiretroviral Therapy

Cillo, Anthony R.; Krishnan, Supriya; McMahon, Deborah K.; Mitsuyasu, Ronald T.; Para, Michael F.; Mellors, John W.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The first cure of HIV-1 infection was achieved through complex, multimodal therapy including myeloablative chemotherapy, total body irradiation, anti-thymocyte globulin, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation with a CCR5 delta32 homozygous donor. The contributions of each component of this therapy to HIV-1 eradication are unclear. To assess the impact of cytotoxic chemotherapy alone on HIV-1 persistence, we longitudinally evaluated low-level plasma viremia and HIV-1 DNA in PBMC from patients in the ACTG A5001/ALLRT cohort on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) who underwent chemotherapy for HIV-1 related lymphoma without interrupting ART. Plasma HIV-1 RNA, total HIV-1 DNA and 2-LTR circles (2-LTRs) in PBMC were measured using sensitive qPCR assays. In the 9 patients who received moderately intensive chemotherapy for HIV-1 related lymphoma with uninterrupted ART, low-level plasma HIV-1 RNA did not change significantly with chemotherapy: median HIV-1 RNA was 1 copy/mL (interquartile range: 1.0 to 20) pre-chemotherapy versus 4 copies/mL (interquartile range: 1.0 to 7.0) post-chemotherapy. HIV-1 DNA levels also did not change significantly, with median pre-chemotherapy HIV-1 DNA of 355 copies/106 CD4+ cells versus 228 copies/106 CD4+ cells post-chemotherapy. 2-LTRs were detectable in 2 of 9 patients pre-chemotherapy and in 3 of 9 patients post-chemotherapy. In summary...

‣ Cationic Peptide Exposure Enhances Pulsed-Electric-Field-Mediated Membrane Disruption

Kennedy, Stephen M.; Aiken, Erik J.; Beres, Kaytlyn A.; Hahn, Adam R.; Kamin, Samantha J.; Hagness, Susan C.; Booske, John H.; Murphy, William L.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Background: The use of pulsed electric fields (PEFs) to irreversibly electroporate cells is a promising approach for destroying undesirable cells. This approach may gain enhanced applicability if the intensity of the PEF required to electrically disrupt cell membranes can be reduced via exposure to a molecular deliverable. This will be particularly impactful if that reduced PEF minimally influences cells that are not exposed to the deliverable. We hypothesized that the introduction of charged molecules to the cell surfaces would create regions of enhanced transmembrane electric potential in the vicinity of each charged molecule, thereby lowering the PEF intensity required to disrupt the plasma membranes. This study will therefore examine if exposure to cationic peptides can enhance a PEF’s ability to disrupt plasma membranes. Methodology/Principal Findings We exposed leukemia cells to 40 μs PEFs in media containing varying concentrations of a cationic peptide, polyarginine. We observed the internalization of a membrane integrity indicator, propidium iodide (PI), in real time. Based on an individual cell’s PI fluorescence versus time signature, we were able to determine the relative degree of membrane disruption. When using 1–2 kV/cm...

‣ Mutations in UBA3 Confer Resistance to the NEDD8-Activating Enzyme Inhibitor MLN4924 in Human Leukemic Cells

Xu, G. Wei; Toth, Julia I.; da Silva, Sara R.; Paiva, Stacey-Lynn; Lukkarila, Julie L.; Hurren, Rose; Maclean, Neil; Sukhai, Mahadeo A.; Bhattacharjee, Rabindra N.; Goard, Carolyn A.; Gunning, Patrick T.; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Petroski, Matthew D.; Schimme
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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The NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) initiates neddylation, the cascade of post-translational NEDD8 conjugation onto target proteins. MLN4924, a selective NAE inhibitor, has displayed preclinical anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo, and promising clinical activity has been reported in patients with refractory hematologic malignancies. Here, we sought to understand the mechanisms of resistance to MLN4924. K562 and U937 leukemia cells were exposed over a 6 month period to MLN4924 and populations of resistant cells (R-K562MLN, R-U937MLN) were selected. R-K562MLN and R-U937MLN cells contain I310N and Y352H mutations in the NAE catalytic subunit UBA3, respectively. Biochemical analyses indicate that these mutations increase the enzyme’s affinity for ATP while decreasing its affinity for NEDD8. These mutations effectively contribute to decreased MLN4924 potency in vitro while providing for sufficient NAE function for leukemia cell survival. Finally, R-K562MLN cells showed cross-resistance to other NAE-selective inhibitors, but remained sensitive to a pan-E1 (activating enzyme) inhibitor. Thus, our work provides insight into mechanisms of MLN4924 resistance to facilitate the development of more effective second-generation NAE inhibitors.

‣ Loss of Function of TET2 Cooperates with Constitutively Active KIT in Murine and Human Models of Mastocytosis

De Vita, Serena; Schneider, Rebekka K.; Garcia, Michael; Wood, Jenna; Gavillet, Mathilde; Ebert, Benjamin L.; Gerbaulet, Alexander; Roers, Axel; Levine, Ross L.; Mullally, Ann; Williams, David A.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Systemic Mastocytosis (SM) is a clonal disease characterized by abnormal accumulation of mast cells in multiple organs. Clinical presentations of the disease vary widely from indolent to aggressive forms, and to the exceedingly rare mast cell leukemia. Current treatment of aggressive SM and mast cell leukemia is unsatisfactory. An imatinib-resistant activating mutation of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT (KIT D816V) is most frequently present in transformed mast cells and is associated with all clinical forms of the disease. Thus the etiology of the variable clinical aggressiveness of abnormal mast cells in SM is unclear. TET2 appears to be mutated in primary human samples in aggressive types of SM, suggesting a possible role in disease modification. In this report, we demonstrate the cooperation between KIT D816V and loss of function of TET2 in mast cell transformation and demonstrate a more aggressive phenotype in a murine model of SM when both mutations are present in progenitor cells. We exploit these findings to validate a combination treatment strategy targeting the epigenetic deregulation caused by loss of TET2 and the constitutively active KIT receptor for the treatment of patients with aggressive SM.

‣ Establishment of a Humanized APL Model via the Transplantation of PML-RARA-Transduced Human Common Myeloid Progenitors into Immunodeficient Mice

Matsushita, Hiromichi; Yahata, Takashi; Sheng, Yin; Nakamura, Yoshihiko; Muguruma, Yukari; Matsuzawa, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Masayuki; Hayashi, Hideki; Sato, Tadayuki; Damdinsuren, Anar; Onizuka, Makoto; Ito, Mamoru; Miyachi, Hayato; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Ando
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Recent advances in cancer biology have revealed that many malignancies possess a hierarchal system, and leukemic stem cells (LSC) or leukemia-initiating cells (LIC) appear to be obligatory for disease progression. Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia characterized by the formation of a PML-RARα fusion protein, leads to the accumulation of abnormal promyelocytes. In order to understand the precise mechanisms involved in human APL leukemogenesis, we established a humanized in vivo APL model involving retroviral transduction of PML-RARA into CD34+ hematopoietic cells from human cord blood and transplantation of these cells into immunodeficient mice. The leukemia well recapitulated human APL, consisting of leukemic cells with abundant azurophilic abnormal granules in the cytoplasm, which expressed CD13, CD33 and CD117, but not HLA-DR and CD34, were clustered in the same category as human APL samples in the gene expression analysis, and demonstrated sensitivity to ATRA. As seen in human APL, the induced APL cells showed a low transplantation efficiency in the secondary recipients, which was also exhibited in the transplantations that were carried out using the sorted CD34− fraction. In order to analyze the mechanisms underlying APL initiation and development...

‣ Expansion des mégacaryocytes par HoxB4 pour accélérer la reconstitution plaquettaire

Trottier, Jessica
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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La greffe de cellules souches hématopoïétiques est parfois le seul traitement efficace contre les cancers hématologiques ainsi que plusieurs autres désordres reliés au système hématopoïétique. La greffe autologue est souvent le traitement de choix pour les patients atteints de lymphome ou de myélome. Dans ce cas, les cellules souches hématopoïétiques (CSH) du patient sont récoltées et congelées. Le patient subit ensuite des traitements de chimiothérapie et/ou radiothérapie qui éliminent les cellules malignes, mais détruisent aussi son système hématopoïétique. Ce dernier sera ensuite reconstitué par la greffe de CSH. Ces traitements ont pour conséquence de plonger le patient en état d’aplasie pour une période variant de 2 à 4 semaines. La thrombocytopénie (faible taux de plaquettes) est une complication majeure nécessitant des transfusions plaquettaires répétées et associée à une augmentation de la mortalité hémorragique post-transplantation. Il serait particulièrement intéressant de développer une thérapie accélérant la reconstitution des mégacaryocytes (MK), ce qui aurait pour effet de raccourcir la période de thrombopénie et donc de diminuer les besoins transfusionnels en plaquettes et potentiellement augmenter la survie. HOXB4 est un facteur de transcription qui a déjà démontré sa capacité à expandre les CSH et les progéniteurs multipotents (CFU-GEMM) donnant naissance aux MK. Il est donc un bon candidat pour l’expansion des progéniteurs MK. Comme la protéine HoxB4 a par contre une courte demi-vie (~1.1h)...

‣ Aberrant Expression of Functional BAFF-System Receptors by Malignant B-Cell Precursors Impacts Leukemia Cell Survival

Maia, Sara; Pelletier, Marc; Ding, Jixin; Hsu, Yen-Ming; Rao, Sambasiva P.; Cardoso, Angelo A.; Sallan, Stephen Earl; Nadler, Lee Marshall
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Despite exhibiting oncogenic events, patient's leukemia cells are responsive and dependent on signals from their malignant bone marrow (BM) microenvironment, which modulate their survival, cell cycle progression, trafficking and resistance to chemotherapy. Identification of the signaling pathways mediating this leukemia/microenvironment interplay is critical for the development of novel molecular targeted therapies. We observed that primary leukemia B-cell precursors aberrantly express receptors of the BAFF-system, BAFF-R, BCMA, and TACI. These receptors are functional as their ligation triggers activation of NF-kB, MAPK/JNK, and Akt signaling. Leukemia cells express surface BAFF and APRIL ligands, and soluble BAFF is significantly higher in leukemia patients in comparison to age-matched controls. Interestingly, leukemia cells also express surface APRIL, which seems to be encoded by APRIL-\(\delta\), a novel isoform that lacks the furin convertase domain. Importantly, we observed BM microenvironmental cells express the ligands BAFF and APRIL, including surface and secreted BAFF by BM endothelial cells. Functional studies showed that signals through BAFF-system receptors impact the survival and basal proliferation of leukemia B-cell precursors...

‣ Ionizing Particle Radiation as a Modulator of Endogenous Bone Marrow Cell Reprogramming: Implications for Hematological Cancers

Muralidharan, Sujatha; Sasi, Sharath P.; Zuriaga, Maria A.; Hirschi, Karen K.; Porada, Christopher D.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Walsh, Kenneth X.; Yan, Xinhua; Goukassian, David A.
Fonte: Frontiers Media S.A. Publicador: Frontiers Media S.A.
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 14/10/2015 Português
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Exposure of individuals to ionizing radiation (IR), as in the case of astronauts exploring space or radiotherapy cancer patients, increases their risk of developing secondary cancers and other health-related problems. Bone marrow (BM), the site in the body where hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and differentiation to mature blood cells occurs, is extremely sensitive to low-dose IR, including irradiation by high-charge and high-energy particles. Low-dose IR induces DNA damage and persistent oxidative stress in the BM hematopoietic cells. Inefficient DNA repair processes in HSC and early hematopoietic progenitors can lead to an accumulation of mutations whereas long-lasting oxidative stress can impair hematopoiesis itself, thereby causing long-term damage to hematopoietic cells in the BM niche. We report here that low-dose 1H- and 56Fe-IR significantly decreased the hematopoietic early and late multipotent progenitor (E- and L-MPP, respectively) cell numbers in mouse BM over a period of up to 10 months after exposure. Both 1H- and 56Fe-IR increased the expression of pluripotent stem cell markers Sox2, Nanog, and Oct4 in L-MPPs and 10 months post-IR exposure. We postulate that low doses of 1H- and 56Fe-IR may induce endogenous cellular reprogramming of BM hematopoietic progenitor cells to assume a more primitive pluripotent phenotype and that IR-induced oxidative DNA damage may lead to mutations in these BM progenitors. This could then be propagated to successive cell lineages. Persistent impairment of BM progenitor cell populations can disrupt hematopoietic homeostasis and lead to hematologic disorders...

‣ Genetic Variation in DNA Repair Pathways and Risk of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma

Rendleman, Justin; Antipin, Yevgeniy; Reva, Boris; Adaniel, Christina; Przybylo, Jennifer A.; Dutra-Clarke, Ana; Hansen, Nichole; Heguy, Adriana; Huberman, Kety; Borsu, Laetitia; Paltiel, Ora; Ben-Yehuda, Dina; Brown, Jennifer R.; Freedman, Arnold S.; San
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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Molecular and genetic evidence suggests that DNA repair pathways may contribute to lymphoma susceptibility. Several studies have examined the association of DNA repair genes with lymphoma risk, but the findings from these reports have been inconsistent. Here we provide the results of a focused analysis of genetic variation in DNA repair genes and their association with the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). With a population of 1,297 NHL cases and 1,946 controls, we have performed a two-stage case/control association analysis of 446 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tagging the genetic variation in 81 DNA repair genes. We found the most significant association with NHL risk in the ATM locus for rs227060 (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.13–1.43, p = 6.77×10−5), which remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing. In a subtype-specific analysis, associations were also observed for the ATM locus among both diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) and small lymphocytic lymphomas (SLL), however there was no association observed among follicular lymphomas (FL). In addition, our study provides suggestive evidence of an interaction between SNPs in MRE11A and NBS1 associated with NHL risk (OR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.34–0.77, p = 0.0002). Finally...