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‣ O perspectivismo e o projeto leibniziano de conciliação das filosofias; The perspectivism and the Leibnizs project of conciliation of Philosophies

Hirata, Celi
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Dissertação de Mestrado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 30/06/2008 Português
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Com o intento de fundar a metafísica rumo ao conhecimento certo, Descartes rejeita a história precedente da filosofia. Com efeito, esta carrega consigo uma pluralidade de opiniões e disputas, o que é inaceitável face à unidade da verdade e da razão. Por isso, o progresso da filosofia em direção ao futuro só pode se dar mediante uma ruptura com o passado, ruptura que se opera por meio da dúvida metódica. Leibniz, ao contrário, defende que o avanço do conhecimento rumo à descoberta de novas verdades pode e deve retomar o que já foi anteriormente estabelecido. Isto porque, à diferença de Descartes, o autor da Monadologia possui uma outra concepção da relação entre pluralidade e unidade, o que se pode constatar de maneira privilegiada na sua tese de que cada mônada ou ser criado representa o universo inteiro de uma determinada perspectiva. Ora, como todas as representações possuem o mesmo referente o mundo , todas são verdadeiras e harmônicas entre si, de modo que o que varia é a maneira como o mundo é representado, isto é, os graus de distinção presentes na representação. Deste modo, a pluralidade dos sistemas filosóficos redunda em diferenças (de modo que uns são mais perfeitos do que outros e que haja determinadas partes mais relevantes do que outras dentro de um mesmo sistema)...

‣ A pluralidade da verdade em Erasmo; The truth plurality in Erasmus

Nassaro, Silvio Lucio Franco
Fonte: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP Publicador: Biblioteca Digitais de Teses e Dissertações da USP
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 05/11/2010 Português
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Há uma tradição platônica entre os grandes leitores da obra de Erasmo de Rotterdam, o Príncipe dos Humanistas, que se concentra sobre a cuidadosa síntese feita pelo mestre para superar a ruptura entre fé e razão, através da compatibilização da erudição pagã à cristã em uma mesma doutrina que significasse, na polifônica Europa renascentista, uma urgente unidade da verdade nada menos do que o componente estabilizador do amálgama grecoromano, judaico-cristão que hoje define o Ocidente. Em efeito, no Livro dos Antibárbaros, que editou em 1521, a cisão entre fé e razão provocada pelas especulações dos próprios escolásticos é superada por uma solução média entre a noção hebraica de uma divindade arbitrária e a noção grega de deuses inseridos na natureza e suas leis; as histórias grega, judaica e cristã são unificadas pela busca do Sumo Bem; as várias escolas filosóficas e correntes teológicas são reunidas em uma Philosophia Christi; o conhecimento divino e o conhecimento humano são reafirmados como pertencentes à mesma unidade, à mesma natureza e fundados na mesma razão; o conhecimento humano pode ascender gradativamente dos assuntos dos homens aos divinos; os Studia Humanitatis são necessários para a verdadeira evangelização e a correta interpretação da Bíblia e as disciplinas pagãs são assimiladas como descobertas inspiradas pela Divina Providência para a utilidade dos cristãos. No entanto...

‣ Bacterial Plurality as a General Mechanism Driving Persistence in Chronic Infections

Ehrlich, Garth D.; Hu, Fen Ze; Shen, Kai; Stoodley, Paul; Post, J. Christopher
Fonte: PubMed Publicador: PubMed
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em /08/2005 Português
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Classical methods for the study of bacterial pathogens have proven to be inadequate to inform with respect to chronic infections including those associated with arthroplasties. Modern methods of analysis have demonstrated that bacterial growth patterns, ecology, and intra-species heterogeneity are more complex than were envisioned by early microbiologists. Cultural methods were developed to study acute, epidemic infections, but it is now recognized that the phenotype associated with these diseases represents only a minor aspect of the bacterial life cycle, which consists of planktonic, attachment, biofilm, and dispersal phases. Over 99% of bacteria in natural populations are found in biofilms which contain multiple ecological niches and numerous phenotypes. Unfortunately, the effort to develop antibiotics has been directed solely at the planktonic minority (associated with systemic illness) which explains our inability to eradicate chronic infections. In this study we establish a new rubric, bacterial plurality, for the understanding of bacterial ecology and evolution with respect to chronic infection. The fundamental tenets of bacterial plurality are that the bacteria within an infecting population display multiple phenotypes and possess multiple genotypes. Phenotypic plurality is embodied in the biofilm paradigm and genotypic plurality is embodied in the concepts of the supra-genome and the distributed genome hypothesis. It is now clear that bacterial diversity provides bacterial populations...

‣ Maximizing all margins: Pushing face recognition with Kernel Plurality

Kumar, Ritwik; Banerjee, Arunava; Vemuri, Baba C.; Pfister, Hanspeter
Fonte: IEEE Publicador: IEEE
Tipo: Conference Paper
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We present two theses in this paper: First, performance of most existing face recognition algorithms improves if instead of the whole image, smaller patches are individually classified followed by label aggregation using voting. Second, weighted plurality voting outperforms other popular voting methods if the weights are set such that they maximize the victory margin for the winner with respect to each of the losers. Moreover, this can be done while taking higher order relationships among patches into account using kernels. We call this scheme Kernel Plurality. We verify our proposals with detailed experimental results and show that our framework with Kernel Plurality improves the performance of various face recognition algorithms beyond what has been previously reported in the literature. Furthermore, on five different benchmark datasets - Yale A, CMU PIE, MERL Dome, Extended Yale B and Multi-PIE, we show that Kernel Plurality in conjunction with recent face recognition algorithms can provide state-of-the-art results in terms of face recognition rates.; Engineering and Applied Sciences

‣ Nonuniform Bribery

Faliszewski, Piotr (1980 - )
Fonte: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department. Publicador: University of Rochester. Computer Science Department.
Tipo: Relatório
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We study the concept of bribery in the situation where voters are willing to change their votes as we ask them, but where their prices depend on the nature of the change we request. Our model is an extension of the one of Faliszewski et al. [FHH06], where each voter has a single price for any change we may ask for. We show polynomial-time algorithms for our version of bribery for a broad range of voting protocols, including plurality, veto, approval, and utility based voting. In addition to our polynomial-time algorithms we provide NP-completeness results for a couple of our nonuniform bribery problems for weighted voters, and a couple of approximation algorithms for NP-complete bribery problems defined in [FHH06] (in particular, an FPTAS for plurality-weighted-$bribery problem).

‣ A PLURALIDADE HUMANA: CONDIÇÃO E META DA POLÍTICA NO PENSAMENTO DE HANNAH ARENDT; The human plurality: condiction and aim of politics in Hannah Arendt´s thought

OLIVEIRA, Cícero Josinaldo da Silva
Fonte: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Filosofia; Ciências Humanas Publicador: Universidade Federal de Goiás; BR; UFG; Mestrado em Filosofia; Ciências Humanas
Tipo: Dissertação Formato: application/pdf
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The purpose of the present dissertation is to considere the three theoretical movements which connect the political thought of Hannah Arendt. Thus, we will start discussing from her initial finding to its further development. In this sense, I consider that Hannah Arendt s concept of human plurality performs the three most important moments that become the central concept of her political thought. These moments are: firstly, the historical and ideological deconstruction of the anti-plurality which is presented in our totalitarian domination and our tradition of the political thought; secondly, the explanation of the factual aspect of plurality as human condition manifested in action and, finally, the intent of showing that the political organization circumscribes a privileged space to human plurality, as long as the public sphere is seen as the correspondent space to action.; O objetivo dessa dissertação é considerar os três movimentos teóricos que a meu ver articulam o pensamento político de Hannah Arendt, de seu achado inicial ao seu mais ulterior desdobramento. Nesse sentido, considero que o conceito arendtiano de pluralidade humana percorre três importantes momentos em virtude dos quais pôde se tornar o eixo dos escritos políticos dessa autora. Estes momentos são: 1) a desconstrução histórico-ideológica da anti-pluralidade (manifestada na dominação totalitária e na nossa tradição do pensamento político)...

‣ Plurality in Naxi and its typological implications

Chang, Ya-Yin Melody; Law, Paul; Zhao, Qing-Lian
Fonte: Asia-Pacific Linguistics; http://pacling.anu.edu.au/; http://www.jseals.org Publicador: Asia-Pacific Linguistics; http://pacling.anu.edu.au/; http://www.jseals.org
Tipo: Journal article; Published Version Formato: 12 pages
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Plurality in Naxi can be explicitly expressed by suffixation or tone change on common nouns denoting human beings. This paper complements the published literature in providing a detailed description of its morpho-syntax and semantics of plurality. It shows that Naxi belongs to the typologically rare type of language in which the coding of plurality and definiteness is in one morpheme, the other three languages known to date to have this property are Chinese, Khmer and Maori. Evidence for the definiteness property of explicit plurality comes from it being excluded in syntactic environments in which definiteness noun phrases are ruled out. It is argued that the empirical basis of Greenberg’s (1974) generalization regarding the relation between numeral classifiers and compulsory expression of nominal plurality is subject to the interpretation of explicit expression of plurality. If it is taken to embody in a morpheme (or a set of morphemes) specifically for expressing plurality, then Naxi is consistent with Greenberg’s claim that languages with numeral classifiers do not have compulsory expression of plurality on nouns.; Australian National University; "An earlier version of the paper was presented at SEALS 20" - footnote, page 87

‣ Proving the monotonicity criterion for a plurality vote-counting program as a step towards verified vote-counting

Gore, Rajeev; Meumann, Thomas
Fonte: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc. Publicador: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Tipo: Conference paper Formato: 7 pages
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We show how modern interactive verification tools can be used to prove complex properties of vote-counting software. Specifically, we give an ML implementation of a votecounting program for plurality voting; we give an encoding of this program into the higher-order logic of the HOL4 theorem prover; we give an encoding of the monotonicity property in the same higher-order logic; we then show how we proved that the encoding of the program satisfies the encoding of the monotonicity property using the interactive theorem prover HOL4. As an aside, we also show how to prove the correctness of the vote-counting program. We then discuss the robustness of our approach.

‣ Policy convergence under approval and plurality voting: the role of policy commitment

Dellis, A.; Oak, M.
Fonte: Springer-Verlag Publicador: Springer-Verlag
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
Publicado em //2007 Português
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Proponents of Approval Voting argue that this electoral rule leads to more centrist outcomes compared to Plurality Voting. This claim has been substantiated by scholarly work using spatial models of political competition. We revisit this issue in the context of a model of political competition in which (1) candidates are policy-motivated; (2) candidacy decisions are endogenous; and (3) candidates can credibly commit to implementing any policy. Under these assumptions we find the opposite to be true – Plurality Voting yields convergence to the median voter’s ideal policy but Approval Voting may not. We argue that this result is driven by the differential incentives for candidate entry under the two voting rules. Our results suggest that whether Approval Voting yields more centrist outcomes vis-á-vis Plurality Voting depends on the possibility of policy commitment on the part of the candidates.; Arnaud Dellis and Mandar Oak

‣ From plurality rule to proportional representation

Ergun, Selim J??rgen
Fonte: Universidad de Granada. Departamento de Teor??a e Historia Econ??mica Publicador: Universidad de Granada. Departamento de Teor??a e Historia Econ??mica
Tipo: Relatório
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I consider the decision of a parliament that might change the electoral system for the forthcoming elections from plurality rule to proportional representation. Parties are office-motivated. They care about winning and about the share of seats obtained. I consider two di??erent scenarios of how parties in the government share the spoils of office: Equally or proportionally to their share of seats. If the government is formed by a single party and parties expect that each party will obtain the same share of votes in the next election the electoral rule will never be changed. That is, for a change to occur the government should be formed by a coalition. I ?nd that a change is more likely to occur when the number of parties is larger and also when the spoils of o?? ce are shared equally among the members in the governing coalition. I extend these results to analyze the decision of a change from a less proportional rule to a more proportional one.

‣ Élections expérimentales : la désertion stratégique et la participation sous différents modes de scrutin

Labbé St-Vincent, Simon
Fonte: Université de Montréal Publicador: Université de Montréal
Tipo: Thèse ou Mémoire numérique / Electronic Thesis or Dissertation
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Cette thèse s'intéresse au lien qui existe entre le système électoral et deux comportements importants de la vie civique, soit la participation à une élection et la désertion stratégique du candidat préféré vers un autre candidat. Ces thèmes sont abordés dans de nombreux et de très importants ouvrages en science politique. En passant par la théorie (Downs, 1957) jusqu'à des études de terrain par l'entremise de sondages (Abramson, 2010; Blais, 2010), diverses méthodologies ont été employées pour mieux expliquer les choix des électeurs. Ma contribution à l'avancement des connaissances dans ce domaine passe par l'usage de la méthode expérimentale pour mieux saisir les similitudes et différences dans les comportements des électeurs sous le système uninominal à un tour (UT) et la représentation proportionnelle (RP) ainsi que les mécanismes au niveau individuel qui produisent ces similitudes et différences. Le cœur de la thèse est composé des trois articles dont voici les résumés : Article 1. Des élections expérimentales faites à Montréal, Paris et Bruxelles permettent d'estimer l’influence directe du mode de scrutin sur la décision des électeurs de voter ou non, et de voter pour leur parti préféré ou non. En tout...

‣ A dignidade de viver entre iguais : pluralidade e persuasão na ação política em Hannah Arendt; The dignity of living among equals : plurality and persuasion in Hannah Arendt´s political action

Luiz Diogo de Vasconcelos Junior
Fonte: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp Publicador: Biblioteca Digital da Unicamp
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 28/03/2012 Português
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O presente trabalho tem por objetivo investigar alguns conceitos centrais na obra de Hannah Arendt. Partimos do pressuposto de que a pensadora alemã compreende a esfera política a partir de conceitos mundanos como pluralidade, persuasão e imparcialidade. A investigação discorrerá sobre a posição ocupada por estes conceitos na constituição da esfera política arendtiana: postos no mundo como experiências históricas paradigmáticas, propiciaram o surgimento de uma esfera política a partir do fato de que homens vivem e agem em comum. Particularmente, nos interessa a compreensão arendtiana do lugar ocupado pelo conceito de imparcialidade na realização de uma esfera política orientada para a pluralidade e o significado de sua exigência quando se trata de trazer a público as ações humanas, bem como seus resultados. As principais reivindicações deste trabalho são: para Arendt o mundo se constitui como o resultado da pluralidade humana em meio a uma teia de relações; nesta teia, a imparcialidade não ocorre dissociada da liberdade individual de manifestar os próprios pontos de vista e opiniões, sob risco de uma parcela do mundo se perder no esquecimento. A vida pública implica a disposição de submeter as próprias opiniões...

‣ Uncertainties of reason : pragmatist plurality in basic design education; Pragmatist plurality in basic design education

Özkâr, Mine, 1976-
Fonte: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Publicador: Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Tipo: Tese de Doutorado Formato: 138 p.; 9866209 bytes; 9884293 bytes; application/pdf; application/pdf
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(cont.) interest in variance and uncertainty. Reasoning plays into creativity in much more flexible ways than those usually attributed in technology. This dissertation argues to encourage creativity in the formative years of design education, and as a personal reasoning process that allows for uncertainty.; Creativity, in the sense that it emerges from differences in reasoning, can be fostered in an education system where personal experiences are an integral part of the curriculum. The basic design course is an attempt to pursue this understanding in architectural education. The Bauhaus in Weimar and the VKhUTEMAS in Moscow are two schools renowned for starting the tradition of basic design education in early 1920s. However, the ideology of modernist universalism dominant at these schools and their followers in Europe and America avert the pursuit for plurality. An interest in basic design education existed earlier in America through the educational practices of Denman W. Ross in Architecture and Fine Arts Departments of Harvard University between 1899-1935, and Arthur W. Dow, first at Ipswich, MA, later in Teachers College at Columbia University in New York between 1908-1922. Ross and Dow's methods were partially affected by their involvement in the Arts and Crafts and the Orientalist movements. At the same time...

‣ Simple Dynamics for Plurality Consensus

Becchetti, Luca; Clementi, Andrea; Natale, Emanuele; Pasquale, Francesco; Silvestri, Riccardo; Trevisan, Luca
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We study a \emph{Plurality-Consensus} process in which each of $n$ anonymous agents of a communication network initially supports an opinion (a color chosen from a finite set $[k]$). Then, in every (synchronous) round, each agent can revise his color according to the opinions currently held by a random sample of his neighbors. It is assumed that the initial color configuration exhibits a sufficiently large \emph{bias} $s$ towards a fixed plurality color, that is, the number of nodes supporting the plurality color exceeds the number of nodes supporting any other color by $s$ additional nodes. The goal is having the process to converge to the \emph{stable} configuration in which all nodes support the initial plurality. We consider a basic model in which the network is a clique and the update rule (called here the \emph{3-majority dynamics}) of the process is the following: each agent looks at the colors of three random neighbors and then applies the majority rule (breaking ties uniformly). We prove that the process converges in time $\mathcal{O}( \min\{ k, (n/\log n)^{1/3} \} \, \log n )$ with high probability, provided that $s \geqslant c \sqrt{ \min\{ 2k, (n/\log n)^{1/3} \}\, n \log n}$. We then prove that our upper bound above is tight as long as $k \leqslant (n/\log n)^{1/4}$. This fact implies an exponential time-gap between the plurality-consensus process and the \emph{median} process studied by Doerr et al. in [ACM SPAA'11]. A natural question is whether looking at more (than three) random neighbors can significantly speed up the process. We provide a negative answer to this question: In particular...

‣ Plurality Consensus in the Gossip Model

Becchetti, L.; Clementi, A.; Natale, E.; Pasquale, F.; Silvestri, R.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We study Plurality Consensus in the Gossip Model over a network of $n$ anonymous agents. Each agent supports an initial opinion or color. We assume that at the onset, the number of agents supporting the plurality color exceeds that of the agents supporting any other color by a sufficiently-large bias. The goal is to provide a protocol that, with high probability, brings the system into the configuration in which all agents support the (initial) plurality color. We consider the Undecided-State Dynamics, a well-known protocol which uses just one more state (the undecided one) than those necessary to store colors. We show that the speed of convergence of this protocol depends on the initial color configuration as a whole, not just on the gap between the plurality and the second largest color community. This dependence is best captured by a novel notion we introduce, namely, the monochromatic distance ${md}(\bar{\mathbf{c}})$ which measures the distance of the initial color configuration $\bar{ \mathbf {c}}$ from the closest monochromatic one. In the complete graph, we prove that, for a wide range of the input parameters, this dynamics converges within $O({md}(\bar {\mathbf {c}}) \log {n})$ rounds. We prove that this upper bound is almost tight in the strong sense: Starting from any color configuration $\bar {\mathbf {c}}$...

‣ Consensus Formation in Multi-state Majority and Plurality Models

Chen, P.; Redner, S.
Fonte: Universidade Cornell Publicador: Universidade Cornell
Tipo: Artigo de Revista Científica
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We study consensus formation in interacting systems that evolve by multi-state majority rule and by plurality rule. In an update event, a group of G agents (with G odd), each endowed with an s-state spin variable, is specified. For majority rule, all group members adopt the local majority state; for plurality rule the group adopts the local plurality state. This update is repeated until a final consensus state is generally reached. In the mean field limit, the consensus time for an N-spin system increases as ln N for both majority and plurality rule, with an amplitude that depends on s and G. For finite spatial dimensions, domains undergo diffusive coarsening in majority rule when s or G is small. For larger s and G, opinions spread ballistically from the few groups with an initial local majority. For plurality rule, there is always diffusive domain coarsening toward consensus.; Comment: 8 pages, 11 figures, 2-column revtex4 format. Updated version: small changes in response to referee comments. For publication in J Phys A

‣ Jogo e pluralidade cultural: estudo exploratório com base nos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais de Arte e Educação Física; Play and cultural plurality: an exploratory study based on the National Curricular Parameters of art and physical education

Knijnik, Selma Carneiro Felippe; Knijnik, Jorge Dorfman
Fonte: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Educação Física e Esporte Publicador: Universidade de São Paulo. Escola de Educação Física e Esporte
Tipo: info:eu-repo/semantics/article; info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersion; ; ; Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em 01/12/2005 Português
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Este estudo procura verificar se e como se explicita o jogo como caminho para vivenciar o tema transversal pluralidade cultural, nos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCNs) para o 1o. e 2o. ciclo do Ensino Fundamental, em particular nos documentos “Educação Física” e “Arte”. Empregando uma metodologia qualitativa, com referencial teórico interdisciplinar, a pesquisa procura intersecções entre os documentos de Arte e de Educação Física dos PCNs que indiquem a presença efetiva da transversalidade, tendo como substrato o referencial teórico sobre jogo. Conclui que jogo e atividade lúdica, aplicados de forma interdisciplinar nas áreas de Arte e Educação Física, podem ser ferramentas para a vivência e a implementação do tema transversal Pluralidade Cultural nas escolas, e suas decorrências, como o trabalho sobre a tolerância e a formação do docente, em todos os níveis escolares.; The purpose of this study is to evaluate if and how play, as a way to experience the transversal theme Cultural Plurality, is accounted in the document of Physical Education and Arts National Curricular Parameters (Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais - PCNs) for the 1st and 2nd cycle of the Elementary School. It was employed a qualitative methodology...

‣ Regulating media plurality and media power in the 21st century

Craufurd Smith, Rachel; Tambini, Damian; Morisi, Davide
Fonte: The London School of Economics and Political Science Publicador: The London School of Economics and Political Science
Tipo: Monograph; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /06/2012 Português
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The Leveson Inquiry should recommend use of a broad range of policy instruments to regulate media power and pluralism: not just press self-regulation but also those that deal with the root cause of media capture of politicians: media ownership and concentration There is no infallible policy prescription but the approach should be holistic; looking at both internal and external plurality of the media, and ensuring maximum transparency of ownership for citizens and consumers. To protect citizens and enhance certainty for industry, fixed ownership limits should be (re)-established for media mergers and a regular review of the market carried out by an independent media regulator to assess media plurality and concentration of media power and influence. Politicians should play no role in deciding individual cases involving media competition or plurality issues.

‣ A conditional defense of plurality rule: generalizing May's theorem in a restricted informational environment

Goodin, Robert E; List, Christian
Fonte: Blackwell Publishing Publicador: Blackwell Publishing
Tipo: Article; PeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em /10/2006 Português
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May's theorem famously shows that, in social decisions between two options, simple majority rule uniquely satisfies four appealing conditions. Although this result is often cited in support of majority rule, it has never been extended beyond decisions based on pairwise comparisons of options. We generalize May's theorem to many-option decisions where voters each cast one vote. Surprisingly, plurality rule uniquely satisfies May's conditions. This suggests a conditional defense of plurality rule: If a society's balloting procedure collects only a single vote from each voter, then plurality rule is the uniquely compelling electoral procedure. To illustrate the conditional nature of this claim, we also identify a richer informational environment in which approval voting, not plurality rule, is supported by a May-style argument.

‣ Support for third parties under plurality rule electoral systems: A public choice analysis of Britain, Canada, New Zealand and South Korea.

Kang, Won-Taek
Fonte: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis Publicador: London School of Economics and Political Science Thesis
Tipo: Thesis; NonPeerReviewed Formato: application/pdf
Publicado em //1997 Português
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Why do parties other than major parties survive or even flourish under plurality rule electoral systems, when according to Duverger's law we should expect them to disappear. Why should rational voters support third parties, even though their chances of being successful are often low . Using an institutional public choice approach, this study analyses third party voting as one amongst a continuum of choices faced by electors who pay attention both to the ideological proximity of parties, and to their perceived efficacy measured against a community-wide level of minimum efficacy. The approach is applied in detailed case study chapters examining four different third parties. Two of the cases cover long-established and relatively successful third parties - the British Liberal Democrats; the Canadian NDP. The other two cases cover shorter-lived third parties - the New Zealand Social Credit; and the UNP in South Korea. In each case the study examines the party's specific history and dynamics, looks at the social base of its support and its ideological positioning, explores the party's perceived efficacy, and analyses the articulation of the third party's strategy. Two key themes emerge. First, plurality rule electoral systems impose severe constraints on third parties...