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‣ Determinação da relação entre proliferação celular, atividade metabólica e estágios da gestação e estabelecimento da ploidia e do ciclo celular em células de placentas bovinas; Relationship among cell proliferation, metabolic activity and days of pregnancy and determination of ploidy and cell cycle in bovine placenta

Carneiro, Patricia dos Santos
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 11/11/2003 Português
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374.7444%
As regiões organizadoras de nucléolos (Nucleolar Organizer Regions - NORs) são regiões de cromatina levemente corada em volta da qual, no final da telófase, o nucléolo é novamente formado após a mitose. Um grupo peculiar de proteínas ácidas que têm alta afinidade por prata são localizadas nos mesmos locais que as NORs, o que confere as mesmas a propriedade de serem clara e rapidamente visualizadas por colorações que utilizam nitrato de prata. As NORs, quando coradas por prata são chamadas de AgNORs. O número de AgNORs está estritamente relacionado com a atividade transcricional do RNAr e com a agilidade e rapidez da proliferação celular. A homeostase celular utiliza-se de mecanismos através dos quais os tecidos de um organismo mantêm-se ou renovam-se, e para que isso ocorra, as células dispõe de dois programas genéticos principais: o ciclo celular e a apoptose. Considerando o crescimento da placenta e consequentemente das células trofoblásticas mono e binucleadas, esse trabalho teve dois principais objetivos: 1. determinar a relação quantitativa entre a proliferação celular e o estágio da gestação através da quantificação das AgNORs utilizadas como marcadores em placentas bovinas, evidenciando a intensa atividade proliferativa e metabólica das células binucleadas e estabelecendo o padrão de normalidade para gestações bovinas; e 2. determinar a ploidia das células do placentônio bovino e...

‣ Reorganização estrutural e metabólica do tecido cardíaco associada à dormência e jejum sazonal em lagartos teiú Tupinambis merianae; Structural and metabolic reorganization of heart tissue associated with seasonal dormancy and fasting in tegu lizards Tupinambis merianae

Silveira, Lilian Cristina da
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 18/02/2011 Português
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375.36477%
O coração é um órgão notável por sua flexibilidade estrutural e metabólica em resposta a variações de demanda. Na dormência sazonal, a interrupção da alimentação, associada à inatividade física e à acentuada redução da frequência cardíaca, ocasiona uma inibição da demanda sobre a função do órgão e, provavelmente, uma reorganização estrutural e metabólica do tecido cardíaco. Estes aspectos foram investigados ao longo do ciclo anual de atividades em lagartos teiú Tupinambis merianae, com o objetivo de examinar as alterações de capacidade funcional cardíaca dadas por ajustes da massa, estrutura e composição do tecido, por regulação do fluxo de substratos energéticos em vias de produção de energia e por mudanças da composição de ácidos graxos dos fosfolipídios das membranas. Grupos de animais jovens foram mortos em diferentes fases do primeiro ciclo anual e após 20 dias de jejum na fase ativa e o ventrículo cardíaco foi removido e pesado. Um fragmento da parede ventricular foi retirado, transferido para fixador e utilizado posteriormente para a confecção de cortes histológicos de 10 μm de espessura que foram analisados utilizando-se método estereológico. O restante do tecido ventricular foi congelado em N2 líquido e conservado em freezer -80 ºC. Os teores de água...

‣ Physiological bases for understanding estrous cycle differences between bos taurus and bos indicus

Sartori, Roberto; Bastos, Michele Ricieri; Mattos, Maria Clara Costa
Fonte: Universidade Estadual Paulista Publicador: Universidade Estadual Paulista
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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371.29465%
Background: Although there is some information in the literature discussing differences of the estrous cycle of Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle, most of the data derive from studies performed in temperate climate countries, under environmental and nutritional conditions very different than those found in tropical countries. Moreover, the physiological basis for understanding the differences between Bos taurus and Bos indicus estrous cycles are still unknown. This review explores the physiological and metabolic bases for understanding the key differences between the Bos taurus and Bos indicus estrous cycle. Moreover, it presents recent results of studies that have directly compared reproductive variables between Zebu and European cattle. Review: The knowledge of reproductive physiology, especially the differences between Bos taurus and Bos indicus, is important for the development and application of different techniques of reproductive management in cattle. In this regard, overall, Bos indicus have a greater number of small ovarian follicles and ovulatory follicles are smaller as compared to Bos taurus. Consequently, Zebu cattle also have smaller corpus luteum (CL). Nevertheless, circulating concentrations of steroid and metabolic hormones are not necessarily higher in European cattle. In fact...

‣ Modulation of TG/(GL+FFA) cycle as a therapeutic strategy to obesity; Modulação do ciclo TG/(GL+FFA) como alvo terapêutico na obesidade

Silva, Maria Helena Almeida Braz da
Fonte: Universidade de Aveiro Publicador: Universidade de Aveiro
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado
Português
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376.3258%
Obesity is one of the leading causes of health care issues all over the world. A large slice of the worldwide population develops co-morbidities as a consequence of this condition, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), atherosclerosis, fatty liver, cardiovascular diseases and even some cancers, conditions that are associated with reduced life expectancy. The inefficiency of current therapies that aim to treat obesity leads to further investigation on novel therapeutic targets for this condition, including modulation of white adipose tissue (WAT). In WAT, glucose and lipid metabolism converge into triglyceride/ glycerol + free fatty acid (TG/ (GL + FFA)) cycle, which is considered a futile cycle since it doesn’t generate products while consuming energy substrates. The decreased activity of this cycle in obesity, decreases substrates oxidation and increases free fatty acids (FFA) storage in WAT. If coupled to increased mitochondrial β-oxidation, modulation of TG/ (GL+FFA) cycling provides an attractive therapeutic target to stimulate fat mobilization and prevent WAT dysfunction. Currently there are no known strategies that simultaneously stimulate both these processes. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) is a bile acid known for its anti-obesity effects; however the mechanism of action is still controversial. CDCA activates both peroxisome proliferator activating receptor (PPAR) α and PPARγ...

‣ Plasmid-Encoded asp Operon Confers a Proton Motive Metabolic Cycle Catalyzed by an Aspartate-Alanine Exchange Reaction

Abe, Keietsu; Ohnishi, Fumito; Yagi, Kyoko; Nakajima, Tasuku; Higuchi, Takeshi; Sano, Motoaki; Machida, Masayuki; Sarker, Rafiquel I.; Maloney, Peter C.
Fonte: American Society for Microbiology Publicador: American Society for Microbiology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /06/2002 Português
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457.9269%
Tetragenococcus halophila D10 catalyzes the decarboxylation of l-aspartate with nearly stoichiometric release of l-alanine and CO2. This trait is encoded on a 25-kb plasmid, pD1. We found in this plasmid a putative asp operon consisting of two genes, which we designated aspD and aspT, encoding an l-aspartate-β-decarboxylase (AspD) and an aspartate-alanine antiporter (AspT), respectively, and determined the nucleotide sequences. The sequence analysis revealed that the genes of the asp operon in pD1 were in the following order: promoter → aspD → aspT. The deduced amino acid sequence of AspD showed similarity to the sequences of two known l-aspartate-β-decarboxylases from Pseudomonas dacunhae and Alcaligenes faecalis. Hydropathy analyses suggested that the aspT gene product encodes a hydrophobic protein with multiple membrane-spanning regions. The operon was subcloned into the Escherichia coli expression vector pTrc99A, and the two genes were cotranscribed in the resulting plasmid, pTrcAsp. Expression of the asp operon in E. coli coincided with appearance of the capacity to catalyze the decarboxylation of aspartate to alanine. Histidine-tagged AspD (AspDHis) was also expressed in E. coli and purified from cell extracts. The purified AspDHis clearly exhibited activity of l-aspartate-β-decarboxylase. Recombinant AspT was solubilized from E. coli membranes and reconstituted in proteoliposomes. The reconstituted AspT catalyzed self-exchange of aspartate and electrogenic heterologous exchange of aspartate with alanine. Thus...

‣ Metabolic cycle, cell cycle, and the finishing kick to Start

Futcher, Bruce
Fonte: BioMed Central Publicador: BioMed Central
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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464.34156%
Two contrasting views of the relation of the metabolic cycle to the cell cycle in budding yeast are compared.

‣ Amino Acid Metabolic Origin as an Evolutionary Influence on Protein Sequence in Yeast

de Bivort, Benjamin L.; Perlstein, Ethan O.; Kunes, Sam; Schreiber, Stuart L.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
371.94125%
The metabolic cycle of Saccharomyces cerevisiae consists of alternating oxidative (respiration) and reductive (glycolysis) energy-yielding reactions. The intracellular concentrations of amino acid precursors generated by these reactions oscillate accordingly, attaining maximal concentration during the middle of their respective yeast metabolic cycle phases. Typically, the amino acids themselves are most abundant at the end of their precursor’s phase. We show that this metabolic cycling has likely biased the amino acid composition of proteins across the S. cerevisiae genome. In particular, we observed that the metabolic source of amino acids is the single most important source of variation in the amino acid compositions of functionally related proteins and that this signal appears only in (facultative) organisms using both oxidative and reductive metabolism. Periodically expressed proteins are enriched for amino acids generated in the preceding phase of the metabolic cycle. Proteins expressed during the oxidative phase contain more glycolysis-derived amino acids, whereas proteins expressed during the reductive phase contain more respiration-derived amino acids. Rare amino acids (e.g., tryptophan) are greatly overrepresented or underrepresented...

‣ Repression of Mitochondrial Translation, Respiration and a Metabolic Cycle-Regulated Gene, SLF1, by the Yeast Pumilio-Family Protein Puf3p

Chatenay-Lapointe, Marc; Shadel, Gerald S.
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 31/05/2011 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
466.2022%
Synthesis and assembly of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system requires genes located both in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, but how gene expression is coordinated between these two compartments is not fully understood. One level of control is through regulated expression mitochondrial ribosomal proteins and other factors required for mitochondrial translation and OXPHOS assembly, which are all products of nuclear genes that are subsequently imported into mitochondria. Interestingly, this cadre of genes in budding yeast has in common a 3′-UTR element that is bound by the Pumilio family protein, Puf3p, and is coordinately regulated under many conditions, including during the yeast metabolic cycle. Multiple functions have been assigned to Puf3p, including promoting mRNA degradation, localizing nucleus-encoded mitochondrial transcripts to the outer mitochondrial membrane, and facilitating mitochondria-cytoskeletal interactions and motility. Here we show that Puf3p has a general repressive effect on mitochondrial OXPHOS abundance, translation, and respiration that does not involve changes in overall mitochondrial biogenesis and largely independent of TORC1-mitochondrial signaling. We also identified the cytoplasmic translation factor Slf1p as yeast metabolic cycle-regulated gene that is repressed by Puf3p at the post-transcriptional level and promotes respiration and extension of yeast chronological life span when over-expressed. Altogether...

‣ Coupling among growth rate response, metabolic cycle, and cell division cycle in yeast

Slavov, Nikolai; Botstein, David
Fonte: The American Society for Cell Biology Publicador: The American Society for Cell Biology
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 15/06/2011 Português
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461.8979%
We discovered that the relative durations of the phases of the yeast metabolic cycle change with the growth rate. These changes can explain mechanistically the transcriptional growth-rate responses of all yeast genes (25% of the genome) that we find to be the same across all studied nutrient limitations in either ethanol or glucose media.

‣ Metabolic cycling without cell division cycling in respiring yeast

Slavov, Nikolai; Macinskas, Joanna; Caudy, Amy; Botstein, David
Fonte: National Academy of Sciences Publicador: National Academy of Sciences
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
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Despite rapid progress in characterizing the yeast metabolic cycle, its connection to the cell division cycle (CDC) has remained unclear. We discovered that a prototrophic batch culture of budding yeast, growing in a phosphate-limited ethanol medium, synchronizes spontaneously and goes through multiple metabolic cycles, whereas the fraction of cells in the G1/G0 phase of the CDC increases monotonically from 90 to 99%. This demonstrates that metabolic cycling does not require cell division cycling and that metabolic synchrony does not require carbon-source limitation. More than 3,000 genes, including most genes annotated to the CDC, were expressed periodically in our batch culture, albeit a mere 10% of the cells divided asynchronously; only a smaller subset of CDC genes correlated with cell division. These results suggest that the yeast metabolic cycle reflects a growth cycle during G1/G0 and explains our previous puzzling observation that genes annotated to the CDC increase in expression at slow growth.

‣ On the Stability of Metabolic Cycles

Reznik, Ed; Segrè, Daniel
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
372.9211%
We investigate the stability properties of two different classes of metabolic cycles using a combination of analytical and computational methods. Using principles from structural kinetic modeling (SKM), we show that the stability of metabolic networks with certain structural regularities can be studied using exclusively analytical techniques. We then apply these technique to a class of single input, single output metabolic cycles, and find that stability is guaranteed under a wide range of conditions. Next, we extend our analysis to a small autocatalytic cycle, and determine parameter regimes within which the cycle is very likely to be stable. We demonstrate that analytical methods can be used to understand the relationship between kinetic parameters and stability, and that results from these analytical methods can be confirmed with computational experiments. In addition, our results suggest that elevated metabolite concentrations and certain crucial saturation parameters can strongly affect the stability of the entire metabolic cycle. We discuss our results in light of the possibility that evolutionary forces may select for metabolic network topologies with a high intrinsic probability of being stable. Furthermore, our conclusions support the hypothesis that certain types of metabolic cycles may have played a role in the development of primitive metabolism despite the absence of regulatory mechanisms.

‣ Physical Activity, Heart Rate, Metabolic Profile, and Estradiol in Premenopausal Women

Ellison, Peter; Andersen, Lars Bo; Jasienska, Grazyna; Emaus, Aina; Thune, Inger; Friedenreich, Christine; Furberg, Anne-Sofie; Veierød, Marti B.; Espetvedt, Sissi
Fonte: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins Publicador: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
372.9211%
Purpose: To study whether physical inactive women with a tendency to develop metabolic syndrome have high levels of 17[beta]-estradiol (E2) of importance for breast cancer risk. Methods: Two hundred and four healthy women of reproductive age were assessed for self-reported leisure-time physical activity (LPA), resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), anthropometry, and serum glucose, lipids, and insulin [Norwegian Energy Balance and Breast Cancer Aspect (EBBA) study]. E2 was measured in daily saliva samples throughout an entire menstrual cycle. A clustered metabolic risk score [z metabolic syndrome (zMS); total cholesterol-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, insulin resistance, total fat tissue, BP, and triglycerides] was defined. Linear regression and linear mixed models were used, and confounding factors were tested. Results: Physically active women had lower fat percentage (Ptrend = 0.003) and HRs (Ptrend = 0.003) than sedentary women. We estimated an increase in E2 of 1.27 pmol[middle dot]L-1 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.06-2.47] for each 11.7 beats[middle dot]min-1 (1 SD) increase in HR, and this corresponds to the 7% change in mean concentration of E2 for the total group. Associations with E2 were also found for fat tissue...

‣ Amino Acid Metabolic Origin as an Evolutionary Influence on Protein Sequence in Yeast

de Bivort, Benjamin Lovegren; Perlstein, Ethan O.; Kunes, Samuel M.; Schreiber, Stuart L.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
575.36477%
The metabolic cycle of Saccharomyces cerevisiae consists of alternating oxidative (respiration) and reductive (glycolysis) energy-yielding reactions. The intracellular concentrations of amino acid precursors generated by these reactions oscillate accordingly, attaining maximal concentration during the middle of their respective yeast metabolic cycle phases. Typically, the amino acids themselves are most abundant at the end of their precursor’s phase. We show that this metabolic cycling has likely biased the amino acid composition of proteins across the S. cerevisiae genome. In particular, we observed that the metabolic source of amino acids is the single most important source of variation in the amino acid compositions of functionally related proteins and that this signal appears only in (facultative) organisms using both oxidative and reductive metabolism. Periodically expressed proteins are enriched for amino acids generated in the preceding phase of the metabolic cycle. Proteins expressed during the oxidative phase contain more glycolysis-derived amino acids, whereas proteins expressed during the reductive phase contain more respiration-derived amino acids. Rare amino acids (e.g., tryptophan) are greatly overrepresented or underrepresented...

‣ Metabolic Profiling Based Quantitative Evaluation of Hepatocellular Metabolism in Presence of Adipocyte Derived Extracellular Matrix

Sharma, Nripen S.; Nagrath, Deepak; Yarmush, Martin Leon
Fonte: Public Library of Science Publicador: Public Library of Science
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
374.38492%
The elucidation of the effect of extracellular matrices on hepatocellular metabolism is critical to understand the mechanism of functional upregulation. We have developed a system using natural extracellular matrices [Adipogel] for enhanced albumin synthesis of rat hepatocyte cultures for a period of 10 days as compared to collagen sandwich cultures. Primary rat hepatocytes isolated from livers of female Lewis rats recover within 4 days of culture from isolation induced injury while function is stabilized at 7 days post-isolation. Thus, the culture period can be classified into three distinct stages viz. recovery stage [day 0 to 4], pre-stable stage [day 5 to 7] and the stable stage [day 8 to 10]. A Metabolic Flux Analysis of primary rat hepatocytes cultured in Adipogel was performed to identify the key metabolic pathways modulated as compared to collagen sandwich cultures. In the recovery stage [day 4], the collagen-soluble Adipogel cultures shows an increase in TriCarboxylic Acid [TCA] cycle fluxes; in the pre-stable stage [day 7], there is an increase in PPP and TCA cycle fluxes while in the stable stage [day 10], there is a significant increase in TCA cycle, urea cycle fluxes and amino acid uptake rates concomitant with increased albumin synthesis rate as compared to collagen sandwich cultures throughout the culture period. Metabolic analysis of the collagen-soluble Adipogel condition reveals significantly higher transamination reaction fluxes...

‣ A conserved cell growth cycle can account for the environmental stress responses of divergent eukaryotes

Slavov, Nikolai; Airoldi, Edoardo Maria; van Oudenaarden, A.; Botstein, D.
Fonte: American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB) Publicador: American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB)
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
579.8832%
The respiratory metabolic cycle in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) consists of two phases most simply defined phenomenologically: low oxygen consumption (LOC) and high oxygen consumption (HOC). Each phase is associated with the periodic expression of thousands of genes, producing oscillating patterns of gene-expression found in synchronized cultures and in single cells of slowly growing unsynchronized cultures. Systematic variation in the durations of the HOC and LOC phases can account quantitatively for well-studied transcriptional responses to growth rate differences. Here we show that a similar mechanism, transitions from the HOC phase to the LOC phase, can account for much of the common environmental stress response (ESR) and for the cross protection by a preliminary heat stress (or slow growth rate) to subsequent lethal heat-stress. Similar to the budding yeast metabolic cycle, we suggest that a metabolic cycle, coupled in a similar way to the ESR, in the distantly related fission yeast, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and in human can explain gene-expression and respiratory patterns observed in these organisms. Although metabolic cycling is associated with the G0/G1 phase of the cell division cycle of slowly growing budding yeast...

‣ Post-transcriptional Regulation Drives Temporal Compartmentalization of the Yeast Metabolic Cycle

Palumbo, Maria Concetta; Farina, Lorenzo; De Santis, Alberto; Giuliani, Alessandro; Colosimo, Alfredo; Morelli, Giorgio; Ruberti, Ida
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 25/07/2007 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
474.7444%
The maintainance of a stable periodicity during the yeast metabolic cycle involving approximately half of the genome requires a very strict and efficient control of gene expression. For this reason, the metabolic cycle is a very good candidate for testing the role of a class of post-transcriptional regulators, the so called PUF-family, whose genome-wide mRNA binding specificity was recently experimentally assessed. Here we show that an integrated computational analysis of gene expression time series during the metabolic cycle and the mRNA binding specificity of PUF-family proteins allow for a clear demonstration of the very specific role exerted by selective post-transcriptional mRNA degradation in yeast metabolic cycle global regulation.; Comment: 13 pages, 4 figures, 1 table

‣ Origin and diversification of a metabolic cycle in oligomer world

Nishio, Tomoaki; Narikiyo, Osamu
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 20/09/2012 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
471.29465%
Based on the oligomer-world hypothesis we propose an abstract model where the molecular recognition among oligomers is described in the shape space. The origin of life in the oligomer world is regarded as the establishment of a metabolic cycle in a primitive cell. The cycle is sustained by the molecular recognition. If an original cell acquires the ability of the replication of oligomers, the relationship among oligomers changes due to the poor fidelity of the replication. This change leads to the diversification of metabolic cycles. The selection among diverse cycles is the basis of the evolution. The evolvability is one of the essential characters of life. We demonstrate the origin and diversification of the metabolic cycle by the computer simulation of our model. Such a simulation is expected to be the simplified demonstration of what actually occurred in the primordial soup. Our model describes an analog era preceding the digital era based on the genetic code.

‣ On the Stability of Metabolic Cycles

Reznik, Ed; Segrè, Daniel
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
372.9211%
We investigate the stability properties of two different classes of metabolic cycles using a combination of analytical and computational methods. Using principles from structural kinetic modeling (SKM), we show that the stability of metabolic networks with certain structural regularities can be studied using a combination of analytical and computational techniques. We then apply these techniques to a class of single input, single output metabolic cycles, and find that the cycles are stable under all conditions tested. Next, we extend our analysis to a small autocatalytic cycle, and determine parameter regimes within which the cycle is very likely to be stable. We demonstrate that analytical methods can be used to understand the relationship between kinetic parameters and stability, and that results from these analytical methods can be confirmed with computational experiments. In addition, our results suggest that elevated metabolite concentrations and certain crucial saturation parameters can strongly affect the stability of the entire metabolic cycle. We discuss our results in light of the possibility that evolutionary forces may select for metabolic network topologies with a high intrinsic probability of being stable. Furthermore...

‣ Extensive regulation of metabolism and growth during the cell division cycle

Slavov, Nikolai; Botstein, David; Caudy, Amy
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 12/06/2014 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
373.089%
Yeast cells grown in culture can spontaneously synchronize their respiration, metabolism, gene expression and cell division. Such metabolic oscillations in synchronized cultures reflect single-cell oscillations, but the relationship between the oscillations in single cells and synchronized cultures is poorly understood. To understand this relationship and the coordination between metabolism and cell division, we collected and analyzed DNA-content, gene-expression and physiological data, at hundreds of time-points, from cultures metabolically-synchronized at different growth rates, carbon sources and biomass densities. The data enabled us to extend and generalize an ensemble-average-over-phases (EAP) model that connects the population-average gene-expression of asynchronous cultures to the gene-expression dynamics in the single-cells comprising the cultures. The extended model explains the carbon-source specific growth-rate responses of hundreds of genes. Our data demonstrate that for a given growth rate, the frequency of metabolic cycling in synchronized cultures increases with the biomass density. This observation underscores the difference between metabolic cycling in synchronized cultures and in single cells and suggests entraining of the single-cell cycle by a quorum-sensing mechanism. Constant levels of residual glucose during the metabolic cycling of synchronized cultures indicate that storage carbohydrates are required to fuel not only the G1/S transition of the division cycle but also the metabolic cycle. Despite the large variation in profiled conditions and in the time-scale of their dynamics...

‣ Cell cycle Start is coupled to entry into the yeast metabolic cycle across diverse strains and growth rates.

Burnetti, AJ; Aydin, M; Buchler, NE
Fonte: Universidade Duke Publicador: Universidade Duke
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em 04/11/2015 Português
Relevância na Pesquisa
465.99695%
Cells have evolved oscillators with different frequencies to coordinate periodic processes. Here, we studied the interaction of two oscillators, the cell division cycle (CDC) and yeast metabolic cycle (YMC), in budding yeast. Previous work suggested that the CDC and YMC interact to separate high oxygen consumption from DNA replication to prevent genetic damage. To test this hypothesis, we grew diverse strains in chemostat and measured DNA replication and oxygen consumption with high temporal resolution at different growth rates. Our data showed that high oxygen consumption is not strictly separated from DNA replication; rather, cell cycle Start is coupled with the initiation of high oxygen consumption and catabolism of storage carbohydrates. The logic of this YMC-CDC coupling may be to ensure that DNA replication and cell division occur only when sufficient cellular energy reserves have accumulated. Our results also uncovered a quantitative relationship between CDC period and YMC period across different strains. More generally, our approach shows how studies in genetically diverse strains efficiently identify robust phenotypes and steer the experimentalist away from strain-specific idiosyncrasies.